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Intellectual disability v3.23 SCAMP5 Sarah Leigh changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: Not associated with phenotype in OMIM (last edited on 10/06/2014) or in Gen2Phen. Two variants have been identified in three unrelated cases (one monoallelic, one biallelic). Supportive functional studies have been reported.
It would appear that the two variants reported so far in this gene result in differing mode of pathogenicity and phenotypic features. With heterozygous c.538G>T, p.Gly180Trp seeming to have a dominant-negative effect resulting in autistic spectrum disorder, intellectual disability and seizures. While homozygous c.271C>T, p.R91W seems to have a loss of function effect resulting in early onset epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. This may be due to different functional domains of the mature protein being altered.; to: Comment on list classification: Not associated with phenotype in OMIM (last edited on 10/06/2014) or in Gen2Phen. Two variants have been identified in three unrelated cases (one monoallelic, one biallelic). Supportive functional studies have been reported.
It would appear that the two variants reported so far in this gene result in differing mode of pathogenicity and phenotypic features. With heterozygous c.538G>T, p.Gly180Trp seeming to have a dominant-negative effect resulting in autistic spectrum disorder, intellectual disability and seizures. While homozygous c.271C>T, p.R91W seems to have a loss of function effect resulting in early onset epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. This may be due to different functional domains of the mature protein being altered.
Based on this evidence, SCAMP5 is rated as Amber, with a Watchlist tag. This status may change if further cases are reported.
Intellectual disability v3.23 SCN8A Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on mode of pathogenicity: Based on report in PMID 31625145, reporting biallelic loss of function SCN8A variants in three cases in two families with severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy. This differs from the previosly reported gain of function monoallelic variants (PMID 24194747;22365152).
Intellectual disability v3.23 SCN8A Sarah Leigh Mode of pathogenicity for gene: SCN8A was changed from to Other
Intellectual disability v3.19 SCAMP5 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on mode of pathogenicity: Heterozygous c.538G>T, p.Gly180Trp seeming to have a dominant-negative effect resulting in autistic spectrum disorder, intellectual disability and seizures. While homozygous c.271C>T, p.R91W seems to have a loss of function effect resulting in early onset epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease.
Intellectual disability v3.19 SCAMP5 Sarah Leigh Mode of pathogenicity for gene: SCAMP5 was changed from Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments to Other
Intellectual disability v3.18 SCAMP5 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on list classification: Not associated with phenotype in OMIM (last edited on 10/06/2014) or in Gen2Phen. Two variants have been identified in three unrelated cases (one monoallelic, one biallelic). Supportive functional studies have been reported.
It would appear that the two variants reported so far in this gene result in differing mode of pathogenicity and phenotypic features. With heterozygous c.538G>T, p.Gly180Trp seeming to have a dominant-negative effect resulting in autistic spectrum disorder, intellectual disability and seizures. While homozygous c.271C>T, p.R91W seems to have a loss of function effect resulting in early onset epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. This may be due to different functional domains of the mature protein being altered.
Intellectual disability v3.15 RNF13 Sarah Leigh reviewed gene: RNF13: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 SLC5A6 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SLC5A6: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31754459, 27904971, 31392107; Phenotypes: Developmental delay, epilepsy, neurodegeneration; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 RARS Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: RARS: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31814314; Phenotypes: Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 9 (# 616140); Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 CXorf56 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CXorf56: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29374277, 31822863; Phenotypes: Mental retardation, X-linked 107, MIM# 301013; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 RUNX2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: RUNX2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Cleidocranial dysplasia, MIM# 119600; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 RSPO4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: RSPO4: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Anonychia congenita, MIM# 206800; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 RSPH3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: RSPH3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 32, MIM# 616481; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 RSPH1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: RSPH1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 24, MIM# 615481; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 RPS19 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: RPS19: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Diamond-Blackfan anemia 1, MIM#105650; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 RPGRIP1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: RPGRIP1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Cone-rod dystrophy 13, MIM# 608194, Leber congenital amaurosis 6, MIM# 613826; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 RPE65 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: RPE65: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Leber congenital amaurosis 2, MIM# 204100, Retinitis pigmentosa 20, MIM# 613794, Retinitis pigmentosa 87 with choroidal involvement, MIM# 618697; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 ROBO3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ROBO3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Gaze palsy, familial horizontal, with progressive scoliosis, 1 607313; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 RNF13 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: RNF13: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30595371; Phenotypes: Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 73, MIM# 618379; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 RHEB Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: RHEB: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29051493; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, Macrocephaly; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 RETREG1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: RETREG1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Neuropathy, hereditary sensory and autonomic, type IIB, MIM# 613115; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 MYO5B Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MYO5B: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Microvillus inclusion disease, MIM# 251850; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 MYH9 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MYH9: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Macrothrombocytopenia and granulocyte inclusions with or without nephritis or sensorineural hearing loss, MIM# 155100; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 MYH8 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MYH8: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Trismus-pseudocamptodactyly syndrome, MIM# 158300; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 MYH6 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MYH6: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: {Sick sinus syndrome 3} 614090 3 Atrial septal defect 3, MIM# 614089, Cardiomyopathy, dilated, 1EE, MIM# 613252, Cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic, 14, MIM# 613251; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 MTHFS Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MTHFS: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30031689, 31844630, 22303332; Phenotypes: Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, epilepsy, and hypomyelination, 618367; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 MSX2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MSX2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Craniosynostosis 2, MIM# 604757, Parietal foramina 1, MIM# 168500, Parietal foramina with cleidocranial dysplasia, MIM# 168550; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 MSX1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MSX1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ectodermal dysplasia 3, Witkop type 189500, Orofacial cleft 5 608874, Tooth agenesis, selective, 1, with or without orofacial cleft 106600; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 MPV17 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MPV17: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 22593919; Phenotypes: Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 6 (hepatocerebral type), OMIM #256810; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 MNX1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MNX1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Currarino syndrome, OMIM #176450; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 MN1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MN1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31834374, 31839203; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, dysmophic features, rhombencephalosynapsis; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 MMP13 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MMP13: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Metaphyseal anadysplasia 1, MIM# 602111, Metaphyseal dysplasia, Spahr type, MIM# 250400, Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Missouri type, MIM# 602111; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 MGP Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MGP: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Keutel syndrome, MIM# 245150; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 MFSD2A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MFSD2A: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26005865, 26005868, 24828044; Phenotypes: Microcephaly 15, primary, autosomal recessive, MIM# 616486; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 MFRP Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MFRP: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Microphthalmia, isolated 5, MIM# 611040; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 METTL5 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: METTL5: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29302074, 31564433; Phenotypes: Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 72, MIM# 618665; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 MESP2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MESP2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Spondylocostal dysostosis 2, autosomal recessive, MIM# 608681; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 MC2R Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MC2R: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Glucocorticoid deficiency, due to ACTH unresponsiveness, MIM# 202200; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 MATN3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MATN3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia 608728, {Osteoarthritis susceptibility 2} 140600, Epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 5 607078; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 MAPRE2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MAPRE2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26637975; Phenotypes: Symmetric circumferential skin creases, congenital, 2, MIM# 616734; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic (but BIALLELIC mutations cause a more SEVERE disease form), autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 MAPK10 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MAPK10: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 23329067, 16249883; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, seizures; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 MAP3K1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MAP3K1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: 46XY sex reversal 6, MIM# 613762; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 MAP1B Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MAP1B: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31317654, 30150678, 30214071; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, seizures, PVNH, dysmorphic features; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 MADD Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MADD: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28940097; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 NUP107 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NUP107: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Galloway-Mowat syndrome 7, MIM# 618348, Nephrotic syndrome, type 11, MIM# 616730; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 NR5A1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NR5A1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: 46XY sex reversal 3, 612965, Premature ovarian failure 7, 612964, Adrenocortical insufficiency, Spermatogenic failure 8, 613957; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 NR2F2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NR2F2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Congenital heart defects, multiple types, 4, MIM# 615779; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 NPR2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NPR2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type, MIM# 602875, Epiphyseal chondrodysplasia, Miura type MIM#615923, Short stature with nonspecific skeletal abnormalities 616255; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 NPHS1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NPHS1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Nephrotic syndrome, type 1, MIM# 256300; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 NPHP4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NPHP4: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Nephronophthisis 4, MIM# 606966, Senior-Loken syndrome 4, MIM# 606996; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 NPHP3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NPHP3: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 18371931; Phenotypes: Meckel syndrome 7, MIM# 267010; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 NOTCH2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NOTCH2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Alagille syndrome 2, MIM#610205, Hajdu-Cheney syndrome, MIM#102500; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 NOG Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NOG: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Brachydactyly, type B2, MIM# 611377, Multiple synostoses syndrome 1, MIM# 186500, Stapes ankylosis with broad thumbs and toes, MIM# 184460, Symphalangism, proximal, 1A, MIM# 185800, Tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome, MIM# 186570; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 NODAL Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NODAL: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Heterotaxy, visceral, 5, MIM# 270100; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 NMNAT1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NMNAT1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Leber congenital amaurosis 9, MIM# 608553; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 NKX3-2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NKX3-2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia, MIM# 613330; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 NHP2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NHP2: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 18523010, 31985013; Phenotypes: Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 2, MIM# 613987, Høyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 NHEJ1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NHEJ1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 16439204; Phenotypes: Severe combined immunodeficiency with microcephaly, growth retardation, and sensitivity to ionizing radiation; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 NGF Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NGF: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Neuropathy, hereditary sensory and autonomic, type V, MIM# 608654; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 NEK1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NEK1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 6 with or without polydactyly, MIM# 263520; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 NEDD4L Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NEDD4L: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 27694961; Phenotypes: Periventricular nodular heterotopia 7, MIM#617201; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 ZNF335 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ZNF335: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 23178126, 27540107, 29652087; Phenotypes: Microcephaly 10, primary, autosomal recessive, OMIM #615095; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 ZNF148 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ZNF148: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 27964749; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, absent or hypoplastic corpus callosum, and dysmorphic facies, 617260; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 ZMPSTE24 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ZMPSTE24: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy, MIM# 608612, Restrictive dermopathy, lethal, MIM# 275210; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 ZIC3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ZIC3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Heterotaxy, visceral, 1, X-linked 306955, Congenital heart defects, nonsyndromic, 1, X-linked, 306955, VACTERL association, X-linked, 314390; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females
Intellectual disability v3.3 ZIC1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ZIC1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26340333, 30391508; Phenotypes: Structural brain anomalies with impaired intellectual development and craniosynostosis, OMIM #618736; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 XYLT1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: XYLT1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 24581741, 22711505, 23982343; Phenotypes: Desbuquois dysplasia 2, OMIM# 615777; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 XPC Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: XPC: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Xeroderma pigmentosum, group C, MIM# 278720; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 WRAP53 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: WRAP53: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 3, OMIM# 613988; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 WNT7A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: WNT7A: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Fuhrmann syndrome, MIM# 228930, Ulna and fibula, absence of, with severe limb deficiency, MIM# 276820; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 WNT5A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: WNT5A: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 17256787; Phenotypes: Robinow syndrome, autosomal dominant 1, OMIM# 180700; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 WNT3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: WNT3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 14872406; Phenotypes: Tetra-amelia syndrome 1, MIM# 273395; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 WNT10B Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: WNT10B: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Split-hand/foot malformation 6, MIM#225300; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 WNT1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: WNT1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26671912; Phenotypes: Osteogenesis imperfecta, type XV, OMIM# 615220; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 WFS1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: WFS1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Wolfram syndrome 1, MIM# 222300, Wolfram-like syndrome, autosomal dominant, MIM# 614296; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 WDR35 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: WDR35: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 WDR34 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: WDR34: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 WDR19 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: WDR19: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 5 with or without polydactyly, OMIM #614376, Nephronophthisis 13, OMIM #614377, Senior-Loken syndrome 8, OMIM#616307; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 VSX2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: VSX2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Microphthalmia with coloboma 3, MIM# 610092, Microphthalmia, isolated 2, MIM# 610093; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 VAMP1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: VAMP1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 25, MIM# 618323; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 UVSSA Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: UVSSA: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: UV-sensitive syndrome 3 614640; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 USP7 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: USP7: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30679821; Phenotypes: ID, Autism; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 USP18 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: USP18: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31940699, 12833411, 27325888; Phenotypes: Pseudo-TORCH syndrome 2, OMIM #617397; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 USB1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: USB1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Poikiloderma with neutropenia, MIM# 604173; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 UROS Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: UROS: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Porphyria, congenital erythropoietic, MIM# 263700; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 UGT1A1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: UGT1A1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Crigler-Najjar syndrome, type I, OMIM #218800, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, type II, OMIM #606785; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 UGP2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: UGP2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31820119; Phenotypes: Epileptic encephalopathy, intellectual disability, microcephaly; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TYRP1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TYRP1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Albinism, oculocutaneous, type III, 203290; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TYR Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TYR: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Albinism, oculocutaneous, type IA, 203100; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TXNL4A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TXNL4A: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Burn-McKeown syndrome, MIM# 608572; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TUBA8 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TUBA8: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 19896110, 31481326, 28388629; Phenotypes: Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 8, MIM# 613180; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TSHR Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TSHR: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Hypothyroidism, congenital, nongoitrous, 1, MIM# 275200; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TRPV4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TRPV4: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 TRPS1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TRPS1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I (MIM 190350), Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type III (MIM 190351); Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 TRPM3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TRPM3: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31278393; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, epilepsy; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 TRPM1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TRPM1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Night blindness, congenital stationary (complete), 1C, autosomal recessive, MIM# 613216; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TRIP11 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TRIP11: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Achondrogenesis, type IA, MIM# 200600, Osteochondrodysplasia, MIM# 184260; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 TRIM32 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TRIM32: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 16606853; Phenotypes: Bardet-Biedl syndrome 11, MIM# 615988; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TRAPPC4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TRAPPC4: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31794024; Phenotypes: intellectual disability, epilepsy, spasticity, microcephaly; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TRAPPC2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TRAPPC2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda, MIM# 313400; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females
Intellectual disability v3.3 TRAK1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TRAK1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28940097, 28364549, 29846532; Phenotypes: Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 68, MIM# 618201; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TP63 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TP63: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ADULT syndrome, OMIM #103285, Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate syndrome 3, OMIM #604292, Hay-Wells syndrome, OMIM #106260, Limb-mammary syndrome, OMIM #603543, Orofacial cleft 8, OMIM #618149, Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome, OMIM #129400, Split-hand/foot malformation 4, OMIM #605289; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 SPOP Zornitza Stark gene: SPOP was added
gene: SPOP was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: SPOP was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: SPOP were set to 32109420
Phenotypes for gene: SPOP were set to Intellectual disability; dysmorphism; microcephaly; macrocephaly
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: SPOP was set to Other
Review for gene: SPOP was set to GREEN
gene: SPOP was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Seven individuals reported with de novo missense variants in this gene. Gain-of-function variants associated with microcephaly whereas dominant-negative variants associated with macrocephaly.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.3 TMPRSS6 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TMPRSS6: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Iron-refractory iron deficiency anemia 206200; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TMEM126B Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TMEM126B: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Mitochondrial complex I deficiency, nuclear type 29, MIM# 618250; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TINF2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TINF2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 1404302, 18252230, 21477109; Phenotypes: Revesz syndrome, MIM# 268130; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 TGFB3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TGFB3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 1, MIM# 107970, Loeys-Dietz syndrome 5, MIM# 615582; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 TGFB2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TGFB2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Loeys-Dietz syndrome 4, MIM# 614816; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 TGFB1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TGFB1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29483653; Phenotypes: Inflammatory bowel disease, immunodeficiency, and encephalopathy, MIM# 618213; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TET3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TET3: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31928709; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, dysmorphic features, abnormal growth, movement disorders; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TEK Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TEK: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Glaucoma 3, primary congenital, E , MIM#617272, Venous malformations, multiple cutaneous and mucosal, MIM# 600195; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 TCTN3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TCTN3: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 22883145, 25118024, 26092869; Phenotypes: Joubert syndrome 18, OMIM #614815, Orofaciodigital syndrome IV, OMIM #258860; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 TCF12 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TCF12: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Craniosynostosis 3, MIM# 615314; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 TBXAS1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TBXAS1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ghosal hematodiaphyseal syndrome, MIM# 231095; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TBX5 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TBX5: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Holt-Oram syndrome, MIM# 142900; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 TBX4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TBX4: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Amelia, posterior, with pelvic and pulmonary hypoplasia syndrome, MIM# 601360, Ischiocoxopodopatellar syndrome with or without pulmonary arterial hypertension, MIM# 147891; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TBX3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TBX3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ulnar-mammary syndrome, MIM# 181450; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 TBX22 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TBX22: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Abruzzo-Erickson syndrome, MIM# 302905, Cleft palate with ankyloglossia, MIM# 303400; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females
Intellectual disability v3.3 TBX20 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TBX20: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Atrial septal defect 4, MIM# 611363; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 TBX15 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TBX15: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Cousin syndrome, MIM# 260660; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 TANC2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TANC2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31616000; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 TAB2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: TAB2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Congenital heart defects, nonsyndromic, 2, MIM# 614980; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 SUZ12 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SUZ12: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31736240, 30019515, 28229514; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, Overgrowth; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 STT3A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: STT3A: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 23842455, 30701557, 28424003; Phenotypes: Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Iw, OMIM #615596; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 STS Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: STS: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 STAT1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: STAT1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 STAR Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: STAR: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Lipoid adrenal hyperplasia, MIM# 201710; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 SRY Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SRY: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 SPEG Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SPEG: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Centronuclear myopathy 5, OMIM #615959; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 SPAG1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SPAG1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 28, MIM# 615505; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 SOX17 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SOX17: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Vesicoureteral reflux 3, MIM# 613674; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 RASA1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: RASA1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation 1, MIM# 608354; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 SNX27 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SNX27: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 25894286, 31721175, 21300787, 23524343; Phenotypes: intellectual disability, seizures; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 SMCHD1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SMCHD1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Bosma arhinia microphthalmia syndrome, OMIM #603457, Fascioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 2, digenic, OMIM #158901; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 DDC Lothar Schlueter reviewed gene: DDC: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28100251, 30952622, 30689738, 25597765, 24788355; Phenotypes: Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency 608643, floppy child, dystonia, hypotonia, developmental delay, oculogyric crisis; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 SKIV2L Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SKIV2L: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Trichohepatoenteric syndrome 2, MIM# 614602; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 SIX5 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SIX5: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Branchiootorenal syndrome 2 610896; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 SIX1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SIX1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Branchiootic syndrome 3, MIM# 608389, Deafness, autosomal dominant 23, MIM# 605192; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 SH3PXD2B Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SH3PXD2B: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Frank-ter Haar syndrome, MIM# 249420; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 SEC23B Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SEC23B: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ?Cowden syndrome 7 616858, Dyserythropoietic anemia, congenital, type II 224100; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 SCN1B Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SCN1B: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 52, MIM#617350; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 SCN11A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SCN11A: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Neuropathy, hereditary sensory and autonomic, type VII, MIM#615548; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 SCARF2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SCARF2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Van den Ende-Gupta syndrome, MIM# 600920; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 SCAMP5 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SCAMP5: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Other; Publications: 31439720; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, seizures, autism; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.3 SBDS Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SBDS: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 19906387; Phenotypes: Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, MIM#260400; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 SALL4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SALL4: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Duane-radial ray syndrome, MIM# 607323; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 SOX3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SOX3: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29175558, 30125608, 12428212, 15800844; Phenotypes: Mental retardation, X-linked, with isolated growth hormone deficiency, MIM#300123, Panhypopituitarism, X-linked, MIM#312000; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females
Intellectual disability v3.3 PUM1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PUM1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29474920, 25768905; Phenotypes: Spinocerebellar ataxia 47, MIM#617931; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 PSAT1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PSAT1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26960553, 17436247, 25152457; Phenotypes: Phosphoserine aminotransferase deficiency, MIM# 610992, Neu-Laxova syndrome 2, MIM# 616038; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 PRSS56 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PRSS56: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Microphthalmia, isolated 6, MIM# 613517; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 PROP1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PROP1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 2, MIM# 262600; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.3 PRKAR1A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PRKAR1A: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Acrodysostosis 1, with or without hormone resistance, MIM# 101800; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.3 PRDM12 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PRDM12: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Neuropathy, hereditary sensory and autonomic, type VIII, MIM# 616488; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.3 PPA2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PPA2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Sudden cardiac failure, infantile, MIM# 617222; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.1 POLR1D Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: POLR1D: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Treacher Collins syndrome 2, MIM# 613717; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1 POLR1C Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: POLR1C: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26151409; Phenotypes: Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 11, MIM# 616494; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1 POLD1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: POLD1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31449058; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, immunodeficiency, Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features, and lipodystrophy syndrome, MIM#615381; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1 POC1B Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: POC1B: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Cone-rod dystrophy 20 615973; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1 PNPT1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PNPT1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 13, MIM#614932; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1 PMS2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PMS2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Mismatch repair cancer syndrome, MIM# 276300; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1 PLOD2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PLOD2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Bruck syndrome 2 609220; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 PKHD1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PKHD1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Polycystic kidney disease 4, with or without hepatic disease 263200; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 PKD1L1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PKD1L1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Heterotaxy, visceral, 8, autosomal, MIM# 617205; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 PITX3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PITX3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Anterior segment dysgenesis 1, multiple subtypes, MIM# 107250, cataract; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 PITX2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PITX2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, type 1, MIM# 180500; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 PIK3R1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PIK3R1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: SHORT syndrome, MIM#269880; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 PIK3C2A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PIK3C2A: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31034465; Phenotypes: Oculoskeletodental syndrome, 618440; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 PGM1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PGM1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 24499211; Phenotypes: Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type It, MIM# 614921; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 PET100 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PET100: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 24462369, 25293719, 31406627; Phenotypes: Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency, MIM# 220110; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 PDE6G Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PDE6G: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Retinitis pigmentosa 57 613582; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 PAX9 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PAX9: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Tooth agenesis, selective, 3 604625; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 PAX3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PAX3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome, MIM#122880, Waardenburg syndrome, type 1, MIM#193500, Waardenburg syndrome, type 3, MIM#148820; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 PAPSS2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PAPSS2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Brachyolmia 4 with mild epiphyseal and metaphyseal changes, MIM# 612847; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 OXR1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: OXR1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31785787; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, seizures, cerebellar atrophy; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 OTULIN Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: OTULIN: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Autoinflammation, panniculitis, and dermatosis syndrome, MIM# 617099; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 OTOGL Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: OTOGL: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Deafness, autosomal recessive 84B, MIM# 614944; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 LTBP3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: LTBP3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Dental anomalies and short stature 601216, Geleophysic dysplasia 3 617809; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 LTBP2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: LTBP2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Weill-Marchesani syndrome 3, recessive, MIM# 614819, Glaucoma 3, primary congenital, MIM# 613086, Microspherophakia and/or megalocornea, with ectopia lentis and with or without secondary glaucoma, MIM# 251750; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 LSS Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: LSS: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30723320; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 LRRC6 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: LRRC6: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 19, MIM# 614935; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 LRP4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: LRP4: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Cenani-Lenz syndactyly syndrome, MIM# 212780, Sclerosteosis 2, MIM# 614305; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 LMX1B Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: LMX1B: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 LMNA Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: LMNA: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 LIAS Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: LIAS: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 24334290, 22152680; Phenotypes: Hyperglycinemia, lactic acidosis, and seizures, MIM#614462; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 LHX4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: LHX4: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 LHX3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: LHX3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 3, MIM# 221750; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 LGI4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: LGI4: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, neurogenic, with myelin defect, MIM#617468; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 LFNG Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: LFNG: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 LEMD3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: LEMD3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 LDB3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: LDB3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 LAS1L Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: LAS1L: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 25644381, 25644381; Phenotypes: Wilson-Turner syndrome, MIM# 309585; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 KLHL40 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: KLHL40: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Nemaline myopathy 8, autosomal recessive 615348; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 KLF1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: KLF1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 KIT Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: KIT: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 KIRREL3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: KIRREL3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 19012874; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 KIF22 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: KIF22: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity, type 2 603546; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 KDM6B Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: KDM6B: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31124279; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 KDM3B Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: KDM3B: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30929739; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, short stature; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 KCTD1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: KCTD1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 KCNQ1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: KCNQ1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 KCNMA1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: KCNMA1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Other; Publications: 27567911, 29545233, 26195193, 31427379; Phenotypes: Cerebellar atrophy, developmental delay, and seizures, MIM# 617643, Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia, 3, with or without generalized epilepsy, MIM#609446; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 KCNK4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: KCNK4: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30290154; Phenotypes: Facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis, epilepsy, intellectual/developmental delay, and gingival overgrowth syndrome 618381; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 KCND3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: KCND3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Spinocerebellar ataxia 19, MIM#607346; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 KCNC3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: KCNC3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Spinocerebellar ataxia 13, MIM#605259; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 KBTBD13 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: KBTBD13: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Nemaline myopathy 6, autosomal dominant, MIM# 609273; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 KAT8 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: KAT8: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31794431; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, seizures, autism, dysmorphic features; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 JAK3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: JAK3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 JAGN1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: JAGN1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Neutropenia, severe congenital, 6, autosomal recessive 616022; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 JAG1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: JAG1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Alagille syndrome; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 IRF6 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: IRF6: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 IQSEC1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: IQSEC1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31607425; Phenotypes: Intellectual developmental disorder with short stature and behavioral abnormalities, MIM# 618687; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 SCN4A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SCN4A: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, type 2, MIM# 170500, Hypokalemic periodic paralysis, type 2, MIM# 613345, Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 16, MIM# 614198, Myotonia congenita, atypical, acetazolamide-responsive 608390, Paramyotonia congenita 168300; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 INPPL1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: INPPL1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Opsismodysplasia, MIM# 258480; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 IMPAD1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: IMPAD1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Chondrodysplasia with joint dislocations, GPAPP type, MIM# 614078; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 IL11RA Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: IL11RA: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Craniosynostosis and dental anomalies, MIM# 614188; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 IHH Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: IHH: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Acrocapitofemoral dysplasia, MIM# 607778, Brachydactyly, type A1, MIM# 112500; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 IGF2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: IGF2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31544945, 26154720; Phenotypes: Growth restriction, severe, with distinctive facies, MIM#616489; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 IFT80 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: IFT80: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 IFT122 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: IFT122: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 IFITM5 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: IFITM5: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 HYLS1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HYLS1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Hydrolethalus syndrome, MIM#236680; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 HYDIN Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HYDIN: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 HYAL1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HYAL1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 HSPG2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HSPG2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Schwartz-Jampel syndrome, type 1, MIM#255800; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 HSF4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HSF4: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 HSD3B7 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HSD3B7: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 HR Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HR: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 HPSE2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HPSE2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 HPS1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HPS1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 HPGD Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HPGD: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 HOXD13 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HOXD13: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 HOXC13 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HOXC13: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 HOXA13 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HOXA13: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 HNF4A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HNF4A: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 HMGCS2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HMGCS2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: HMG-CoA synthase-2 deficiency, MIM# 605911; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 HADH Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HADH: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, MIM#231530, Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, familial, 4, MIM#609975; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 GUCY2C Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GUCY2C: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 GRM6 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GRM6: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 GRIA1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GRIA1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 GRHL3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GRHL3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 GPSM2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GPSM2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Chudley-McCullough syndrome, MIM#604213; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 GPR179 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GPR179: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 GOT2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GOT2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31422819; Phenotypes: Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 82, MIM# 618721; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 GNAI3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GNAI3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 HDAC4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: HDAC4: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 24715439, 20691407, 31209962; Phenotypes: Brachydactyly mental retardation syndrome, Brachydactyly without intellectual disability; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 GLMN Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GLMN: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 GLE1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GLE1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 GJB1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GJB1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy, X-linked dominant, 1, MIM#302800; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 GJA8 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GJA8: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 GJA3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GJA3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 GJA1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GJA1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Atrioventricular septal defect 3, MIM#600309, Craniometaphyseal dysplasia, autosomal recessive, MIM#218400, Erythrokeratodermia variabilis et progressiva 3, MIM#617525, Hypoplastic left heart syndrome 1, MIM#241550, Oculodentodigital dysplasia, MIM#164200, Oculodentodigital dysplasia, autosomal recessive, MIM#257850, Palmoplantar keratoderma with congenital alopecia, MIM#104100, Syndactyly, type III, MIM# 186100; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 GHR Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GHR: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Growth hormone insensitivity, partial, MIM#604271, Laron dwarfism, MIM#262500; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 GDF6 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GDF6: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 GDF5 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GDF5: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 GBA2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GBA2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Spastic paraplegia 46, autosomal recessive, MIM#614409; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 GATA6 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GATA6: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 22158542; Phenotypes: Pancreatic agenesis and congenital heart defects, MIM#600001; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 GATA4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GATA4: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 GATA2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GATA2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 GAS8 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GAS8: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 GALK1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GALK1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 GAA Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: GAA: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FZD6 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FZD6: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FYCO1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FYCO1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FXN Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FXN: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FTL Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FTL: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 3, MIM#606159, Hyperferritinemia-cataract syndrome, MIM#600886, L-ferritin deficiency, dominant and recessive, MIM#615604; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FRY Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FRY: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31487712, 27457812, 21937992; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 FOXN1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FOXN1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FOXF1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FOXF1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FOXE3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FOXE3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FOXE1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FOXE1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FOXC2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FOXC2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FOXC1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FOXC1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FLVCR1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FLVCR1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ataxia, posterior column, with retinitis pigmentosa, MIM#609033; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FLT4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FLT4: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FLNB Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FLNB: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FKBP14 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FKBP14: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FHL1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FHL1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FGF3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FGF3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Deafness, congenital with inner ear agenesis, microtia, and microdontia, MIM#610706; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 FGF14 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FGF14: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Spinocerebellar ataxia 27, MIM# 609307; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 FGF10 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FGF10: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 FDFT1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FDFT1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29909962; Phenotypes: Squalene synthase deficiency, MIM#618156; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 FBXW4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FBXW4: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FBP1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FBP1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 FBN1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FBN1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FAR1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FAR1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 25439727; Phenotypes: Peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 disorder, MIM#616154; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 FAM20A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FAM20A: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FAM161A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FAM161A: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 FAAH2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FAAH2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 25885783; Phenotypes: Neuropsychiatric disorder; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females
Intellectual disability v3.0 FA2H Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: FA2H: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 EYA1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: EYA1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 EXT2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: EXT2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Other; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Seizures, scoliosis, and macrocephaly syndrome, MIM#616682; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 EVC2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: EVC2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, MIM#225500; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 EVC Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: EVC: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, MIM#225500; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 ERMARD Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ERMARD: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 24056535, 27087860; Phenotypes: Periventricular nodular heterotopia 6, MIM#615544; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 ERF Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ERF: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Chitayat syndrome, MIM#617180, Craniosynostosis 4, MIM#600775; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 ERCC4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ERCC4: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Xeroderma pigmentosum, group F, MIM#278760, XFE progeroid syndrome, MIM# 610965; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 EOGT Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: EOGT: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31368252; Phenotypes: Adams-Oliver syndrome 4, MIM#615297; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 ENPP1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ENPP1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 ELN Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ELN: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Supravalvar aortic stenosis; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 ATAD3A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ATAD3A: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 32004445; Phenotypes: Harel-Yoon syndrome 617183; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 EDNRA Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: EDNRA: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Mandibulofacial dysostosis with alopecia, MIM# 616367; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 EDA Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: EDA: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 ECEL1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ECEL1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 DYNC2H1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: DYNC2H1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 3 with or without polydactyly, MIM#613091; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 DVL1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: DVL1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Robinow syndrome, autosomal dominant 2 616331; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 DSTYK Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: DSTYK: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 DSPP Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: DSPP: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 DPM3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: DPM3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 19576565, 28803818, 30931530, 31469168; Phenotypes: Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (limb-girdle), type C, 15 612937; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 DNM1L Zornitza Stark gene: DNM1L was added
gene: DNM1L was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Expert list
Mode of inheritance for gene: DNM1L was set to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Phenotypes for gene: DNM1L were set to Encephalopathy, lethal, due to defective mitochondrial peroxisomal fission 1, MIM#614388
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: DNM1L was set to Other
Review for gene: DNM1L was set to GREEN
gene: DNM1L was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Dominant and recessive disease described depending on domain affected; dominant negative effect of heterozygous missense variants. LoF/LoF or LoF/missense for AR variants.
Sources: Expert list
Intellectual disability v3.0 DNAAF4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: DNAAF4: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 DNAAF3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: DNAAF3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 DMP1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: DMP1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 DLL4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: DLL4: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 DLL3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: DLL3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 DLL1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: DLL1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31353024; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, autism, seizures, variable brain abnormalities, scoliosis; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 DENND5A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: DENND5A: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 27431290, 27866705; Phenotypes: Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 49 617281; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 DDOST Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: DDOST: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 22305527; Phenotypes: Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Ir, MIM# 614507; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 DDB2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: DDB2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 DCC Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: DCC: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31697046; Phenotypes: Agenesis of the corpus callosum; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 CYP7B1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CYP7B1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Spastic paraplegia 5A, autosomal recessive, MIM# 270800; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 CYP2U1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CYP2U1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Spastic paraplegia 56, autosomal recessive, MIM#615030; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 CYP1B1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CYP1B1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 CTSK Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CTSK: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 CTSF Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CTSF: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 13, Kufs type, MIM#615362; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 CTNS Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CTNS: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 CRYGD Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CRYGD: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 CRYBB3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CRYBB3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 CRYBB2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CRYBB2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 CRYBB1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CRYBB1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 CRYBA1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CRYBA1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 CRYAA Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CRYAA: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 CRX Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CRX: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 COMP Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: COMP: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 COL9A3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: COL9A3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 COL9A2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: COL9A2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 COL9A1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: COL9A1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 COL6A1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: COL6A1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 COL4A4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: COL4A4: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 COL4A3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: COL4A3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 COL2A1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: COL2A1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 COL1A1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: COL1A1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 COL18A1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: COL18A1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Knobloch syndrome, type 1, MIM#267750; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 COL11A1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: COL11A1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Stickler syndrome, type II, MIM# 604841; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 COL10A1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: COL10A1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Schmid type, MIM# 156500; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 CLDN19 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CLDN19: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Hypomagnesemia 5, renal, with ocular involvement, MIM# 248190; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 CLCN7 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CLCN7: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Osteopetrosis; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 CIB2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CIB2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Deafness, autosomal recessive 48, MIM# 609439, Usher syndrome; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 CHUK Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CHUK: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Cocoon syndrome, MIM# 613630; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 CHSY1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CHSY1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Temtamy preaxial brachydactyly syndrome 605282; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 CHST3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CHST3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with congenital joint dislocations, MIM# 143095; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 CHRNG Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CHRNG: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Escobar syndrome, MIM# 265000, Multiple pterygium syndrome, lethal type, MIM# 253290; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 CHRDL1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CHRDL1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Megalocornea 1, X-linked, MIM# 309300; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females
Intellectual disability v3.0 CHM Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CHM: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Choroideremia, MIM# 303100; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, monoallelic mutations in females may cause disease (may be less severe, later onset than males)
Intellectual disability v3.0 CHD1 Zornitza Stark gene: CHD1 was added
gene: CHD1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Expert list
Mode of inheritance for gene: CHD1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: CHD1 were set to 28866611
Phenotypes for gene: CHD1 were set to Pilarowski-Bjornsson syndrome, MIM#617682
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: CHD1 was set to Other
Review for gene: CHD1 was set to GREEN
gene: CHD1 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Six unrelated individuals with heterozygous variants reported. Possible dominant negative mechanism: reported variants are missense, and an individual with a deletion did not have a neurological phenotype.
Sources: Expert list
Intellectual disability v3.0 CEP104 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CEP104: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26477546; Phenotypes: Joubert syndrome 25, MIM# 616781; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 CDH3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CDH3: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ectodermal dysplasia, ectrodactyly, and macular dystrophy 225280, Hypotrichosis, congenital, with juvenile macular dystrophy 601553; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 CDH23 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CDH23: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Deafness, Usher syndrome; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 CDH2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CDH2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31585109; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, corpus callosum abnormalities, congenital abnormalities; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 CCT5 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CCT5: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Neuropathy, hereditary sensory, with spastic paraplegia, MIM# 256840; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 CCNO Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CCNO: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 29, MIM# 615872; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 CCDC65 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CCDC65: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 27, MIM# 615504; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 CCDC40 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CCDC40: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 15, MIM# 613808; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 CCDC114 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CCDC114: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 20, MIM# 615067; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 CCDC103 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CCDC103: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 17, MIM# 614679; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 CARS2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CARS2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30139652; Phenotypes: Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 27, MIM#616672; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 EBP Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: EBP: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Chondrodysplasia punctata, X-linked dominant MIM#302960, Conradi-Hunermann syndrome, MEND syndrome, MIM#300960; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, monoallelic mutations in females may cause disease (may be less severe, later onset than males); Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 CACNA2D2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CACNA2D2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Cerebellar atrophy with seizures and variable developmental delay, MIM#618501; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 CA5A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CA5A: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26913920; Phenotypes: Hyperammonemia due to carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency, MIM# 615751; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 C8orf37 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: C8orf37: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26854863, 27008867; Phenotypes: Bardet-Biedl syndrome 21, MIM#617406; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 C4orf26 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: C4orf26: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Amelogenesis imperfecta, type IIA4, MIM# 614832; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 C2orf71 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: C2orf71: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Retinitis pigmentosa 54 613428; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 C2CD3 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: C2CD3: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30097616, 27094867, 26477546, 24997988,; Phenotypes: Orofaciodigital syndrome XIV, MIM# 615948; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 C19orf12 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: C19orf12: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 4, MIM#614298; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 BMPR1B Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: BMPR1B: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Acromesomelic dysplasia, Demirhan type MIM#609441, Brachydactyly, type A1, D, MIM#616849, Brachydactyly, type A2, MIM# 112600; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 BMPER Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: BMPER: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Diaphanospondylodysostosis, MIM# 608022; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 BICD2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: BICD2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Spinal muscular atrophy, lower extremity-predominant, 2A, autosomal dominant, MIM#615290; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 BHLHA9 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: BHLHA9: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Syndactyly, mesoaxial synostotic, with phalangeal reduction, MIM# 609432; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 BGN Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: BGN: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Meester-Loeys syndrome, MIM# 300989, Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, X-linked, MIM#300106; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females
Intellectual disability v3.0 BFSP2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: BFSP2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Cataract 12, multiple types, MIM# 611597; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 BCORL1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: BCORL1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 24123876, 30941876; Phenotypes: Shukla-Vernon syndrome, MIM# 301029; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 B9D1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: B9D1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 24886560, 21493627; Phenotypes: Joubert syndrome 27, MIM#617120, Meckel syndrome 9, MIM#614209; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 ATP8B1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ATP8B1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Cholestasis, benign recurrent intrahepatic, MIM# 243300, Cholestasis, intrahepatic, of pregnancy, 1, MIM#147480, Cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic 1, MIM# 211600; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 ATP6V1B1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ATP6V1B1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Renal tubular acidosis with deafness 267300; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 ATP1A2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ATP1A2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Alternating hemiplegia of childhood 1, MIM# 104290; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 ARHGEF6 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ARHGEF6: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: MENTAL RETARDATION X-LINKED TYPE 46; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.0 ANKH Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ANKH: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Craniometaphyseal dysplasia, MIM#123000; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 ALG9 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ALG9: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28932688; Phenotypes: Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Il, MIM#608776; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 ALDOB Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ALDOB: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Fructose intolerance, hereditary, MIM# 229600; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 AHCY Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: AHCY: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31957987, 27671891, 30121674, 28779239; Phenotypes: Hypermethioninemia with deficiency of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase, MIM#613752; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 AGPS Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: AGPS: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, type 3, MIM#600121; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 AGL Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: AGL: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Glycogen storage disease IIIa, MIM# 232400; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 AFG3L2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: AFG3L2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Spastic ataxia 5, autosomal recessive, MIM#614487; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 ADGRG6 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ADGRG6: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30549416; Phenotypes: Lethal congenital contracture syndrome 9, OMIM #616503; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 ADCY5 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ADCY5: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Dyskinesia, familial, with facial myokymia, MIM#606703; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.0 ACADSB Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ACADSB: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: 2-methylbutyrylglycinuria, MIM# 610006; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 ABCC6 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ABCC6: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Arterial calcification, generalized, of infancy, 2, MIM#614473, Pseudoxanthoma elasticum, MIM#264800; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.0 ABAT Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ABAT: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 10407778, 20052547, 27596361, 28411234,; Phenotypes: GABA-transaminase deficiency, MIM#613163; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.0 SUPT16H Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: SUPT16H was added
gene: SUPT16H was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: SUPT16H was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: SUPT16H were set to http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106193
Phenotypes for gene: SUPT16H were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of the corpus callosum
Penetrance for gene: SUPT16H were set to Complete
Review for gene: SUPT16H was set to AMBER
Added comment: Bina et al (2020 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106193) report on 4 unrelated individuals with heterozygous SNVs affecting SUPT16H as well as 1 further with microdeletion spanning this gene.

The phenotype consisted of DD with subsequent ID in a subset of them (ages of the cohort: 2y-14y), autistic features in few, abnormalities of the corpus callosum (for 3 with available MRI images), variable gastrointestinal problems in some, and possibly minor dysmorphic features.

SUPT16H encodes a subunit of the FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) complex, a chromatin-specific factor required for transcription elongation as well as for DNA replication and repair (OMIM citing Belotserkovskaya et al. 2003 - PMID: 12934006). The 2 subunits of the complex [Spt16 (encoded by SUPT16H) and SSRP1] are essential for histone regulation. As the authors note, Spt16 interacts with the histone dimer H2A-H2B during transcription to allow RNA polymerase access to previously coiled DNA [cited PMIDs : 9489704, 10421373 / A recent study by Liu et al 2019 (PMID: 31775157) appears highly relevant].

SUPT16H has a Z-score of 5.1 in gnomAD and a pLI of 1 (%HI of 22.56 in Decipher).

SNVs :
4 de novo missense SNVs were identified following exome sequencing (NM_007192.3:c.484A>G or I162V / L432P / N571S / R734W), all absent from gnomAD and mostly predicted to be deleterious (I162V predicted benign, tolerated, disease-causing by PolyPhen2, SIFT, MutationTaster respectively and had a CADD score of 13.61). Prior work-up for these individuals (incl. CMA in some / MS-MLPA for Angelman s. in 1 / metabolic investigations) had (probably) not revealed an apparent cause, with small CNVs inherited from healthy parents (a 4q13.3 dup / 20q13.2 del - coordinates not provided).

There were no studies performed for the identified variants.

CNVs :
A 5th individual reported by Bina et al was found to harbor a 2.05 Mb 14q11.2 deletion spanning SUPT16H. The specific deletion also spanned CHD8 while the same individual harbored also a 30.17 Mb duplication of 18p11.32q12.1.

CNVs spanning SUPT16H reported to date, also span the (very) proximal CHD8. [Genomic coordinates (GRCh38) for SUPT16H and CHD8 as provided by OMIM : 14:21,351,471-21,384,018 / 14:21,385,198-21,456,122]. Haploinsufficiency of CHD8 is associated with a distinctive syndrome with overgrowth and ID (Douzgou et al 2019 - PMID: 31001818). The phenotype of SUPT16H-CHD8 duplications is discussed in other studies/reviews. [Smol et al 2020 - PMID: 31823155 / Smyk et al 2016 - PMID: 26834018].

Animal models were not commented on by Bina et al (possibly not available for mouse : http://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:1890948 / https://www.mousephenotype.org/data/genes/MGI:1890948 ).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.0 TET3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: TET3 was added
gene: TET3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: TET3 was set to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: TET3 were set to https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.12.007
Phenotypes for gene: TET3 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Macrocephaly; Growth abnormality; Seizures; Autistic behavior; Abnormality of movement; Abnormality of the face
Penetrance for gene: TET3 were set to Complete
Review for gene: TET3 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Beck et al (2020 - DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.12.007) report on individuals with monoallelic de novo or biallelic pathogenic TET3 variants.

For both inheritance modes (AR/AD) DD/ID were among the observed features (mild-severe - individuals from families 2, 4 and 6 for whom presence of ID was not commented, relevance to the current panel is suggested from the developmental milestones in the supplement. One individual presented DD without ID). Other features included hypotonia (in 8), ASD/autistic features (in 5), seizures (2 unrelated subjects for each inheritance mode). Postnatal growth abnormalities were observed in many, in most cases involving head size (with/without abnormal stature) and few presented abnormal prenatal growth. Variable movement disorders were observed in some. Some facial features appeared to be more common (eg. long face, tall forehead, etc).

Most were referred for their DD. Extensive prior genetic investigations had (mostly) come out normal (with possible contribution of a 16p11.2 dup in an individual with monoallelic variant or a 16q22 dup in another with biallelic TET3 variants). Monoallelic / biallelic variants in all subjects were identified following exome sequencing.

TET3 encodes a methylcytosine dioxygenase (the TET family consisting of 3 enzymes, TET1, TET2, TET3). These enzymes are involved in DNA demethylation through a series of reactions beginning with the conversion of 5-methyl cytosine [5mc] to 5-hydromethylcytosine [5hmC].

5 individuals from 3 families (1/3 consanguineous) harbored biallelic missense variants. 5 different missense variants were observed. Heterozygous parents appeared to be mildly affected (eg. having learning difficulties, etc).

6 individuals from 5 families harbored monoallelic variants [3 truncating (of which 2 localizing in the last exon), 2 missense SNVs]. In one family the variant was inherited from a similarly affected parent. In all other cases the variant had occured de novo. No additional TET3 variants were identified, with the limitations of WES.

All missense mutations, whether observed in individuals with biallelic or monoallelic variants, were located within the catalytic domain or - for a single variant (NM_001287491.1:c.2254C>T / p.Arg752Cys) - adjacent to it.

Functional studies were carried out only for (all) missense variants observed in individuals with biallelic variants. Conversion of 5mC to 5hmC is the first step in DNA demethylation. In HEK293 cells overexpressing either wt or variants, production of 5hmc was measured. 4/5 missense variants evaluated demonstrated a defect in converting 5mC to 5hmC, Arg752Cys being an exception (as also predicted by its localization).

DD/ID and abnormal growth are also features of disorders of the epigenetic machinery (DNA methylation machinery, histone machinery, chromatin remodelers, other chromatin-associated proteins). Similarly to TET3, both monoallelic and biallelic variants in KDM5B, encoding for another component of the epigenetic machinery, have been identified in individuals with ID.

Mouse models discussed by the authors [several Refs provided though not here reviewed] : The gene has been shown to be highly expressed in oocytes, zygotes and neurons and to play a role in demethylation of the paternal genome after fertilization. (From the MGI: 'mice inheriting a null allele from a germ cell conditional null mother display impaired reprogramming of the paternal genome resulting in reduced embryo viability'). Beck et al also note that Tet3 inhibition or depletion in differentiated neurons can impact synaptic function [PMIDs cited: 25915473, 24757058, 26711116].
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.0 RNF113A Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: RNF113A: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 25612912, 31880405, 31793730, 29133357, 30506991, 15256591, 24026126, 23555887; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, monoallelic mutations in females may cause disease (may be less severe, later onset than males)
Intellectual disability v3.0 MTHFS Konstantinos Varvagiannis changed review comment from: Biallelic pathogenic MTHFS variants cause Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, epilepsy, and hypomyelination (# 618367).

The gene encodes 5,10-Methenyltetrahydrofolate synthetase which catalyzes conversion of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-FTHF or folinic acid) to 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-MTHF).

At least 3 unrelated individuals have been reported. The phenotype appears to be relevant to both epilepsy and ID gene panels and the role of variants/the gene supported by enzymatic activity studies, 5-FTHF accumulation, 5,10-MTHF levels (low/low-normal), the role of folate metabolism pathway overall and some supporting (metabolic) evidence from the mouse model.
---
Rodan et al (2018 - PMID: 30031689) reported on 2 individuals both presenting with microcephaly, severe global DD, epilepsy, progressive spasticity and cerebral hypomyelination upon MRI imaging. Short stature was also feature in both.

The 1st patient was an 8-year-old male who following exome sequencing was found to harbor 2 missense variants each inherited from a carrier parent. (NM_006441.3:c.434G>A / p.R145Q and c.107T>C / p.L36P). A further AFG3L2 indel was not felt to fit with his phenotype (and the onset of the related disorder appears to occur later).

Previous investigations included extensive metabolic testing, CMA, Angelman syndrome methylation analysis, GFAP, POLG1, TYMP sequencing, mitochondrial genome analysis and an XL-ID gene panel (further suggesting relevance of this gene to the current panel) were all non-diagnostic.

CSF 5-MTHF levels were initially on the low-normal range, subsequently found to be decreased (upon folinic acid supplementation) and later normalized upon use of another regimen.

MTHFS activity was measured in control fibroblasts as well as fibroblasts from this individual, with the latter demonstrating no enzyme activity. Accumulation (30x elevation) of 5-FTHF (the substrate of MTHFS) was demonstrated in patient fibroblasts.

The 2nd patient was a 11-year-old male with similar features incl. global DD (standing/walking/single words at/after 4 years of age, limited vocabulary and articulation upon last examination).

Extensive metabolic work-up as well as genetic testing for an epilepsy panel, vanishing white matter disease gene panel, mitochondrial genome as well as specific gene sequencing (LAMA2, POLR3A, POLR3B) were all non-diagnostic. Trio exome revealed 2 MTHFS variants in trans configuration (c.484C>T / p.Q162X and c.434G>A / p.R145Q).
---
Romero et al (2019 - PMID: 31844630) reported on a 4-year-old female with congenital microcephaly, severe global DD (nonverbal/nonambulatory at the age of 4), spasticity, epilepsy and cerebral hypomyelination.

Extensive investigations prior to exome sequencing revealed macrocytic anemia, decreased CSF 5-MTHF and elevated neopterin, 2 CNVs of uncertain significance upon CMA with additional long ROH on chr15. Methylation studies were negative. The child was homozygous for c.220C>T / p.R74X (RefSeq is probably NM_006441.3. MTHFS lies on chr15. The parents were unrelated but came from the same town). There were no other candidate variants from the exome analysis.

Both articles discuss extensively the role of the folate metabolism pathway overall in nucleic acid synthesis, AA metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, methylation as well as 5-FTHF / 5,10-MTHF in particular in myelin stabilization and DNA synthesis (eg. according to Romero et al. a defect in MTHFS would impair myelin production and also lead to decreased myelin stability).
---
A book chapter cited by Rodan et al (in N. Blau et al. (eds.), Physician’s Guide to the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Follow-Up of Inherited Metabolic Diseases - DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-40337-8_10) included limited details on a patient with 'MTHFS gene mutation'. This individual had early speech delay, seizures beginning in infancy, ID, autistic features, recurrent infections and was found to have very low CSF 5-MTHF levels. [Details in p169 and table 10.6 - p173].
---
In a mouse model reported by Field et al (2011 - PMID: 22303332), Mthfs was disrupted through insertion of a gene trap vector between the first 2 exons. Heterozygous [Mthfs(gt/+)] mice were fertile and viable. Mthfs protein levels were slightly but not statistically significantly reduced in tissues measured. No homozygous embryos were recovered following intercrosses of heterozygous mice, suggesting that Mthfs is an essential gene. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts from heterozygous mice [Mthfs (gt/+)] exhibited reduced de novo purine biosynthesis, but did not exhibit altered de novo thymidylate biosynthesis. Plasma folate levels were altered in heterozygous mice on a standard (/control) diet.
Sources: Literature; to: Biallelic pathogenic MTHFS variants cause Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, epilepsy, and hypomyelination (# 618367).

The gene encodes 5,10-Methenyltetrahydrofolate synthetase which catalyzes conversion of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-FTHF or folinic acid) to 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-MTHF).

At least 3 unrelated individuals have been reported. The phenotype appears to be relevant to both epilepsy and ID gene panels and the role of variants/the gene supported by enzymatic activity studies, 5-FTHF accumulation, 5,10-MTHF levels (low/low-normal), the role of folate metabolism pathway overall and some supporting (metabolic) evidence from the mouse model.
---
Rodan et al (2018 - PMID: 30031689) reported on 2 individuals both presenting with microcephaly, severe global DD, epilepsy, progressive spasticity and cerebral hypomyelination upon MRI imaging. Short stature was also feature in both.

The 1st patient was an 8-year-old male who following exome sequencing was found to harbor 2 missense variants each inherited from a carrier parent. (NM_006441.3:c.434G>A / p.R145Q and c.107T>C / p.L36P). A further AFG3L2 indel was not felt to fit with his phenotype (and the onset of the related disorder appears to occur later).

Previous investigations included extensive metabolic testing, CMA, Angelman syndrome methylation analysis, GFAP, POLG1, TYMP sequencing, mitochondrial genome analysis and an XL-ID gene panel (further suggesting relevance of this gene to the current panel) were all non-diagnostic.

CSF 5-MTHF levels were initially on the low-normal range, subsequently found to be decreased (upon folinic acid supplementation) and later normalized upon use of another regimen.

MTHFS activity was measured in control fibroblasts as well as fibroblasts from this individual, with the latter demonstrating no enzyme activity. Accumulation (30x elevation) of 5-FTHF (the substrate of MTHFS) was demonstrated in patient fibroblasts.

The 2nd patient was a 11-year-old male with similar features incl. global DD (standing/walking/single words at/after 4 years of age, limited vocabulary and articulation upon last examination).

Extensive metabolic work-up as well as genetic testing for an epilepsy panel, vanishing white matter disease gene panel, mitochondrial genome as well as specific gene sequencing (LAMA2, POLR3A, POLR3B) were all non-diagnostic. Trio exome revealed 2 MTHFS variants in trans configuration (c.484C>T / p.Q162X and c.434G>A / p.R145Q).
---
Romero et al (2019 - PMID: 31844630) reported on a 4-year-old female with congenital microcephaly, severe global DD (nonverbal/nonambulatory at the age of 4), spasticity, epilepsy and cerebral hypomyelination.

Extensive investigations prior to exome sequencing revealed macrocytic anemia, decreased CSF 5-MTHF and elevated neopterin, 2 CNVs of uncertain significance upon CMA with additional long ROH on chr15. Methylation studies were negative. The child was homozygous for c.220C>T / p.R74X (RefSeq is probably NM_006441.3. MTHFS lies on chr15. The parents were unrelated but came from the same town). There were no other candidate variants from the exome analysis.

Both articles discuss extensively the role of the folate metabolism pathway overall in nucleic acid synthesis, AA metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, methylation as well as 5-FTHF / 5,10-MTHF in particular in myelin stabilization and DNA synthesis (eg. according to Romero et al. a defect in MTHFS would impair myelin production and also lead to decreased myelin stability).
---
A book chapter cited by Rodan et al (in N. Blau et al. (eds.), Physician’s Guide to the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Follow-Up of Inherited Metabolic Diseases - DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-40337-8_10) included limited details on a patient with 'MTHFS gene mutation'. This individual had early speech delay, seizures beginning in infancy, ID, autistic features, recurrent infections and was found to have very low CSF 5-MTHF levels. [Details in p169 and table 10.6 - p173].
---
In a mouse model reported by Field et al (2011 - PMID: 22303332), Mthfs was disrupted through insertion of a gene trap vector between the first 2 exons. Heterozygous [Mthfs(gt/+)] mice were fertile and viable. Mthfs protein levels were slightly but not statistically significantly reduced in tissues measured. No homozygous embryos were recovered following intercrosses of heterozygous mice, suggesting that Mthfs is an essential gene. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts from heterozygous mice [Mthfs (gt/+)] exhibited reduced de novo purine biosynthesis, but did not exhibit altered de novo thymidylate biosynthesis. Plasma folate levels were altered in heterozygous mice on a standard (/control) diet.

[Please consider inclusion in other possibly relevant panels e.g. for metabolic disorders]
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.0 MTHFS Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: MTHFS was added
gene: MTHFS was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: MTHFS was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: MTHFS were set to 30031689; 31844630; 22303332; https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-40337-8_10
Phenotypes for gene: MTHFS were set to Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, epilepsy, and hypomyelination, 618367
Penetrance for gene: MTHFS were set to Complete
Review for gene: MTHFS was set to GREEN
Added comment: Biallelic pathogenic MTHFS variants cause Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, epilepsy, and hypomyelination (# 618367).

The gene encodes 5,10-Methenyltetrahydrofolate synthetase which catalyzes conversion of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-FTHF or folinic acid) to 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-MTHF).

At least 3 unrelated individuals have been reported. The phenotype appears to be relevant to both epilepsy and ID gene panels and the role of variants/the gene supported by enzymatic activity studies, 5-FTHF accumulation, 5,10-MTHF levels (low/low-normal), the role of folate metabolism pathway overall and some supporting (metabolic) evidence from the mouse model.
---
Rodan et al (2018 - PMID: 30031689) reported on 2 individuals both presenting with microcephaly, severe global DD, epilepsy, progressive spasticity and cerebral hypomyelination upon MRI imaging. Short stature was also feature in both.

The 1st patient was an 8-year-old male who following exome sequencing was found to harbor 2 missense variants each inherited from a carrier parent. (NM_006441.3:c.434G>A / p.R145Q and c.107T>C / p.L36P). A further AFG3L2 indel was not felt to fit with his phenotype (and the onset of the related disorder appears to occur later).

Previous investigations included extensive metabolic testing, CMA, Angelman syndrome methylation analysis, GFAP, POLG1, TYMP sequencing, mitochondrial genome analysis and an XL-ID gene panel (further suggesting relevance of this gene to the current panel) were all non-diagnostic.

CSF 5-MTHF levels were initially on the low-normal range, subsequently found to be decreased (upon folinic acid supplementation) and later normalized upon use of another regimen.

MTHFS activity was measured in control fibroblasts as well as fibroblasts from this individual, with the latter demonstrating no enzyme activity. Accumulation (30x elevation) of 5-FTHF (the substrate of MTHFS) was demonstrated in patient fibroblasts.

The 2nd patient was a 11-year-old male with similar features incl. global DD (standing/walking/single words at/after 4 years of age, limited vocabulary and articulation upon last examination).

Extensive metabolic work-up as well as genetic testing for an epilepsy panel, vanishing white matter disease gene panel, mitochondrial genome as well as specific gene sequencing (LAMA2, POLR3A, POLR3B) were all non-diagnostic. Trio exome revealed 2 MTHFS variants in trans configuration (c.484C>T / p.Q162X and c.434G>A / p.R145Q).
---
Romero et al (2019 - PMID: 31844630) reported on a 4-year-old female with congenital microcephaly, severe global DD (nonverbal/nonambulatory at the age of 4), spasticity, epilepsy and cerebral hypomyelination.

Extensive investigations prior to exome sequencing revealed macrocytic anemia, decreased CSF 5-MTHF and elevated neopterin, 2 CNVs of uncertain significance upon CMA with additional long ROH on chr15. Methylation studies were negative. The child was homozygous for c.220C>T / p.R74X (RefSeq is probably NM_006441.3. MTHFS lies on chr15. The parents were unrelated but came from the same town). There were no other candidate variants from the exome analysis.

Both articles discuss extensively the role of the folate metabolism pathway overall in nucleic acid synthesis, AA metabolism, neurotransmitter synthesis, methylation as well as 5-FTHF / 5,10-MTHF in particular in myelin stabilization and DNA synthesis (eg. according to Romero et al. a defect in MTHFS would impair myelin production and also lead to decreased myelin stability).
---
A book chapter cited by Rodan et al (in N. Blau et al. (eds.), Physician’s Guide to the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Follow-Up of Inherited Metabolic Diseases - DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-40337-8_10) included limited details on a patient with 'MTHFS gene mutation'. This individual had early speech delay, seizures beginning in infancy, ID, autistic features, recurrent infections and was found to have very low CSF 5-MTHF levels. [Details in p169 and table 10.6 - p173].
---
In a mouse model reported by Field et al (2011 - PMID: 22303332), Mthfs was disrupted through insertion of a gene trap vector between the first 2 exons. Heterozygous [Mthfs(gt/+)] mice were fertile and viable. Mthfs protein levels were slightly but not statistically significantly reduced in tissues measured. No homozygous embryos were recovered following intercrosses of heterozygous mice, suggesting that Mthfs is an essential gene. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts from heterozygous mice [Mthfs (gt/+)] exhibited reduced de novo purine biosynthesis, but did not exhibit altered de novo thymidylate biosynthesis. Plasma folate levels were altered in heterozygous mice on a standard (/control) diet.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.0 PUM1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis commented on gene: PUM1: 5 unrelated individuals with de novo pathogenic PUM1 variants have been reported in the literature. DD (5/5), ID (4/5 - relevant severity to the current panel), seizures (4/4 - absence/tonic-clonic, abnormal EEG) and variable other features (incl. facial dysmorphism, ataxia, cryptorchidism) appear to be part of the phenotype. 9 individuals with deletions spanning PUM1 and proximal genes presented similar features.

[1] PMID: 29474920 - Gennarino et al (2018)
[2] PMID: 30903679 - Bonnemason-Carrere et al (2019)
[3] PMID: 31859446 - Voet et al (2019) [with review of the literature]

SNVs in relevant individuals were identified by exome sequencing and were in all cases de novo.

Arg1147Trp was a recurrent variant reported in 3 unrelated subjects with ID and seizures (Refs 1,2,3 / NM_001020658.1:c.3439C>T). A nonsense variant was reported in an additional one with DD, ID, seizures and additional features (c.2509C>T / p.Arg837* - Ref3). One individual with a de novo missense variant (c.3416G>A / p.Arg1139Trp) with DD and ataxia, though without ID was reported in Ref1.

Details on 9 individuals with 0.3 - 5.6 Mb deletions spanning PUM1 and other genes are provided in Ref1. Features also included DD, ID, seizures, ataxia, etc.

Extensive initial investigations were reported for individuals in Refs 2 and 3 (various investigations incl. karyotype, SNP-array, targeted sequencing of OPHN1, KANSL1 or of a small panel of ID genes, biopsies and/or metabolic work-up) to rule out alternative causes. These only revealed a likely benign CNV and a GRIA3 SNV of uncertain significance in the case of an individual harboring the recurrent Arg1147Trp variant [Ref2].

Role of the gene (from OMIM):
Pumilio proteins, such as PUM1, negatively regulate gene expression by repressing translation of mRNAs to which they bind (Lee et al., 2016). A clinically significant PUM1 target is ataxin (ATXN1; 601556), mutation in which causes spinocerebellar ataxia-1 (SCA1; 601556).

Variant studies:
- Arg1147Trp was shown to be associated with normal PUM1 mRNA levels, but reduced (to ~43%) PUM1 protein levels in patient fibroblasts. ATXN1 mRNA and protein levels, as well as protein and/or mRNA levels of other PUM1 targets were shown to be increased (Ref1).
- In Ref1, in vitro transfection assays with wt or mt PUM1 were performed in HEK293T cells to evaluate repression of ATXN1 and E2F3. While overexpression of wt and Arg1147Trp were able to reduce ATXN1 and E2F3 levels, Arg1139Trp was not able to repress ATXN1 or E2F3.
- Upon overexpression in mouse hippocampal neurons, PUM1 missense mutations (among others Arg1139Trp and Arg1147Trp) were shown to alter neuronal morphology.

Overall haploinsufficiency is the proposed mechanism for the disorder for which the acronym PADDAS is used (Pumilio1-associated developmental disability, ataxia and seizure).

Milder mutations reducing PUM1 levels by 25% are associated with adult-onset ataxia without ID (PRCA or Pumilio1-related cerebellar ataxia) [Ref1].

Mouse models:
The role of PUM1 was first suggested in mouse models where Pum1 mutations were shown to lead to a SCA1-like phenotype (PMID cited : 12086639 - Watase et al 2002) further shown to be caused by increased Atxn1 mRNA and protein levels (PMID cited : 25768905 - Gennarino et al 2015).
The mouse model seems to recapitulate several of the features observed in affected individuals : Pum1 homozygous ko mice display among others hyperactivity, progressive cerebellar signs, spontaneous seizures as also observed in affected individuals (PMID cited : 25768905 - Gennarino et al 2015). Cryptorchidism was observed in 2 patients similar to testicular hypoplasia reported in Pum1 ko mice (PMID cited : 22342750 - Chen et al 2012).
- Heterozygous mice were evaluated in Ref1 with 69% or 75% exhibiting spontaneous seizures by the end of 30 or 35 wks respectively, with abnormal EEG activity already by 16 wks.

Additional individuals with PUM1 variants and a relevant phenotype of ID with or without seizures have been reported as part of the DDD study or as external submissions to Decipher and ClinVar :

https://decipher.sanger.ac.uk/search?q=PUM1#research-variants/results [ DDD4K.01387 participant ]
https://decipher.sanger.ac.uk/search?q=pum1#consented-patients/results [ external submission(s) ]
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/variation/431110/ [ splice-site variant in an individual with ID submitted prior to the 1st publication on the disorder ]
Intellectual disability v3.0 DLL1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: DLL1 was added
gene: DLL1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: DLL1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: DLL1 were set to 31353024
Phenotypes for gene: DLL1 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Morphological abnormality of the central nervous system; Seizures; Behavioral abnormality; Autism; Scoliosis
Penetrance for gene: DLL1 were set to unknown
Review for gene: DLL1 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Heterozygous DLL1 pathogenic variants cause Neurodevelopmental disorder with nonspecific brain abnormalities and with or without seizures (# 618709).

Fischer-Zirnsak et al (2019 - PMID: 31353024) reported on 15 affected individuals from 12 unrelated families.

Most common features included DD/ID (12/14), ASD (6/14 - belonging to 6 families) or other behavioral abnormalities, seizures (6/14 - from 6 unrelated families) and various brain MRI abnromalities. As commented by OMIM (based on the same ref) "Cognitive function ranges from severely impaired to the ability to attend schools with special assistance". Among other features, scoliosis was observed in 4. The authors could not identify a distinctive facial gestalt.

Variable initial investigations (where discussed/performed - also suggesting relevance to the current panel) included CMA, FMR1, FLNA, mitochondrial DNA analysis and metabolic work-up but had not revealed an alternative cause.

The DLL1 variants were identified by WES (with the exception of a 122-kb microdeletion spanning DLL1 and FAM120B detected by CMA). Nonsense, frame-shift, splice-site variants in positions predicted to result to NMD were identified in most. One individual was found to harbor a missense variant (NM_005618.3:c.536G>T / p.Cys179Phe) and another the aforementioned microdeletion.

The variant in several individuals had occurred as a de novo event. In 2 families, it was inherited from an also affected parent (an unaffected sib was non-carrier) while in 3 families parental studies were not possible/complete.

In frame insertion of 4 residues was demonstrated for a splice site variant, from LCLs of the corresponding individual. For another individual, material was unavailable for mRNA studies. The missense variant affected a cysteine (of the DSL domain) conserved in all Notch ligands while AA changes affecting the same position of JAG1 (another Notch ligand) have been described in patients with Alagille s.

Based on the variants identified and reports of deletions spanning DLL1 in the literature, haploinsufficiency is the proposed underlying mechanism. The gene has also a pLI of 1 and %HI of 4.65.

DLL1 encodes the Delta-like canonical Notch ligand 1. Notch signaling is an established pathway for brain morphogenesis. Previous in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the role of DLL1 in CNS. The gene is highly expressed in neuronal precursor cells during embryogenesis. Expression of Dll1 (and other molecules of the Notch signalling pathway) in an oscillatory/sustained pattern and cell-cell interactions important for this pathway have been demonstrated to play a role in neuronal differentiation. [Most discussed by Fischer-Zirnsak et al with several refs provided / also Gray et al., 1999 - PMID: 10079256 & OMIM].

Animal models as summarized by the authors:
[Mouse] Loss of Dll1 in mice has been shown to increase neuronal differentiation, cause CNS hyperplasia and increased number of neurons (PMIDs cited: 9109488, 12397111, 20081190). Reduced Dll1 expression was associated with scoliosis and mild vertebral defects (cited PMIDs: 19562077, 14960495, 22484060 / among others Dll1 haploinsufficiency and dominant negative models studied). Scoliosis and vertebral segmentation defects were features in 4 and 1 individual, respectively in the cohort of 15.
[Zebrafish] Homozygous mutations in dlA, the zebrafish ortholog, disrupted the Delta-Notch signaling and led to patterning defects in the hindbrain and overproduction of neurons (cited: 15366005).

Please consider inclusion in other possibly relevant panels e.g. for ASD.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.0 TFE3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: TFE3: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Other; Publications: 30595499, 31833172, https://doi.org/10.1126/scisignal.aax0926; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Abnormality of skin pigmentation, Coarse facial features, Seizures; Mode of inheritance: Other
Intellectual disability v3.0 MN1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: MN1 was added
gene: MN1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: MN1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: MN1 were set to 31834374; 31839203; 15870292
Phenotypes for gene: MN1 were set to Central hypotonia; Feeding difficulties; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Hearing impairment; Abnormality of facial skeleton; Craniosynostosis; Abnormality of the face; Abnormality of the cerebellum; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Polymicrogyria
Penetrance for gene: MN1 were set to Complete
Review for gene: MN1 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Two studies by Mak et al (2019 - PMID: 31834374 / Ref1) and Miyake et al (2019 - PMID: 31839203 / Ref2) provide sufficient evidence for heterozygous MN1 C-terminal truncating variants (predicted to escape NMD - localizing within the last nucleotides of exon 1 or in exon 2) being associated with a distinctive phenotype and DD and ID among the features.

Mak et al also discuss on the phenotype of individuals with variants causing N-terminal truncation or with MN1 deletions (discussed at the end of this review).

Overlapping features for C-terminal truncating variants included hypotonia, feeding difficulties, global DD and ID, hearing loss, cranial shape defects (/craniosynostosis in few), highly suggestive/distinctive facial features (eg. frontal bossing, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral-fissures, shallow orbits, short upturned nose, low-set/posteriorly rotated/dysplastic ears, etc) and brain MRI abnormalities (eg. rhomboencephalosynapsis or cerebellar dysplasia, polymicrogyria, dysplastic CC).

The majority of the affected individuals were investigated by WES/WGS with a single one tested by targeted MN1 Sanger sequencing due to highly suggestive features. Variable previous investigations incl. CMA in several, gene panel testing (Rasopathies, hearing loss, craniofacial panels, FMR1, etc) and metabolic work were normal in most. In a single case a likely pathogenic ACSL4 also explained part of the phenotype (Ref2). In the majority of these individuals, the variant had occured as a de novo event. Two sibs had inherited the truncating variant from a milder affected mosaic parent. A parental sample was not available for an additional individual.

p.(Arg1295*) or NM_002430.2:c.3883C>T was a recurrent variant, seen in several individuals and in both studies.

Several lines of evidence are provided for the MN1 variants and the role of the gene including:
- For few individuals for whom cell lines were available, variants were shown to escape NMD by cDNA/RT-PCR/RNA-seq [Ref1 & 2].
- The gene has a high expression in fetal brain [Ref2 / fig S2]
- MN1 (* 156100 - MN1 protooncogene, transcriptional regulator) has been proposed to play a role in cell proliferation and shown to act as transcription cofactor (increasing its transactivation capacity in synergy with coactivators EP300 and RAC3) [Discussion and Refs provided in Ref2].
- In vitro studies suggested increased protein stability (upon transfection of wt/mut constructs in HEK293T cells), enhanced MN1 aggregation in nuclei (when wt/mut GFP-tagged MN1 was expressed in HeLa cells), increased inhibitory effect on cell growth (MG63 cells - role of MN1 in cell proliferation discussed above) and retained transactivation activity (upon transient MN1 overexpression of wt/mt MN1 in HEK293T cells) for the variants. These seem to support a gain-of-function effect for the C-terminal truncating variants [Ref2].
- The truncating variants are proposed to raise the fraction of Intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs = regions without fixed tertiary structure) probably contributing to the above effects [Ref2].
- Expression of FLAG-tagged MN1 wt/mut MN1 followed by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis (mCAT-Hela cells), provided evidence that MN1 is involved in transcriptional regulation: a. through binding ZBTB24 and RING1 E3 ubiquitin ligase (with mutant MN1 displaying impaired interaction with ZBTB24 and no binding to RING1) and/or b. through interaction with DNA-binding transcription factors PBX1 and PKNOX1. Proper MN1 degradation is proposed to mediate precise transcriptional regulation. [Ref2]
- Transcriptome analysis in LCLs from an affected individual suggested dysregulation of genes relevant to neuronal development (eg. LAMP, ITGA, etc) and GO analysis suggested enrichment for pathways possibly linked to the observed phenotypes [Ref2].
- Discussed in both Refs1/2, homozygous Mn1-ko mice display abnormal skull bone development and die at/shortly after birth as a result of cleft palate. Heterozygous Mn1-ko mice display hypoplastic membranous bones of the cranial skeleton and cleft palate (CP), the latter with incomplete penetrance [Meester-Smoor et al 2005 - PMID: 15870292]. This is thus compatible with the cranial shape defects observed in C-terminal truncations (while CP has been reported in gene deletions, bifid uvula was reported once in C-terminal and N-terminal truncating variants, in the latter case with submucous CP).
-----
The phenotype of other MN1 variants is discussed by Mak et al (Ref1) :
- 3 individuals with MN1 N-terminal truncating variants (eg. Ser179*, Pro365Thrfs*120, Ser472*) presented speech delay, mild conductive hearing loss and facial features different from C-terminal truncations. None of these individuals had significant ID.
- Microdeletions: One individual (#27) with 130 kb deletion harboring only MN1, presented microcephaly, DD and ID and mildly dysmorphic facial features. Deletions spanning MN1 and other genes (eg a 1.17 Mb deletion in ind. #28) and relevant cases from the literature reviewed, with mild DD/ID, variable palatal defects and/or facial dysmorphisms (distinct from the C-terminal truncating variants) among the frequent findings.

[Please consider inclusion in other possibly relevant gene panels eg. for hearing loss (conductive/sensorineural in 16/20 reported by Mak et al) or craniosynostosis, etc].
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.0 CXorf56 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: CXorf56 was added
gene: CXorf56 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Mode of inheritance for gene: CXorf56 was set to X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, monoallelic mutations in females may cause disease (may be less severe, later onset than males)
Publications for gene: CXorf56 were set to 29374277; 31822863
Phenotypes for gene: CXorf56 were set to ?Mental retardation, X-linked 107, 301013
Penetrance for gene: CXorf56 were set to unknown
Review for gene: CXorf56 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Verkerk et al (2018 - PMID: 29374277) reported on a three-generation family with five males and one female presenting mild non-syndromic ID. Segregation was compatible with X-linked inheritance.

Multipoint linkage analysis with XL microsatellite markers demonstrated a linkage peak at Xq23-24 with LOD score of 3.3. Haplotype analysis and utilization of additional STR markers allowed narrowing to a region of 7.6 Mb containing 92 genes.

WGS in 3 affected males (spanning 3 generations) and 1 unaffected male and application of relevant filters for rare protein affecting variants within this region - present only in affected but absent in the unaffected individual - suggested a CXorf56 frameshift variant in exon 2 [NM_022101.3:c.159_160insTA / p.(Asp54*)] as the only relevant for this phenotype.

Sanger sequencing was performed for 25 family members with all 5 affected males and 1 affected female harboring this insertion and 8 unaffected females (also) shown to be carriers.

X-chromosome inactivation studies demonstrated that unaffected females had skewed inactivation (76-93%) of the variant allele, while the single affected female did not have a skewed XCI pattern (54%).

In EBV-transformed lymphoblasts grown with/without cycloheximide, mRNA levels were shown to be significantly lower in the affected female compared to unaffected ones (and corrected upon treatment with cycloheximide). mRNA levels were also significantly lower in cell lines from an affected male, with expression showing significant increase after treatment with cycloheximide. These results confirmed that nonsense-mediated decay applies.

The variant was absent from ExAC (where CXorf56 has a pLI of 0.93) and 188 healthy Dutch individuals.

The function of CXorf56 is not known. The gene appears to be expressed in brain and a (broad) range of other tissues [ https://gtexportal.org/home/gene/CXORF56 ].

Immunostaining in 8-week old murine brain, showed that the protein is present in the nucleus and cell soma of most neurons in brain cortex and cerebellum. Upon transfection of human CXorf56 cDNA in mouse primary hippocampal neurons, the protein localized in the nucleus, dendrites (co-localizing with Map2) and dendritic spines. As the authors note, the latter may suggest a role in synaptic function.

Overexpression in HEK293T cells demonstrated predominantly nuclear localization.

Mouse : Based on MGI (and an article by Cox et al. - PMID: 20548051 / both cited by the authors) male chimeras hemizygous for a gene trapped allele have abnormal midbrain-hindbrain boundary morphology, decreased forebrain size, while a subset hemizygous for a different gene trapped allele show growth delay [ http://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:1924894 ].

-----

Rocha et al (2019 - PMID: 31822863) report on 9 affected individuals with mild to severe ID belonging to 3 unrelated families. Additional features in this cohort - observed in some - included abnormal reflexes, fine tremor, seizures (in 3), abnormal gait, etc.

In the 1st family, 3 males presented with (severe/severe/moderate) ID and 2 females with mild ID. Following a normal CMA and FMR1 testing, trio plus exome sequencing revealed a CXorf56 in-frame deletion [NM_022101.3:c.498_503del / p.(Glu167_Glu168del)]. Sanger sequencing in 9 members, confirmed presence of the variant in one unaffected mother, all her affected sons (2) and daughers(2) and an affected grandson and absence in 2 remaining unaffected daughters. Skewing of XCI was seen in blood cells from affected females (97 and 83%) while the unaffected mother had complete inactivation of the carrier X-chromosome. The authors commented that even minor reductions in CXorf56 (suggested by XCI in affected females) may be detrimental and/or that inactivation for this gene may be different than that of AR gene (which was studied instead) or in other tissues.

In family 2, an affected mother (with learning difficulties) and her 2 sons - the most severely affected presenting moderate ID - harbored a frameshift variant [c.303_304delCTinsACCC / p.(Phe101Leufs*20)].

A male with ID belonging to a 3rd family, for which no further information was available, was found to harbor the c.498_503del variant (also discussed above) as a de novo event.

It has been commented that individuals with Xq24 deletions spanning CXorf56 present with ID, although (all) such deletions reported in the literature also span the neighboring UBE2A gene, associated with Mental retardation, X-linked syndromic, Nascimento-type (MIM #300860).

-----

In OMIM, the CXorf56-related phenotype is ?Mental retardation, X-linked 107 (# 301013), based only on the report by Verkerk et al.

This gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc).

-----

Overall, CXorf56 can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel either with amber (function of the gene unknown, skewed XCI also in affected females in the 2nd reference) or with green rating (several individuals from 4 families, compatible segregation studies and females presenting a milder phenotype than males or unaffected, LOD score in the 1st report, studies confirming lower mRNA levels and NMD, gene expressed in human brain, expression in mouse brain cortex and cerebellum, evidence from transfection studies in mouse hippocampal neurons).

[Note : penetrance was here set to unknown / It was complete for males, incomplete for females].
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Intellectual disability v3.0 UGP2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: UGP2 was added
gene: UGP2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: UGP2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: UGP2 were set to 31820119
Phenotypes for gene: UGP2 were set to Seizures; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Feeding difficulties; Abnormality of vision; Abnormality of the face
Penetrance for gene: UGP2 were set to Complete
Review for gene: UGP2 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Perenthaler et al. (2019 - PMID: 31820119) provide evidence that homozygosity for a variant abolishing the start codon of the UGP2 transcript (NM_001001521.1) encoding the predominant (short) protein isoform in brain, leads to a severe epileptic encephalopathy.

This variant (chr2:64083454A>G / NM_001001521.1:c.1A>G - p.?) is also predicted to result in a substitution of a methionine at position 12 by a valine of the longer UGP2 transcript (NM_006759.3:c.34A>G - p.Met12Val).

The 2 isoforms differ only by 11 amino acids at the N-terminal and are otherwise expected to be functionally equivalent.

The authors provide details on 22 individuals from 15 families (some of which consanguineous).

Features included intractable seizures (in all), absence of developmental milestones (in all), progressive microcephaly, visual impairment. The authors reported also presence of somewhat similar facial features. Some of these individuals passed away early.

Previous work-up in several of them (incl. SNP-array, gene panel testing and metabolic investigations) had not revealed any abnormality, apart from ROH in some individuals. In all cases, the homozygous UGP2 SNV was the only P/LP variant for the neurodevelopmental phenotype following exome/genome sequencing. Segregation studies in affected/unaffected family members were compatible.

Families came from the Netherlands (but mostly from) India, Pakistan and Iran. Presence of a region of homozygosity shared between individuals from different families suggested that the variant might represent a mutation that originated several generations ago (in the area of Balochistan). The variant is present 15x in gnomAD, only in heterozygous state (in Asian mostly, reported once in Ashkenazi Jewish or Europeans) [ https://gnomad.broadinstitute.org/variant/2-64083454-A-G ].

UGP2 encodes UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase which is an essential enzyme in sugar metabolism, catalyzing conversion of glucose-1-phosphate to UDP-glucose. UDP-glucose, in turn, serves as precursor for production of glycogen by glycogen synthase.

The authors provide several lines of evidence for a the role of the gene in the CNS as well as for the deleterious effect of the specific variant :
- In patient fibroblasts total UGP2 levels were not signifficantly different compared to parent / control fibroblasts, the longer isoform being upregulated (and stable) when the shorter is missing. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated similar localization of UGP2 in the case of mutant or wt cells. Enzymatic activity (/capacity to produce UDP-glucose) was similar between homozygous mut, heterozygous and wt fibroblasts.
- In H9-derived neural stem cells, Western Blot, RT-PCR and qRT-PCR suggested that the short isoform is the predominant one. (In embryonic stem cells, or fibroblasts the ratio between short and long isoform was lower).
- Analysis of RNA-seq data from human fetal tissues suggested that the short isoform is the predominant in brain.
- UGP2 was detected upon immunohistochemistry in fetal brain tissues from first to third trimester of pregnancy while Western Blot confirmed preferential expression of the shorter isoform.
- Homozygous embryonic (ESC) or neural stem cells (NSC) for the variant (knock-in/KI) or for a frameshift variant (knock-out/KO) were generated. Study of NSCs demonstrated reduced total UGP2 protein expression upon Western Blot in the case of KI cells and depleted in KO ones. Transcriptome analysis did not show major transcriptome alterations in KI/KO ESCs compared to wt. In NSC KI/KO cells transcriptome alterations were observed compared to wt with upregulation among others of genes for synaptic processes and genes implicated in epilepsy.
- The absence of UGP2 was shown to result in reduced ability of KO/KI NSCs to produce UDP-glucose, reduced capacity to synthesize glycogen under hypoxia (rescued in the case of KO cells by overexpression of wt or long isoform), defects of protein glycosylation as well as in increased unfolded protein response (/susceptibility to ER stress). These alterations are commented to be possibly implicated in pathogenesis of epilepsy, progressive microcephaly, etc.
- A CRISPR-Cas9 zebrafish model leading with loss of ugp2a and hypomorphic ugp2b (the zebrafish homologs of UGP2) demonstrated abnormal behavior, reduced eye movements and increased frequency/duration of movements upon stimulation with a potent convulsant (suggestive of increased seizure susceptibility).
- UGP knockout in drosophila is lethal while flies compound heterozygous for hypomorphic alleles are viable but show a movement defects due to altered synaptogenesis secondary to glycosylation defects (cited PMID: 27466186).
- The authors make speculations as for the occurrence of a single variant (and not others) eg. absence of UGP2 (in the case of LoF variants affecting both isoforms) would possibly be incompatible with life, Met12Val being tolerable for the long transcript not affecting stability/enzymatic activity (which may not be the case for other substitutions affecting Met12), etc.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.0 SUZ12 Konstantinos Varvagiannis changed review comment from: ID can be a feature in individuals heterozygous for SUZ12 pathogenic variants. 13 affected individuals (from 12 families) have been reported:

[1] PMID 28229514 (Imagawa et al, 2017) : 1 individual
[2] PMID 30019515 (Imagawa et al, 2018) : 2 further unrelated subjects
[3] PMID 31736240 (Cyrus et al, 2019) : 10 additional subjects (from 9 families)

Reviewed by Cyrus et al, features observed in more than half of the (13) affected individuals included prenatal and/or postnatal overgrowth (in some only prenatal, others only postnatal, others did not manifest overgrowth at all), some suggestive facial features (eg. prominent forehead, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, round face, broad/low nasal bridge), DD and ID (the latter in 7/13, in most cases mild), advanced bone age, musculoskeletal abnormalities and cryptorchidism. Less frequent features included brain MRI abnormalities (eg. CC hypoplasia/agenesis, etc.), umbilical hernias, respiratory abnormalities, cardiac anomalies (in one).

All were diagnosed with WES/WGS/panel testing, with few having additional findings upon this or prior testing (eg. CNVs/SNVs).

SUZ12 encodes one of the 4 core proteins of the PRC2 complex (the 3 other being encoded by EZH1/2, EED and RBBP4/7). The complex has a methyltransferase activity, catalyzing addition of up to 3 methyl groups on histone 3 at lysine residue 27 (H3K27), leading to chromatin compaction and further to gene silencing.

Mutations in genes encoding 2 other core components of the PRC2 complex - namely EZH2 and EED - cause Weaver and Cohen-Gibson syndrome with overlapping phenotype incl. overgrowth, advanced bone age, craniofacial features and DD/ID.

The SET domain of EZH1/2 and EED as well as the VEFS domain of SUZ12 are contributing to the catalytic activity.

SUZ12 variants reported to date include missense and pLoF variants (frameshift, nonsense, splice site ones) predicted to disrupt or eliminate the VEFS-box domain [almost all missense within this domain with the exception of one proximal to it (Arg535Gln) / pLoF causing truncation prior or within this domain (Arg654Ter might be an exception)] {NP_056170.2}.

Variants either occurred de novo or were inherited (~1/3), on some occasions from a mildly affected parent. Parental mosaicism has also been reported (eg. in ref1, and one or possibly two additional families in ref3).

Some preliminary assumptions on possible genotype-phenotype correlations (for overgrowth and ID related to missense/pLoF variants) are discussed in ref3.

SUZ12 is also be deleted in some patients with NF1 deletion (and a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1). Deletion of SUZ12 has been proposed to contribute to the phenotype of these individuals (eg. overgrowth, cognitive development, facial features). [Discussed in ref1].

Functional studies have been carried out only in the first report (ref1) and demonstrated decreased trimethylation of H3K27 in the case of a missense variant. Overall a partial loss-of-function mechanism has been proposed for the variants.

Mouse models: A study by Pasini et al (PMID: 15385962) did not report phenotypic differences between wt and heterozygous Suz12 knockout mice (gene-trap vector) as for size, morphology and fertility. Total knockout resulted in embryonic lethality, significant growth retardation and several developmental defects. Loss of Suz12 was shown to result in absence of di- and tri-methylated H3K27 in the ko embryos. In another study cited (Miro et al - PMID: 19535498) heterozygous mice (replacement of exons 12-16 with a lacZ gene and neo cassette) displayed variable CNS defects with incomplete penetrance.

The role of the PRC2 complex and the phenotypes related to mutations in genes encoding its core components, are discussed in PMID: 31724824 (also by Cyrus et al, 2019).

SUZ12 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM. In G2P it is included in the DD panel associated with Weaver-like overgrowth syndrome (disease confidence : confirmed). The gene is also included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx).
Sources: Literature; to: ID can be a feature in individuals heterozygous for SUZ12 pathogenic variants. 13 affected individuals (from 12 families) have been reported:

[1] PMID 28229514 (Imagawa et al, 2017) : 1 individual
[2] PMID 30019515 (Imagawa et al, 2018) : 2 further unrelated subjects
[3] PMID 31736240 (Cyrus et al, 2019) : 10 additional subjects (from 9 families)

Reviewed by Cyrus et al, features observed in more than half of the (13) affected individuals included prenatal and/or postnatal overgrowth (in some only prenatal, others only postnatal, others did not manifest overgrowth at all), some suggestive facial features (eg. prominent forehead, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, round face, broad/low nasal bridge), DD and ID (the latter in 7/13, in most cases mild), advanced bone age, musculoskeletal abnormalities and cryptorchidism. Less frequent features included brain MRI abnormalities (eg. CC hypoplasia/agenesis, etc.), umbilical hernias, respiratory abnormalities, cardiac anomalies (in one).

All were diagnosed with WES/WGS/panel testing, with few having additional findings upon this or prior testing (eg. CNVs/SNVs).

SUZ12 encodes one of the 4 core proteins of the PRC2 complex (the 3 other being encoded by EZH1/2, EED and RBBP4/7). The complex has a methyltransferase activity, catalyzing addition of up to 3 methyl groups on histone 3 at lysine residue 27 (H3K27), leading to chromatin compaction and further to gene silencing.

Mutations in genes encoding 2 other core components of the PRC2 complex - namely EZH2 and EED - cause Weaver and Cohen-Gibson syndrome with overlapping phenotype incl. overgrowth, advanced bone age, craniofacial features and DD/ID.

The SET domain of EZH1/2 and EED as well as the VEFS domain of SUZ12 are contributing to the catalytic activity.

SUZ12 variants reported to date include missense and pLoF variants (frameshift, nonsense, splice site ones) predicted to disrupt or eliminate the VEFS-box domain [almost all missense within this domain with the exception of one proximal to it (Arg535Gln) / pLoF causing truncation prior or within this domain (Arg654Ter might be an exception)] {NP_056170.2}.

Variants either occurred de novo or were inherited (~1/3), on some occasions from a mildly affected parent. Parental mosaicism has also been reported (eg. in ref1, and one or possibly two additional families in ref3).

Some preliminary assumptions on possible genotype-phenotype correlations (for overgrowth and ID related to missense/pLoF variants) are discussed in ref3.

SUZ12 may also be deleted in some patients with NF1 deletion (and a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1). Deletion of SUZ12 has been proposed to contribute to the phenotype of these individuals (eg. overgrowth, cognitive development, facial features). [Discussed in ref1].

Functional studies have been carried out only in the first report (ref1) and demonstrated decreased trimethylation of H3K27 in the case of a missense variant. Overall a partial loss-of-function mechanism has been proposed for the variants.

Mouse models: A study by Pasini et al (PMID: 15385962) did not report phenotypic differences between wt and heterozygous Suz12 knockout mice (gene-trap vector) as for size, morphology and fertility. Total knockout resulted in embryonic lethality, significant growth retardation and several developmental defects. Loss of Suz12 was shown to result in absence of di- and tri-methylated H3K27 in the ko embryos. In another study cited (Miro et al - PMID: 19535498) heterozygous mice (replacement of exons 12-16 with a lacZ gene and neo cassette) displayed variable CNS defects with incomplete penetrance.

The role of the PRC2 complex and the phenotypes related to mutations in genes encoding its core components, are discussed in PMID: 31724824 (also by Cyrus et al, 2019).

SUZ12 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM. In G2P it is included in the DD panel associated with Weaver-like overgrowth syndrome (disease confidence : confirmed). The gene is also included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.0 SUZ12 Konstantinos Varvagiannis changed review comment from: ID can be a feature in individuals heterozygous for SUZ12 pathogenic variants. 13 affected individuals (from 12 families) have been reported:

[1] PMID 28229514 (Imagawa et al, 2017) : 1 individual
[2] PMID 30019515 (Imagawa et al, 2018) : 2 further unrelated subjects
[3] PMID 31736240 (Cyrus et al, 2019) : 10 newly diagnosed subjects (from 9 families)

Reviewed by Cyrus et al, features observed in more than half of the (13) affected individuals included prenatal and/or postnatal overgrowth (in some only prenatal, others only postnatal, others did not manifest overgrowth at all), some suggestive facial features (eg. prominent forehead, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, round face, broad/low nasal bridge), DD and ID (the latter in 7/13, in most cases mild), advanced bone age, musculoskeletal abnormalities and cryptorchidism. Less frequent features included brain MRI abnormalities (eg. CC hypoplasia/agenesis, etc.), umbilical hernias, respiratory abnormalities, cardiac anomalies (in one).

All were diagnosed with WES/WGS/panel testing, with few having additional findings upon this or prior testing (eg. CNVs/SNVs).

SUZ12 encodes one of the 4 core proteins of the PRC2 complex (the 3 other being encoded by EZH1/2, EED and RBBP4/7). The complex has a methyltransferase activity, catalyzing addition of up to 3 methyl groups on histone 3 at lysine residue 27 (H3K27), leading to chromatin compaction and further to gene silencing.

Mutations in genes encoding 2 other core components of the PRC2 complex - namely EZH2 and EED - cause Weaver and Cohen-Gibson syndrome with overlapping phenotype incl. overgrowth, advanced bone age, craniofacial features and DD/ID.

The SET domain of EZH1/2 and EED as well as the VEFS domain of SUZ12 are contributing to the catalytic activity.

SUZ12 variants reported to date include missense and pLoF variants (frameshift, nonsense, splice site ones) predicted to disrupt or eliminate the VEFS-box domain [almost all missense within this domain with the exception of one proximal to it (Arg535Gln) / pLoF causing truncation prior or within this domain (Arg654Ter might be an exception)] {NP_056170.2}.

Variants either occurred de novo or were inherited (~1/3), on some occasions from a mildly affected parent. Parental mosaicism has also been reported (eg. in ref1, and one or possibly two additional families in ref3).

Some preliminary assumptions on possible genotype-phenotype correlations (for overgrowth and ID related to missense/pLoF variants) are discussed in ref3.

SUZ12 is also be deleted in some patients with NF1 deletion (and a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1). Deletion of SUZ12 has been proposed to contribute to the phenotype of these individuals (eg. overgrowth, cognitive development, facial features). [Discussed in ref1].

Functional studies have been carried out only in the first report (ref1) and demonstrated decreased trimethylation of H3K27 in the case of a missense variant. Overall a partial loss-of-function mechanism has been proposed for the variants.

Mouse models: An study by Pasini et al (PMID: 15385962) did not report phenotypic differences between wt and heterozygous Suz12 knockout mice (gene-trap vector) as for size, morphology and fertility. Total knockout resulted in embryonic lethality, significant growth retardation and several developmental defects. Loss of Suz12 was shown to result in absence of di- and tri-methylated H3K27 in the ko embryos. In another study cited (Miro et al - PMID: 19535498) heterozygous mice (replacement of exons 12-16 with a lacZ gene and neo cassette) displayed variable CNS defects with incomplete penetrance.

The role of the PRC2 complex and the phenotypes related to mutations in genes encoding its core components, are discussed in PMID: 31724824 (also by Cyrus et al, 2019).

SUZ12 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM. In G2P it is included in the DD panel associated with Weaver-like overgrowth syndrome (disease confidence : confirmed). The gene is also included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx).
Sources: Literature; to: ID can be a feature in individuals heterozygous for SUZ12 pathogenic variants. 13 affected individuals (from 12 families) have been reported:

[1] PMID 28229514 (Imagawa et al, 2017) : 1 individual
[2] PMID 30019515 (Imagawa et al, 2018) : 2 further unrelated subjects
[3] PMID 31736240 (Cyrus et al, 2019) : 10 additional subjects (from 9 families)

Reviewed by Cyrus et al, features observed in more than half of the (13) affected individuals included prenatal and/or postnatal overgrowth (in some only prenatal, others only postnatal, others did not manifest overgrowth at all), some suggestive facial features (eg. prominent forehead, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, round face, broad/low nasal bridge), DD and ID (the latter in 7/13, in most cases mild), advanced bone age, musculoskeletal abnormalities and cryptorchidism. Less frequent features included brain MRI abnormalities (eg. CC hypoplasia/agenesis, etc.), umbilical hernias, respiratory abnormalities, cardiac anomalies (in one).

All were diagnosed with WES/WGS/panel testing, with few having additional findings upon this or prior testing (eg. CNVs/SNVs).

SUZ12 encodes one of the 4 core proteins of the PRC2 complex (the 3 other being encoded by EZH1/2, EED and RBBP4/7). The complex has a methyltransferase activity, catalyzing addition of up to 3 methyl groups on histone 3 at lysine residue 27 (H3K27), leading to chromatin compaction and further to gene silencing.

Mutations in genes encoding 2 other core components of the PRC2 complex - namely EZH2 and EED - cause Weaver and Cohen-Gibson syndrome with overlapping phenotype incl. overgrowth, advanced bone age, craniofacial features and DD/ID.

The SET domain of EZH1/2 and EED as well as the VEFS domain of SUZ12 are contributing to the catalytic activity.

SUZ12 variants reported to date include missense and pLoF variants (frameshift, nonsense, splice site ones) predicted to disrupt or eliminate the VEFS-box domain [almost all missense within this domain with the exception of one proximal to it (Arg535Gln) / pLoF causing truncation prior or within this domain (Arg654Ter might be an exception)] {NP_056170.2}.

Variants either occurred de novo or were inherited (~1/3), on some occasions from a mildly affected parent. Parental mosaicism has also been reported (eg. in ref1, and one or possibly two additional families in ref3).

Some preliminary assumptions on possible genotype-phenotype correlations (for overgrowth and ID related to missense/pLoF variants) are discussed in ref3.

SUZ12 is also be deleted in some patients with NF1 deletion (and a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1). Deletion of SUZ12 has been proposed to contribute to the phenotype of these individuals (eg. overgrowth, cognitive development, facial features). [Discussed in ref1].

Functional studies have been carried out only in the first report (ref1) and demonstrated decreased trimethylation of H3K27 in the case of a missense variant. Overall a partial loss-of-function mechanism has been proposed for the variants.

Mouse models: A study by Pasini et al (PMID: 15385962) did not report phenotypic differences between wt and heterozygous Suz12 knockout mice (gene-trap vector) as for size, morphology and fertility. Total knockout resulted in embryonic lethality, significant growth retardation and several developmental defects. Loss of Suz12 was shown to result in absence of di- and tri-methylated H3K27 in the ko embryos. In another study cited (Miro et al - PMID: 19535498) heterozygous mice (replacement of exons 12-16 with a lacZ gene and neo cassette) displayed variable CNS defects with incomplete penetrance.

The role of the PRC2 complex and the phenotypes related to mutations in genes encoding its core components, are discussed in PMID: 31724824 (also by Cyrus et al, 2019).

SUZ12 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM. In G2P it is included in the DD panel associated with Weaver-like overgrowth syndrome (disease confidence : confirmed). The gene is also included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.0 SUZ12 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: SUZ12 was added
gene: SUZ12 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: SUZ12 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: SUZ12 were set to 28229514; 30019515; 31736240; 15385962; 19535498; 31724824
Phenotypes for gene: SUZ12 were set to Overgrowth; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Accelerated skeletal maturation; Abnormality of the skeletal system; Abnormality of the genitourinary system; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Abnormality of the respiratory system; Abnormality of the abdominal wall
Penetrance for gene: SUZ12 were set to unknown
Review for gene: SUZ12 was set to GREEN
Added comment: ID can be a feature in individuals heterozygous for SUZ12 pathogenic variants. 13 affected individuals (from 12 families) have been reported:

[1] PMID 28229514 (Imagawa et al, 2017) : 1 individual
[2] PMID 30019515 (Imagawa et al, 2018) : 2 further unrelated subjects
[3] PMID 31736240 (Cyrus et al, 2019) : 10 newly diagnosed subjects (from 9 families)

Reviewed by Cyrus et al, features observed in more than half of the (13) affected individuals included prenatal and/or postnatal overgrowth (in some only prenatal, others only postnatal, others did not manifest overgrowth at all), some suggestive facial features (eg. prominent forehead, hypertelorism, downslanting palpebral fissures, round face, broad/low nasal bridge), DD and ID (the latter in 7/13, in most cases mild), advanced bone age, musculoskeletal abnormalities and cryptorchidism. Less frequent features included brain MRI abnormalities (eg. CC hypoplasia/agenesis, etc.), umbilical hernias, respiratory abnormalities, cardiac anomalies (in one).

All were diagnosed with WES/WGS/panel testing, with few having additional findings upon this or prior testing (eg. CNVs/SNVs).

SUZ12 encodes one of the 4 core proteins of the PRC2 complex (the 3 other being encoded by EZH1/2, EED and RBBP4/7). The complex has a methyltransferase activity, catalyzing addition of up to 3 methyl groups on histone 3 at lysine residue 27 (H3K27), leading to chromatin compaction and further to gene silencing.

Mutations in genes encoding 2 other core components of the PRC2 complex - namely EZH2 and EED - cause Weaver and Cohen-Gibson syndrome with overlapping phenotype incl. overgrowth, advanced bone age, craniofacial features and DD/ID.

The SET domain of EZH1/2 and EED as well as the VEFS domain of SUZ12 are contributing to the catalytic activity.

SUZ12 variants reported to date include missense and pLoF variants (frameshift, nonsense, splice site ones) predicted to disrupt or eliminate the VEFS-box domain [almost all missense within this domain with the exception of one proximal to it (Arg535Gln) / pLoF causing truncation prior or within this domain (Arg654Ter might be an exception)] {NP_056170.2}.

Variants either occurred de novo or were inherited (~1/3), on some occasions from a mildly affected parent. Parental mosaicism has also been reported (eg. in ref1, and one or possibly two additional families in ref3).

Some preliminary assumptions on possible genotype-phenotype correlations (for overgrowth and ID related to missense/pLoF variants) are discussed in ref3.

SUZ12 is also be deleted in some patients with NF1 deletion (and a diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1). Deletion of SUZ12 has been proposed to contribute to the phenotype of these individuals (eg. overgrowth, cognitive development, facial features). [Discussed in ref1].

Functional studies have been carried out only in the first report (ref1) and demonstrated decreased trimethylation of H3K27 in the case of a missense variant. Overall a partial loss-of-function mechanism has been proposed for the variants.

Mouse models: An study by Pasini et al (PMID: 15385962) did not report phenotypic differences between wt and heterozygous Suz12 knockout mice (gene-trap vector) as for size, morphology and fertility. Total knockout resulted in embryonic lethality, significant growth retardation and several developmental defects. Loss of Suz12 was shown to result in absence of di- and tri-methylated H3K27 in the ko embryos. In another study cited (Miro et al - PMID: 19535498) heterozygous mice (replacement of exons 12-16 with a lacZ gene and neo cassette) displayed variable CNS defects with incomplete penetrance.

The role of the PRC2 complex and the phenotypes related to mutations in genes encoding its core components, are discussed in PMID: 31724824 (also by Cyrus et al, 2019).

SUZ12 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM. In G2P it is included in the DD panel associated with Weaver-like overgrowth syndrome (disease confidence : confirmed). The gene is also included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1143 AFF3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis changed review comment from: Voisin et al. (2019 - https://doi.org/10.1101/693937) report on 10 individuals with de novo missense AFF3 variants affecting a 9-amino-acid sequence (degron) important for the protein's degradation and summarize the phenotype of an additional individual previously described by Steichen-Gersdorf et al. (2008 - PMID: 18616733) with a 500 kb affecting only AFF3 (LAF4) and removing also this sequence.

The phenotype of missense variants consisted of kidney anomalies, mesomelic dysplasia, seizures, hypertrichosis, intellectual disability and pulmonary problems and was overlapping with that of the deletion. [10 of 11 subjects exhibited severe developmental epileptic encephalopathy].

9 probands harbored missense variants affecting the codon 258 while one individual had a variant affecting codon 260 [c.772G>T or p.Ala258Ser (x2), c.772G>A or p.Ala258Thr (x6), c.773C>T or p.Ala258Val (x1) and c.779T>G or p.(Val260Gly) (x1) - NM_001025108.1 / NP_001020279.1]. The deletion removed exons 4-13.

AFF1-4 are ALF transcription factor paralogs, components of the transcriptional super elongation complex regulating expression of genes involved in neurogenesis and development.

Using HEK293T cells expressing FLAG-tagged AFF3 (and AFF4) wt or mutants, accumulation of mutated forms was shown upon immunoblot.

Aff3+/- and/or -/- mice exhibit skeletal defects. These were more pronounced in homozygous mice which demonstrated also some elements in favor of kidney dysfunction and/or metabolic deregulation and possible neurological dysfunction (signs of impaired hearing and diminished grip strength). Homozygous mice had CNS anomalies (enlarged lateral ventricles and decreased corpus callosum size) similar to some affected individuals, although these were not observed in another Aff3-/- model. Knock-in mice modeling the microdeletion and the Ala258Thr variant displayed lower mesomelic limb deformities and early lethality respectively [cited PMIDs : 21677750, 25660031, knock-in model was part of the present study].

Accumulation of the protein in zebrafish (by overexpression of the human wt AFF3 mRNA), led to morphological defects.

Reanalysis of transcriptome data from previously generated HEK293T cell lines knocked down for AFF2, AFF3 and AFF4 by shRNAs (study) suggested that these transcription factors are not redundant.

Finally, CHOPS syndrome (#616368) due to mutations of AFF4 also leading to increased protein stability presents a partially overlapping phenotype (incl. cognitive impairment) to that of AFF3.
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Shimizu et al. (8/2019 - PMID: 31388108) describe an additional individual with de novo AFF3 missense variant. The phenotype overlaps with that summarized by Voisin et al. incl. mesomelic dysplasia with additional skeletal anomalies, bilateral kidney hypoplasia and severe DD at the age of 2.5 years. Seizures and pulmonary problems were not observed. Although a different RefSeq is used the variant is among those also reported by Voisin et al. [NM_002285.2:c.697G>A (p.Ala233Thr) corresponding to NM_001025108.1:c.772G>A (p.Ala258Thr)].
----
In G2P, AFF3 is associated with Skeletal dysplasia with severe neurological disease (disease confidence : probable / ID and seizures among the assigned phenotypes). There is no associated phenotype in OMIM.
Some diagnostic laboratories include AFF3 in their ID panel (eg. among the many co-authors' affiliations GeneDx and Victorian Clinical Genetics - which was already listed as source for AFF3 in the current panel).
----
As a result this gene can be considered for upgrade to green (relevant phenotype and severity, sufficient cases, evidence for accumulation similar to AFF4, animal models, etc) or amber (pending publication of the article).

[Review modified to add additional reference/case report]; to: Voisin et al. (2019 - https://doi.org/10.1101/693937) report on 10 individuals with de novo missense AFF3 variants affecting a 9-amino-acid sequence (degron) important for the protein's degradation and summarize the phenotype of an additional individual previously described by Steichen-Gersdorf et al. (2008 - PMID: 18616733) with a 500 kb deletion affecting only AFF3 (LAF4) and removing also this sequence.

The phenotype of missense variants consisted of kidney anomalies, mesomelic dysplasia, seizures, hypertrichosis, intellectual disability and pulmonary problems and was overlapping with that of the deletion. [10 of 11 subjects exhibited severe developmental epileptic encephalopathy].

9 probands harbored missense variants affecting the codon 258 while one individual had a variant affecting codon 260 [c.772G>T or p.Ala258Ser (x2), c.772G>A or p.Ala258Thr (x6), c.773C>T or p.Ala258Val (x1) and c.779T>G or p.(Val260Gly) (x1) - NM_001025108.1 / NP_001020279.1]. The deletion removed exons 4-13.

AFF1-4 are ALF transcription factor paralogs, components of the transcriptional super elongation complex regulating expression of genes involved in neurogenesis and development.

Using HEK293T cells expressing FLAG-tagged AFF3 (and AFF4) wt or mutants, accumulation of mutated forms was shown upon immunoblot.

Aff3+/- and/or -/- mice exhibit skeletal defects. These were more pronounced in homozygous mice which demonstrated also some elements in favor of kidney dysfunction and/or metabolic deregulation and possible neurological dysfunction (signs of impaired hearing and diminished grip strength). Homozygous mice had CNS anomalies (enlarged lateral ventricles and decreased corpus callosum size) similar to some affected individuals, although these were not observed in another Aff3-/- model. Knock-in mice modeling the microdeletion and the Ala258Thr variant displayed lower mesomelic limb deformities and early lethality respectively [cited PMIDs : 21677750, 25660031, knock-in model was part of the present study].

Accumulation of the protein in zebrafish (by overexpression of the human wt AFF3 mRNA), led to morphological defects.

Reanalysis of transcriptome data from previously generated HEK293T cell lines knocked down for AFF2, AFF3 and AFF4 by shRNAs (study) suggested that these transcription factors are not redundant.

Finally, CHOPS syndrome (#616368) due to mutations of AFF4 also leading to increased protein stability presents a partially overlapping phenotype (incl. cognitive impairment) to that of AFF3.
----
Shimizu et al. (8/2019 - PMID: 31388108) describe an additional individual with de novo AFF3 missense variant. The phenotype overlaps with that summarized by Voisin et al. incl. mesomelic dysplasia with additional skeletal anomalies, bilateral kidney hypoplasia and severe DD at the age of 2.5 years. Seizures and pulmonary problems were not observed. Although a different RefSeq is used the variant is among those also reported by Voisin et al. [NM_002285.2:c.697G>A (p.Ala233Thr) corresponding to NM_001025108.1:c.772G>A (p.Ala258Thr)].
----
In G2P, AFF3 is associated with Skeletal dysplasia with severe neurological disease (disease confidence : probable / ID and seizures among the assigned phenotypes). There is no associated phenotype in OMIM.
Some diagnostic laboratories include AFF3 in their ID panel (eg. among the many co-authors' affiliations GeneDx and Victorian Clinical Genetics - which was already listed as source for AFF3 in the current panel).
----
As a result this gene can be considered for upgrade to green (relevant phenotype and severity, sufficient cases, evidence for accumulation similar to AFF4, animal models, etc) or amber (pending publication of the article).

[Review modified to add additional reference/case report]
Intellectual disability v2.1136 FA2H Rebecca Foulger Added comment: Comment on list classification: Upgraded from Amber to Green based on Green review by Alistair Pagnamenta: PMID:31135052 analysed a cohort of 19 cases with biallelic FA2H variants. Phenotype includes spastic paraplegia associated with ID: mild cognitive deficits were noted from childhood in 93% of cases, and were considered progressive in all but two cases.
Intellectual disability v2.1135 TRAPPC4 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: TRAPPC4 was added
gene: TRAPPC4 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: TRAPPC4 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: TRAPPC4 were set to 31794024
Phenotypes for gene: TRAPPC4 were set to Feeding difficulties; Progressive microcephaly; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Spastic tetraparesis; Abnormality of the face; Scoliosis; Cortical visual impairment; Hearing impairment
Penetrance for gene: TRAPPC4 were set to Complete
Review for gene: TRAPPC4 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Van Bergen et al. (2019 - PMID: 31794024) report on 7 affected individuals from 3 famillies (only 1 of which consanguineous), all homozygous for a TRAPPC4 splicing variant.

Overlapping features included feeding difficulties, progressive microcephaly, severe to profound developmental disability (7/7 - DD also prior to the onset of seizures / regression also reported in 3), epilepsy (7/7 - onset in the first year), spastic quadriparesis. Other findings in some/few incl. scoliosis, cortical visual and hearing impairment. Some facial features were shared (eg. bitemporal narrowing, long philtrum, open mouth with thin tented upper lip, pointed chin, etc). Brain imaging demonstrated abnormalities in those performed (among others cerebral with/without cerebellar atrophy).

Work-up prior to exome sequencing was normal (highly variable incl. metabolic testing, CMA, MECP2, CDKL5, mitochondrial depletion studies, etc).

Exome of affected individuals (and parents +/- affected sibs in some families) revealed a homozygous TRAPPC4 splicing variant [NM_016146.5:c.454+3A>G / chr11:g.118890966A>G (hg19)]. Sanger sequencing confirmed variant in affecteds, heterozygosity in parents and compatible genotypes with disease status in sibs/other members.

Families were of Caucasian/Turkish and French-Canadian ethnicities. SNP array to compare haplotypes between affecteds in 2 families did not reveal a shared haplotype (/founder effect) and the variant is present in gnomAD (68/281054 - no hmz) in many populations (European/Asian/African/Latino) [https://gnomad.broadinstitute.org/variant/11-118890966-A-G].

mRNA studies in fibroblasts from an affected individual confirmed the splicing defect (2 RT-PCR products corresponding to wt and a shorter due to skipping of exon 3, the latter further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The shorter transcript is not present in controls). qPCR revealed that the normal transript in patient fibroblasts was present at 6% of the level observed in control fibroblasts (or 54% in the case of a heterozygote parent compared to controls).

Western blot in patient fibroblasts, revealed presence of full-length protein in significantly reduced levels compared to fibroblasts from carrier parents or controls. There was no band using an antibody targeting the N-terminal region of the protein prior to exon 3, suggesting that NMD applies (skipping of ex3 is also predicted to lead to frameshift).

TRAPPC4 encodes one of the core proteins of the TRAPP complex. Use of different accessory proteins leads to formation of 2 distinct complexes (TRAPPII / III). The complex has an important role in intracellular trafficking. Both TRAPPII & TRAPPIII have a function in the secretory pathway, while complex III has a role also in autophagy. Core proteins are important for the complex stability. The TRAPP complex serves as a GEF for Ypt/Rab GTPases [several refs in article].

Mutations in genes for other proteins of the complex lead to neurodevelopmental disorders with associated ID ('TRAPPopathies' used by the authors / TRAPPC12, C6B, C9 green in the current panel).

Western blot suggested that levels of other TRAPP subunits (TRAPPC2 or C12) under denaturing conditions, although PAGE/size exclusion chromatography suggested that the levels of fully-assembled TRAPP complexes were lower in affected individuals.

Studies in patient fibroblasts showed a secretory defect (between ER, Golgi and the plasma membrane) which was restored upon lentiviral transduction with wt TRAPPC4 construct. Basal and starvation-induced autophagy were also impaired in patient fibroblasts (increased LC3 marker and LC3-positive structures / impaired co-localization with lysosomes) partly due to defective autophagosome formation (/sealing).

TRAPPC4 is the human orthologue of the yeast Trs23. In a yeast model of reduced Trs23 (due to temperature instability) the authors demonstrated impaired assembly of the TRAPP core. The yeast model recapitulated the autophagy as well as well as the secretory defect observed in patient fibroblasts.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1135 SNX27 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: SNX27 was added
gene: SNX27 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: SNX27 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: SNX27 were set to 25894286; 31721175; 21300787; 23524343
Phenotypes for gene: SNX27 were set to Generalized hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures
Penetrance for gene: SNX27 were set to Complete
Review for gene: SNX27 was set to GREEN
gene: SNX27 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Evidence from 2 publications suggests that DD, ID and seizures are part of the phenotype of individuals with biallelic SNX27 pathogenic variants :
---------
Damseh, Danson et al (2015 - PMID: 25894286) first reported on a consanguineous family with 4 affected sibs, homozygous for an SNX27 pathogenic variant. Features incl. hypotonia soon after birth, failure to thrive, severely delayed psychomotor development with no milestone acquisition, occurrence of myoclonic seizures with 3 individuals deceased early. Exome sequencing in one revealed a few candidate variants, with an SNX27 frameshift one [NM_030918.6:c.515_516del - p.(His172Argfs*6) / absent from ExAC] being the only retained following Sanger segregation studies. Using fibroblasts from an affected individual, Western blot with an antibody which would also bind prior to the truncation site, was consistent with dramatically reduced/absent SNX27 truncated mutant protein. Protein levels of VPS35, a component of the retromer responsible for direct cargo binding (not mediated by a cargo adaptor as SNX27), were normal.
---------
Parente et al (2019 - PMID: 31721175) reported on a 13-year-old male with motor and language delay, ADHD, ID (kindergarten academic level at the age of 13) and seizures with onset at the age of 9 years (GTC, with abnormal EEG and postical SV tachycardia). Variable physical findings were reported. White matter hyperintesities were noted upon initial brain MRI (but were less marked in subsequent ones). Initial genetic testing (Alexander's disease, CMA, FMR1) was normal. Exome revealed compound heterozygosity for 2 SNX27 variants (NM_030918.5/NM_001330723.1 both apply c.510C>G - p.Tyr170* and c.1295G>A - p.Cys432Tyr) each inherited from healthy carrier parents. There were no other potentially causative variants. A parental history of - isolated - late onset seizures was reported (so this individual may not be considered for the seizure phenotype here).

The authors also reported on a further 31-year old affected male. This individual had infantile hypotonia, poor eye contact with subsequent significant DD, seizures (febrile/afebrile T-C with onset at the age of 14m) and ID estimated in the severe range. Variable - though somewhat different - physical findings were reported. Initial work-up included basic metabolic testing, standard karyotype, FISH for 15q11 and subtelomeric regions and PHF6 genetic testing - all normal. Exome (and subsequent Sanger confirmation/parental studies) revealed compound heterozygosity for a missense and a frameshift variant (c.989G>A / p.Arg330His and c.782dupT / p.Leu262Profs*6 same in NM_001330723.1, NM_030918.6).
---------
SNX27 encodes sorting nexin 27, a cargo adaptor for the retromer. The latter is a multi-protein complex essential for regulating the retrieval and recycling of transmembrane cargos from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network or the plasma membrane [Lucas et al 2016 - PMID: 27889239 / McNally et al 2018 - PMID: 30072228].

As summarized by Parente et al, the encoded protein by regulating composition of the cell surface influences several processes eg. neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, Wnt signaling etc. It has been shown to interact with surface receptors and their ligands including GIRK channels, 5-HT4, ionotropic glutamate receptors (incl. NMDA- and AMPA-type receptors) and mGluR5 [several refs. provided].

Knockout of Snx27 in mice resulted in embryonic lethality (16% hmz of the 25% expected), severe postnatal growth retardation and death within the first 3 weeks. Snx27(+/-) mice have normal neuroanatomy but exhibit cognitive deficits (in learning and memory) and defects in synaptic function/plasticity with reduced amounts of NMDA and AMPA receptors (Cai et al - PMID: 21300787, Wang et al - PMID: 23524343).
---------
The gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx) and a current primary ID gene in SysID. There is no associated phenotype in OMIM/G2P.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1135 FA2H Alistair Pagnamenta reviewed gene: FA2H: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: PMID: 31135052, 20104589; Phenotypes: HSP, ID, Seizures; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.1135 SLC5A6 Konstantinos Varvagiannis changed review comment from: SLC5A6 encodes the sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), a transporter of biotin, pantothenate and lipoate. The transporter has a major role in vitamin uptake in the digestive system (among others is the sole transporter for intestinal uptake of biotin which is not synthesized and but must be obtained from exogenous sources) as well as transport across the blood-brain barrier (SMVT being responsible for 89% of biotin transport) [several refs provided by Subramanian et al and Byrne et al].

4 affected individuals from 3 families have been reported.

Subramanian et al (2017 - PMID: 27904971) et al reported on a girl with feeding difficulties and failure to thrive (requiring nasogastric tube placement), microcephaly, DD (at 15m developmental age corresponding to 6m with features suggestive of spastic cerebral palsy), occurrence of multiple infections, osteoporosis and pathologic bone fractures. MRIs suggested brain atrophy, thin CC and hypoplasia of the pons. Metabolic (AA, OA) investigations and array-CGH were normal. Whole exome sequencing revealed presence of a missense (Arg123Leu - RefSeq not provided) and a nonsense (Arg94Ter) SLC5A6 variant. Serum biotin was normal although - at the time - the child was on parenteral and G-T nutrition. Following administration of biotin, pantothenic acid and lipoic acid the child demonstrated among others improved motor and verbal skills, head growth and normalization of immunoglobulin levels. Transfection of mutants in human derived intestinal HuTu-80 cells and brain U87 cells was carried out and a 3H-biotin assay showed no induction in biotin uptake confirming impaired functionality of the transporter. While wt protein displayed normal expression/membrane localization, Arg94Ter was poorly expressed with ectopic localization (cytoplasm). Arg123Leu was retained predominantly intracellularly, probably in the ER as was further supported by colocalization with DsRed-ER. Evidence from the literature is provided that deficiencies of the specific vitamins explain the clinical features (DD, microcephaly, immunological defect, osteopenia, etc).

Schwantje et al (2019 - PMID: 31392107) described a girl with severe feeding problems, vomiting with blood (suspected Mallory-Weiss syndrome), poor weight gain and delayed gross motor development. The child presented an episode of gastroenteritis associated with reduced consciousness, circulatory insufficiency and metabolic derangement (hypoglycemia, severe metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, mild lactate elevation, ketonuria). Investigations some months prior to the admission (?) were suggestive of a metabolic disorder due to elevated plasma C3-carnitine, C5-OH-carnitine and elevated urinary excretion of 3-OH-isovaleric acid (biotinidase deficiency was considered in the DD but enzymatic activity was only marginally decreased). Biotin supplementation was initiated. Trio-exome sequencing (at 3yrs) demonstrated compound heterozygosity for 2 frameshift variants [NM_021095.2:c.422_423del / p.(Val141Alafs*34) and c.1865_1866del]. Following this result, increase of biotin supplementation and introduction of pantothenic acid, GI symptoms (incl. chronic diarrhea) resolved and the child displayed improved appetite and growth, yet a stable motor delay. The authors cite previous studies of conditional ko mice, displaying intestinal mucosal abnormalities and growth defects (similar to the child's problems), prevented by biotin and pantothenic acid supplementation.

Byrne et al (2019 - PMID: 31754459) reported on a sibling pair with severe motor/speech developmental regression following a plateau (at 12m and 14m), development of ataxia and dyskinetic movements (both), seizures (one). Feeding difficulties, reflux and failure to thrive required N-G/gastrostomy feeding while both presented GI hemorrhage (in the case of the older sib, lethal). Other features in the youngest sib included brain MRI abnormalities (cerebral/cerebellar atrophy, thin CC, etc) and IgG deficiency. Biochemical, single-gene testing and mtDNA sequencing were not diagnostic. Exome in one, revealed presence of a frameshift [c.422_423del as above] and a missense variant (Arg400Thr). Sanger sequencing confirmed variants in both sibs and heterozygosity in parents. HeLa cells transfected with empty vector, wt or mut expression constructs confirmed significantly decreased 3H-biotin uptake for mut constructs compared to wt (and similar to empty vector). Parenteral triple vitamin replacement at the age of ~7 years resulted in improved overall condition, regain of some milestones, attenuation of vomiting, and resolution of peripheral neuropathy. Seizure were well-controlled (as was the case before treatment) despite persistence of epileptiform discharges. Again the authors cite studies of conditional (intestine-specific) SLC5A6 ko mice, with those viable (~1/3) demonstrating growth retardation, decreased boned density and GI abnormalities (similar to affected individuals). The phenotype could be rescued by oversupplementation of biotin and pantothenic acid (PMIDs cited: 23104561, 29669219).

[Please consider inclusion in other relevant panels eg. metabolic disorders]
Sources: Literature; to: SLC5A6 encodes the sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), a transporter of biotin, pantothenate and lipoate. The transporter has a major role in vitamin uptake in the digestive system (among others is the sole transporter for intestinal uptake of biotin which is not synthesized but must be obtained from exogenous sources) as well as transport across the blood-brain barrier (SMVT being responsible for 89% of biotin transport) [several refs provided by Subramanian et al and Byrne et al].

4 affected individuals from 3 families have been reported.

Subramanian et al (2017 - PMID: 27904971) et al reported on a girl with feeding difficulties and failure to thrive (requiring nasogastric tube placement), microcephaly, DD (at 15m developmental age corresponding to 6m with features suggestive of spastic cerebral palsy), occurrence of multiple infections, osteoporosis and pathologic bone fractures. MRIs suggested brain atrophy, thin CC and hypoplasia of the pons. Metabolic (AA, OA) investigations and array-CGH were normal. Whole exome sequencing revealed presence of a missense (Arg123Leu - RefSeq not provided) and a nonsense (Arg94Ter) SLC5A6 variant. Serum biotin was normal although - at the time - the child was on parenteral and G-T nutrition. Following administration of biotin, pantothenic acid and lipoic acid the child demonstrated among others improved motor and verbal skills, head growth and normalization of immunoglobulin levels. Transfection of mutants in human derived intestinal HuTu-80 cells and brain U87 cells was carried out and a 3H-biotin assay showed no induction in biotin uptake confirming impaired functionality of the transporter. While wt protein displayed normal expression/membrane localization, Arg94Ter was poorly expressed with ectopic localization (cytoplasm). Arg123Leu was retained predominantly intracellularly, probably in the ER as was further supported by colocalization with DsRed-ER. Evidence from the literature is provided that deficiencies of the specific vitamins explain the clinical features (DD, microcephaly, immunological defect, osteopenia, etc).

Schwantje et al (2019 - PMID: 31392107) described a girl with severe feeding problems, vomiting with blood (suspected Mallory-Weiss syndrome), poor weight gain and delayed gross motor development. The child presented an episode of gastroenteritis associated with reduced consciousness, circulatory insufficiency and metabolic derangement (hypoglycemia, severe metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, mild lactate elevation, ketonuria). Investigations some months prior to the admission (?) were suggestive of a metabolic disorder due to elevated plasma C3-carnitine, C5-OH-carnitine and elevated urinary excretion of 3-OH-isovaleric acid (biotinidase deficiency was considered in the DD but enzymatic activity was only marginally decreased). Biotin supplementation was initiated. Trio-exome sequencing (at 3yrs) demonstrated compound heterozygosity for 2 frameshift variants [NM_021095.2:c.422_423del / p.(Val141Alafs*34) and c.1865_1866del]. Following this result, increase of biotin supplementation and introduction of pantothenic acid, GI symptoms (incl. chronic diarrhea) resolved and the child displayed improved appetite and growth, yet a stable motor delay. The authors cite previous studies of conditional ko mice, displaying intestinal mucosal abnormalities and growth defects (similar to the child's problems), prevented by biotin and pantothenic acid supplementation.

Byrne et al (2019 - PMID: 31754459) reported on a sibling pair with severe motor/speech developmental regression following a plateau (at 12m and 14m), development of ataxia and dyskinetic movements (both), seizures (one). Feeding difficulties, reflux and failure to thrive required N-G/gastrostomy feeding while both presented GI hemorrhage (in the case of the older sib, lethal). Other features in the youngest sib included brain MRI abnormalities (cerebral/cerebellar atrophy, thin CC, etc) and IgG deficiency. Biochemical, single-gene testing and mtDNA sequencing were not diagnostic. Exome in one, revealed presence of a frameshift [c.422_423del as above] and a missense variant (Arg400Thr). Sanger sequencing confirmed variants in both sibs and heterozygosity in parents. HeLa cells transfected with empty vector, wt or mut expression constructs confirmed significantly decreased 3H-biotin uptake for mut constructs compared to wt (and similar to empty vector). Parenteral triple vitamin replacement at the age of ~7 years resulted in improved overall condition, regain of some milestones, attenuation of vomiting, and resolution of peripheral neuropathy. Seizure were well-controlled (as was the case before treatment) despite persistence of epileptiform discharges. Again the authors cite studies of conditional (intestine-specific) SLC5A6 ko mice, with those viable (~1/3) demonstrating growth retardation, decreased boned density and GI abnormalities (similar to affected individuals). The phenotype could be rescued by oversupplementation of biotin and pantothenic acid (PMIDs cited: 23104561, 29669219).

[Please consider inclusion in other relevant panels eg. metabolic disorders]
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1135 SLC5A6 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: SLC5A6 was added
gene: SLC5A6 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: SLC5A6 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: SLC5A6 were set to 27904971; 31392107; 31754459; 23104561; 29669219
Phenotypes for gene: SLC5A6 were set to Feeding difficulties; Failure to thrive; Global developmental delay; Developmental regression; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Microcephaly; Cerebral atrophy; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Vomiting; Chronic diarrhea; Gastrointestinal hemorrhage; Abnormal immunoglobulin level; Osteopenia; Abnormality of metabolism/homeostasis
Penetrance for gene: SLC5A6 were set to Complete
Review for gene: SLC5A6 was set to GREEN
Added comment: SLC5A6 encodes the sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), a transporter of biotin, pantothenate and lipoate. The transporter has a major role in vitamin uptake in the digestive system (among others is the sole transporter for intestinal uptake of biotin which is not synthesized and but must be obtained from exogenous sources) as well as transport across the blood-brain barrier (SMVT being responsible for 89% of biotin transport) [several refs provided by Subramanian et al and Byrne et al].

4 affected individuals from 3 families have been reported.

Subramanian et al (2017 - PMID: 27904971) et al reported on a girl with feeding difficulties and failure to thrive (requiring nasogastric tube placement), microcephaly, DD (at 15m developmental age corresponding to 6m with features suggestive of spastic cerebral palsy), occurrence of multiple infections, osteoporosis and pathologic bone fractures. MRIs suggested brain atrophy, thin CC and hypoplasia of the pons. Metabolic (AA, OA) investigations and array-CGH were normal. Whole exome sequencing revealed presence of a missense (Arg123Leu - RefSeq not provided) and a nonsense (Arg94Ter) SLC5A6 variant. Serum biotin was normal although - at the time - the child was on parenteral and G-T nutrition. Following administration of biotin, pantothenic acid and lipoic acid the child demonstrated among others improved motor and verbal skills, head growth and normalization of immunoglobulin levels. Transfection of mutants in human derived intestinal HuTu-80 cells and brain U87 cells was carried out and a 3H-biotin assay showed no induction in biotin uptake confirming impaired functionality of the transporter. While wt protein displayed normal expression/membrane localization, Arg94Ter was poorly expressed with ectopic localization (cytoplasm). Arg123Leu was retained predominantly intracellularly, probably in the ER as was further supported by colocalization with DsRed-ER. Evidence from the literature is provided that deficiencies of the specific vitamins explain the clinical features (DD, microcephaly, immunological defect, osteopenia, etc).

Schwantje et al (2019 - PMID: 31392107) described a girl with severe feeding problems, vomiting with blood (suspected Mallory-Weiss syndrome), poor weight gain and delayed gross motor development. The child presented an episode of gastroenteritis associated with reduced consciousness, circulatory insufficiency and metabolic derangement (hypoglycemia, severe metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, mild lactate elevation, ketonuria). Investigations some months prior to the admission (?) were suggestive of a metabolic disorder due to elevated plasma C3-carnitine, C5-OH-carnitine and elevated urinary excretion of 3-OH-isovaleric acid (biotinidase deficiency was considered in the DD but enzymatic activity was only marginally decreased). Biotin supplementation was initiated. Trio-exome sequencing (at 3yrs) demonstrated compound heterozygosity for 2 frameshift variants [NM_021095.2:c.422_423del / p.(Val141Alafs*34) and c.1865_1866del]. Following this result, increase of biotin supplementation and introduction of pantothenic acid, GI symptoms (incl. chronic diarrhea) resolved and the child displayed improved appetite and growth, yet a stable motor delay. The authors cite previous studies of conditional ko mice, displaying intestinal mucosal abnormalities and growth defects (similar to the child's problems), prevented by biotin and pantothenic acid supplementation.

Byrne et al (2019 - PMID: 31754459) reported on a sibling pair with severe motor/speech developmental regression following a plateau (at 12m and 14m), development of ataxia and dyskinetic movements (both), seizures (one). Feeding difficulties, reflux and failure to thrive required N-G/gastrostomy feeding while both presented GI hemorrhage (in the case of the older sib, lethal). Other features in the youngest sib included brain MRI abnormalities (cerebral/cerebellar atrophy, thin CC, etc) and IgG deficiency. Biochemical, single-gene testing and mtDNA sequencing were not diagnostic. Exome in one, revealed presence of a frameshift [c.422_423del as above] and a missense variant (Arg400Thr). Sanger sequencing confirmed variants in both sibs and heterozygosity in parents. HeLa cells transfected with empty vector, wt or mut expression constructs confirmed significantly decreased 3H-biotin uptake for mut constructs compared to wt (and similar to empty vector). Parenteral triple vitamin replacement at the age of ~7 years resulted in improved overall condition, regain of some milestones, attenuation of vomiting, and resolution of peripheral neuropathy. Seizure were well-controlled (as was the case before treatment) despite persistence of epileptiform discharges. Again the authors cite studies of conditional (intestine-specific) SLC5A6 ko mice, with those viable (~1/3) demonstrating growth retardation, decreased boned density and GI abnormalities (similar to affected individuals). The phenotype could be rescued by oversupplementation of biotin and pantothenic acid (PMIDs cited: 23104561, 29669219).

[Please consider inclusion in other relevant panels eg. metabolic disorders]
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1134 CNOT3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: CNOT3: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28135719, 31201375, 24121232; Phenotypes: Intellectual developmental disorder with speech delay, autism, and dysmorphic facies, MIM 618672; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.1129 PNPT1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis changed review comment from: Biallelic PNPT1 pathogenic variants cause Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 13 (MIM 614932). Despite phenotypic variability - common to disorders resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction - DD and ID of relevant severity to the current panel have been reported in several individuals published in the literature. Seizures may also be observed.

Rius et al (2019 - PMID: 31752325) provide an overview of 24 affected individuals (7 new and 17 from previous studies). Neurodevelopmental features are summarized in fig.1 and additional details are provided in the supplement. Based on this review, seizures were present in 7 individuals (of the 18 for whom this information was available).

PNPT1 encodes the mitochondrial polynucleotide phosphorylase, involved in the import of nuclear-encoded RNA to mitochondria. Loss of its activity has been shown to result in combined respiratory chain deficiency. However, as discussed by Rius et al and previous articles as well, OXPHOS studies in affected individuals may be normal or suggestive of only mild impairement due to tissue specificity and different assay methods used (eg. spectrophotometric vs dipstick activity assays). The same applies to lactate which was normal or mildly elevated in some affected individuals.

Missense, pLoF function variants as well as a synonymous one leading to aberrant splicing (NM_033109.4:c.1818T>G) have been reported.

Overall, this gene might be considered for upgrade to green rating.; to: Biallelic PNPT1 pathogenic variants cause Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 13 (MIM 614932). Despite phenotypic variability - common to disorders resulting from mitochondrial dysfunction - DD and ID of relevant severity to the current panel have been reported in several individuals published in the literature. Seizures may also be observed.

Rius et al (2019 - PMID: 31752325) provide an overview of 24 affected individuals (7 new and 17 from previous studies). Neurodevelopmental features are summarized in fig.1 and additional details are provided in the supplement. Based on this review, seizures were present in 7 individuals (of the 18 for whom this information was available).

PNPT1 encodes the mitochondrial polynucleotide phosphorylase, involved in the import of nuclear-encoded RNA to mitochondria. Loss of its activity has been shown to result in combined respiratory chain deficiency. However, as discussed by Rius et al and previous articles as well, OXPHOS studies in affected individuals may be normal or suggestive of only mild impairment due to tissue specificity and different assay methods used (eg. spectrophotometric vs dipstick activity assays). The same applies to lactate which was normal or mildly elevated in some affected individuals.

Missense, pLoF function variants as well as a synonymous one leading to aberrant splicing (NM_033109.4:c.1818T>G) have been reported.

Overall, this gene might be considered for upgrade to green rating.
Intellectual disability v2.1129 PNPT1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: PNPT1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31752325; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.1127 ZNF292 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: ZNF292: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.1123 AP1B1 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: AP1B1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.1122 FDFT1 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: FDFT1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.1122 TMX2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis edited their review of gene: TMX2: Added comment: A recent report by Vandervore, Schot et al. following the previous review (Am J Hum Genet. 2019 Nov 12 - PMID: 31735293), provides further evidence that biallelic TMX2 mutations cause malformations of cortical development, microcephaly, DD and ID and epilepsy.

As a result this gene should probably be considered for inclusion in the ID/epilepsy panels with green rating.

Overall, 14 affected subjects from 10 unrelated families are reported in the aforementioned study. The majority had severe DD/ID (failure to achieve milestones, absent speech/ambulation and signs of cerebral palsy) with few having a somewhat milder impairment. 12 (of the 14) presented with epilepsy (spasms, myoclonic seizures, focal seizures with/without generalization or generalized tonic-clonic seizures) with onset most often in early infancy. Upon brain MRI (in 12 individuals), 5 presented polymicrogyria, 2 others pachygyria, 4 with brain atrophy, etc.

All individuals were found to harbor biallelic TMX2 mutations by exome sequencing while previous investigations in several had ruled out alternative causes (infections, metabolic or chromosomal anomalies). Missense variants, an in-frame deletion as well as pLoF (stopgain/frameshift) variants were reported. [NM_015959.3 used as ref below].

The effect of variants was supported by mRNA studies, eg. RT-qPCR/allele specific RT-qPCR. The latter proved reduced expression for a frameshift variant (c.391dup / p.Leu131Profs*6) most likely due to NMD. Total mRNA levels were also 23% lower in an individual compound htz for a missense variant and a stopgain one localized in the last exon (c.757C>T / p.Arg253*). As for the previously reported c.614G>A (p.Arg205Gln), affecting the last nucleotide of exon 6, total mRNA in skin fibroblasts from a homozygous individual was not significantly decreased. RNA-Seq however demonstrated the presence of 4 different transcripts (roughly 25% each), one representing the regular mRNA, one with intron 6 retention (also present at low levels in healthy individuals), one with loss of 11 nucleotides within exon 6 and a fourth one due to in-frame skipping of exon 6.

*To the best of my understanding :

Thioredoxin (TRX)-related transmembrane proteins (TMX) belong to the broader family of oxidoreductases of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) having an important role in protein folding.

Study of the data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas suggest relevant fetal expression also increasing during postnatal life.

As RNA-seq was carried out for 2 individuals, GO analysis suggested that the most deregulated clusters of genes are implicated in post-translational protein modifications (as would be expected for PDIs), membranes and synapse while pathway analysis suggested that relevant categories were inhibited eg. nervous system development/function and cell growth/proliferation/survival.

Upon transfection of HEK293T cells, exogenous TMX2 was shown to co-localize with calnexin (CNX) to the (ER) mitochondria-associated-membrane. Mass-spectrometry based analysis of co-immunoprecipitated proteins confirmed interaction with CNX but also other regulators of calcium homeostasis, mitochondrial membrane components and respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase.

Study of the mitochondrial activity of TMX2-deficient fibroblasts suggested reduced respiratory reserve capacity, compensated by increased glycolytic activity.

TMX2 occurs in both reduced and oxidized monomeric form. It also forms (homo)dimers with the ratio of dimers/monomers increasing under conditions of oxidative stress. Variant TMX2 increased propensity to form dimers, thus mimicking increased oxidative state. This was observed under stress but also under native conditions.

---------; Changed rating: GREEN
Intellectual disability v2.1119 IQSEC1 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: IQSEC1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31607425; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.1117 SVBP Catherine Snow reviewed gene: SVBP: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Neurodevelopmental disorder with ataxia, hypotonia, and microcephaly, 618569; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.1115 KCNT2 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on mode of pathogenicity: Variants have gain-of-function effect.
Intellectual disability v2.1115 KCNT2 Ivone Leong Mode of pathogenicity for gene: KCNT2 was changed from None to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Intellectual disability v2.1102 DMXL2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis changed review comment from: This gene can be considered for upgrade to green rating (ID and epilepsy with >=4 relevant individuals/families/variants and >=2 studies, role of the protein, effect of variants in most cases demonstrated, phenotypic similarities with other disorders affecting autophagy, some evidence from animal models, etc).

Rare heterozygous variants disrupting DMXL2 (intragenic losses/gains, SNVs, CNVs affecting also additional genes) have been reported in individuals with variable neurodevelopmental disorders (ASD and ID) or psychiatric phenotypes [Costain et al. 2019 - PMID: 30732576 - summarized in Table 1]. (Highly) variable expressivity and possibly incomplete penetrance were proposed in the respective study. As a result evidence for ID/seizures due to monoallelic variants appears to be relatively limited.

DD, ID and (probably) epilepsy appear however to be features in several individuals with biallelic pathogenic variants as summarized in the studies below.

OMIM recently added a relevant entry with the DMXL2-associated phenotypes being the following:
- Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 81; EIEE81 - 618663 (AD) [based on refs 2,3]
- ?Deafness, autosomal dominant 71 - 617605 (AD) [DD/ID/seizures are not part of the phenotype]
- ?Polyendocrine-polyneuropathy syndrome - 616113 (AR) [based on ref1]

DMXL2 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P. In SysID it is listed as a candidate ID gene based on the report by Tata et al (ref1). This gene is included in some gene panels for ID.

[1] Tata el al. (2014 - PMID: 25248098) reported on 3 sibs born to consanguineous Senegalese parents, presenting with a progressive endocrine and neurodevelopmental disorder. Features incl. incomplete puberty, central hypothyroidism, abnormal glucose regulation, moderate ID (3/3) and peripheral polyneuropathy. Seizures were not part of the phenotype. Linkage analysis suggested 2 candidate regions on chromosomes 13 and 15 with a LOD score of 2.5. High throughput sequencing of genes within these regions (~500) in an affected member and parent revealed a 15 bp in-frame deletion of DMXL2 (NM_015263.4:c.5827_5841del / p.Asp1943_Ser1947del). Sanger sequencing of other affected and unaffected members supported AR inheritance. RT-qPCR demonstrated that DMXL2 mRNA levels in blood lymphocytes were significantly lower in homozygous patients compared to heterozygous or wt family members or controls. The authors demonstrated that the encoded protein (rabconnectin-3a) is a synaptic protein (expressed in exocytosis vesicles) at the ends of axons of GnRH producing neurons. Neuron-specific deletion of one allele in mice resulted in delayed puberty and very low fertility. Adult mice had lower number of GnRH neurons in hypothalamus. siRNA-mediated downregulation of Dmxl2 expression in an insulin-secreting cell line resulted in only slight insulin secretion in response to augmenting concentrations of glucose, providing evidence of involvement of the protein in control of regulated insulin secretion.
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[2] Maddirevula et al. (2019 - PMID: 30237576) reported briefly on a 36 months old boy, born to consanguineous parents, homozygous for a frameshift DMXL2 variant [individual 17-3220 | NM_001174117.1:c.4349_4350insTTACATGA or p.(Glu1450Aspfs*23)]. Features included focal seizures (onset at the age of 3m) with subsequent global DD, absent eye contact, cerebral atrophy and macrocephaly. This individual was identified following re-evaluation of exome data in a database of ~1550 exomes specifically for homozygous variants that would have been classified earlier as LP/P if the respective gene had sufficient evidence for association with a disorder. The family was not reported to have other affected members. As the authors noted, the boy was not known to have the multi-endocrine abnormalities reported by Tata et al. There are no additional information provided (eg. on confirmation of variants, etc).
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[3] Esposito et al. (2019 - PMID: 31688942) report on 3 sibling pairs (all 3 families unrelated) with biallelic DMXL2 mutations and summarize previous evidence on the gene and the DMXL2-related phenotypes.

All presented a highly similar phenotype of Ohtahara syndrome (seizures with onset in the first days of life, tonic/myoclonic/occasionaly focal, burst-suppression upon EEG), profound DD/ID, quadriparesis, sensorineural hearing loss and presence of dysmorphic features. Sibs from 2 families presented evidence of peripheral polyneuropathy. Early brain MRIs revealed thin CC and hypomyelination in all, with later scans suggestive of gray and white matter shrinkage with leukoencephalopathy. None achieved developmental skills following birth with 5/6 deceased by the age of 9 years.

Exome sequencing revealed biallelic DMXL2 variants in all, with compatible parental segregation studies (NM_015263.3):
- Fam1 (2 sibs) : c.5135C>T (p.Ala1712Val) in trans with c.4478C>G (p.Ser1493*)
- Fam2 (2 sibs) : homozygosity for c.4478C>A (p.Ser1493*)
- Fam3 (2 sibs) : homozygosity for c.7518-1G>A

Heterozygous parents (aged 39-59) did not exhibit hearing impairment [report of a single multigenerational family by Chen et al (2017 - PMID: 27657680) where a heterozygous missense variant segregated with hearing loss - respective OMIM entry: ?Deafness, autosomal dominant 71 - 617605].

In patients' fibroblasts, effect of the variants on mRNA/protein expression was demonstrated with mRNA expressed only in a patient from family 1, and degraded/absent for the 2 stopgain SNVs affecting codon 1493. Skipping of ex31 leading to frameshift/introduction of a PTC was shown for the splice variant (p.Trp2508Argfs*4 secondary to c.7518-1G>A). Protein was also absent upon western-blot.

DMXL2 encodes a vesicular protein, DmX-Like protein 2 or rabconnectin-3a (cited Tata et al).

The gene is expressed in brain ( https://www.gtexportal.org/home/gene/DMXL2 ).

As Esposito et al comment, it is known to regulate the trafficking and activity of v-ATPase the latter having a role in acidifying intracellular organelles and promoting endosomal maturation (cited PMIDs : 25248098, 19758563, 22875945, 24802872).

In line with this, staining of patients' fibroblasts using the acidotropic dye LysoTracker demonstrated increased signal, reversed by re-expression of DMXL2 protein. Overall an acidic shift in pH with impairment of lysosomal structures and function was suggested. The authors provided additional evidence for altered lysosomal function and associated autophagy with accumulation of autophagy receptors (eg p62) and substrates (polyubiquitinated proteins). Vacuolization and accumulation of atypical fusion-like structures was shown upon ultrastractural analysis.

shRNA-mediated downregulation/silencing of Dmxl2 in mouse hippocampal neurons resulted also in altered lysosomal structures and defective autophagy. The neurons exhibited impaired neurite elongation and synapse formation.

The authors suggest similarities with Vici syndrome, where biallelic EPG5 mutations result in autophagic defects and clinical manifestations of DD/ID/epilepsy.

Dmxl2 homozygous ko mice display embryonic lethality with heterozygous mice displaying macrocephaly and corpus callosum dysplasia (cited PMIDs: 25248098, 30735494) .; to: This gene can be considered for upgrade to green rating (ID and epilepsy with >=4 relevant individuals/families/variants and >=2 studies, role of the protein, effect of variants in most cases demonstrated, phenotypic similarities with other disorders affecting autophagy, some evidence from animal models, etc).

Rare heterozygous variants disrupting DMXL2 (intragenic losses/gains, SNVs, CNVs affecting also additional genes) have been reported in individuals with variable neurodevelopmental disorders (ASD and ID) or psychiatric phenotypes [Costain et al. 2019 - PMID: 30732576 - summarized in Table 1]. (Highly) variable expressivity and possibly incomplete penetrance were proposed in the respective study. As a result evidence for ID/seizures due to monoallelic variants appears to be relatively limited.

DD, ID and (probably) epilepsy appear however to be features in several individuals with biallelic pathogenic variants as summarized in the studies below.

OMIM recently added a relevant entry with the DMXL2-associated phenotypes being the following:
- Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 81; EIEE81 - 618663 (AR) [based on refs 2,3]
- ?Deafness, autosomal dominant 71 - 617605 (AD) [DD/ID/seizures are not part of the phenotype]
- ?Polyendocrine-polyneuropathy syndrome - 616113 (AR) [based on ref1]

DMXL2 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P. In SysID it is listed as a candidate ID gene based on the report by Tata et al (ref1). This gene is included in some gene panels for ID.

[1] Tata el al. (2014 - PMID: 25248098) reported on 3 sibs born to consanguineous Senegalese parents, presenting with a progressive endocrine and neurodevelopmental disorder. Features incl. incomplete puberty, central hypothyroidism, abnormal glucose regulation, moderate ID (3/3) and peripheral polyneuropathy. Seizures were not part of the phenotype. Linkage analysis suggested 2 candidate regions on chromosomes 13 and 15 with a LOD score of 2.5. High throughput sequencing of genes within these regions (~500) in an affected member and parent revealed a 15 bp in-frame deletion of DMXL2 (NM_015263.4:c.5827_5841del / p.Asp1943_Ser1947del). Sanger sequencing of other affected and unaffected members supported AR inheritance. RT-qPCR demonstrated that DMXL2 mRNA levels in blood lymphocytes were significantly lower in homozygous patients compared to heterozygous or wt family members or controls. The authors demonstrated that the encoded protein (rabconnectin-3a) is a synaptic protein (expressed in exocytosis vesicles) at the ends of axons of GnRH producing neurons. Neuron-specific deletion of one allele in mice resulted in delayed puberty and very low fertility. Adult mice had lower number of GnRH neurons in hypothalamus. siRNA-mediated downregulation of Dmxl2 expression in an insulin-secreting cell line resulted in only slight insulin secretion in response to augmenting concentrations of glucose, providing evidence of involvement of the protein in control of regulated insulin secretion.
-----------
[2] Maddirevula et al. (2019 - PMID: 30237576) reported briefly on a 36 months old boy, born to consanguineous parents, homozygous for a frameshift DMXL2 variant [individual 17-3220 | NM_001174117.1:c.4349_4350insTTACATGA or p.(Glu1450Aspfs*23)]. Features included focal seizures (onset at the age of 3m) with subsequent global DD, absent eye contact, cerebral atrophy and macrocephaly. This individual was identified following re-evaluation of exome data in a database of ~1550 exomes specifically for homozygous variants that would have been classified earlier as LP/P if the respective gene had sufficient evidence for association with a disorder. The family was not reported to have other affected members. As the authors noted, the boy was not known to have the multi-endocrine abnormalities reported by Tata et al. There are no additional information provided (eg. on confirmation of variants, etc).
-----------
[3] Esposito et al. (2019 - PMID: 31688942) report on 3 sibling pairs (all 3 families unrelated) with biallelic DMXL2 mutations and summarize previous evidence on the gene and the DMXL2-related phenotypes.

All presented a highly similar phenotype of Ohtahara syndrome (seizures with onset in the first days of life, tonic/myoclonic/occasionaly focal, burst-suppression upon EEG), profound DD/ID, quadriparesis, sensorineural hearing loss and presence of dysmorphic features. Sibs from 2 families presented evidence of peripheral polyneuropathy. Early brain MRIs revealed thin CC and hypomyelination in all, with later scans suggestive of gray and white matter shrinkage with leukoencephalopathy. None achieved developmental skills following birth with 5/6 deceased by the age of 9 years.

Exome sequencing revealed biallelic DMXL2 variants in all, with compatible parental segregation studies (NM_015263.3):
- Fam1 (2 sibs) : c.5135C>T (p.Ala1712Val) in trans with c.4478C>G (p.Ser1493*)
- Fam2 (2 sibs) : homozygosity for c.4478C>A (p.Ser1493*)
- Fam3 (2 sibs) : homozygosity for c.7518-1G>A

Heterozygous parents (aged 39-59) did not exhibit hearing impairment [report of a single multigenerational family by Chen et al (2017 - PMID: 27657680) where a heterozygous missense variant segregated with hearing loss - respective OMIM entry: ?Deafness, autosomal dominant 71 - 617605].

In patients' fibroblasts, effect of the variants on mRNA/protein expression was demonstrated with mRNA expressed only in a patient from family 1, and degraded/absent for the 2 stopgain SNVs affecting codon 1493. Skipping of ex31 leading to frameshift/introduction of a PTC was shown for the splice variant (p.Trp2508Argfs*4 secondary to c.7518-1G>A). Protein was also absent upon western-blot.

DMXL2 encodes a vesicular protein, DmX-Like protein 2 or rabconnectin-3a (cited Tata et al).

The gene is expressed in brain ( https://www.gtexportal.org/home/gene/DMXL2 ).

As Esposito et al comment, it is known to regulate the trafficking and activity of v-ATPase the latter having a role in acidifying intracellular organelles and promoting endosomal maturation (cited PMIDs : 25248098, 19758563, 22875945, 24802872).

In line with this, staining of patients' fibroblasts using the acidotropic dye LysoTracker demonstrated increased signal, reversed by re-expression of DMXL2 protein. Overall an acidic shift in pH with impairment of lysosomal structures and function was suggested. The authors provided additional evidence for altered lysosomal function and associated autophagy with accumulation of autophagy receptors (eg p62) and substrates (polyubiquitinated proteins). Vacuolization and accumulation of atypical fusion-like structures was shown upon ultrastractural analysis.

shRNA-mediated downregulation/silencing of Dmxl2 in mouse hippocampal neurons resulted also in altered lysosomal structures and defective autophagy. The neurons exhibited impaired neurite elongation and synapse formation.

The authors suggest similarities with Vici syndrome, where biallelic EPG5 mutations result in autophagic defects and clinical manifestations of DD/ID/epilepsy.

Dmxl2 homozygous ko mice display embryonic lethality with heterozygous mice displaying macrocephaly and corpus callosum dysplasia (cited PMIDs: 25248098, 30735494) .
Intellectual disability v2.1102 DMXL2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: DMXL2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 25248098, 30237576, 31688942; Phenotypes: Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 81, MIM 618663, ?Polyendocrine-polyneuropathy syndrome, MIM 616113; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.1098 ZNF292 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: ZNF292 was added
gene: ZNF292 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen,Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: ZNF292 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: ZNF292 were set to 31723249; 29904178
Phenotypes for gene: ZNF292 were set to Intellectual disability; Autism; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Abnormality of the face; Abnormal muscle tone; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Growth abnormality; Feeding difficulties; Abnormality of the skeletal system; Abnormality of the cardiovascular system; Microcephaly; Seizures
Penetrance for gene: ZNF292 were set to Incomplete
Review for gene: ZNF292 was set to GREEN
gene: ZNF292 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Mirzaa et al. (2019 - PMID: 31723249) report on 28 individuals (from 27 families) with putatively pathogenic ZNF292 variants.

Main features consisted of DD and ID (27/28 - mild in 40%, moderate in 22%, severe in 11%) with or without ASD and ADHD. A single individual had no evidence of ID but had speech delay and ASD at the age of 6. Additional features (by diminishing order of frequency) included presence of non-specific dysmorphic features (~45%), abnormal tone, brain MRI abnormalities, growth failure, feeding difficulties, skeletal and cardiac anomalies, microcephaly and epilepsy (~11%).

As the authors comment, ZNF292 encodes a zinc finger protein, acting as a transcription factor.

Evidence is provided that gene has high expression in the developing human brain, with its expression being higher in prenatal development and diminishing postnatally. Znf292 is also expressed in adult mouse brain (highest in hippocampus/Purkinje cells).

Variants were identified by exome or targeted panel sequencing (targeted capture/molecular inversion probes). Previous investigations (eg. aCGH, analysis of relevant genes) had probably ruled out alternative causes in most with few having VUS or possibly relevant additional variants (eg. a KDM5C stopgain variant in a male).

24 putatively pathogenic variants were observed in this cohort, all predicting LoF (stopgain, frameshift or splice variants). All were de novo with the exception of one family where the variant was inherited from an affected parent. Almost all were absent from gnomAD and had CADD scores > 35.

Most variants lied within the last and largest exon that encodes a DNA binding domain. RT-PCR on RNA from 2 individuals harboring such variants confirmed that NMD does not apply. This exon however represents ~88% of the total coding length so the distribution of variants in this (NMD escaping) region was consistent with what would also be expected by chance.

ZNF292 has a pLI of 1 in gnomAD. Manual review of some relevant LoF variants in gnomAD suggested that they represent false positive calls.

As a result, the effect of variants is not clear although haploinsufficiency is still possible based also on phenotype of (larger) deletions spanning this gene (cited: Engwerda et al - PMID: 29904178 / The study focuses on deletions of the broader 6q. A possible role of ZNF292 is discussed as autism was present in 4/10 individuals with deletions encompassing this gene).

Based on the aforementioned cohort with one individual being diagnosed with mild ID only as an adult and/or presence of 5 pLoF variants in gnomAD the authors propose that some variants may be incompletely penetrant or associated with only mild features.

Finally, 15 additional individuals (belonging to 12 families) harbored variants for which pathogenicity was suspected (but could not be concluded) due to insufficient phenotypic information, lack of sufficient parental studies or missense variants. In this cohort variants were mostly pLoF, while 3 individuals (incl. 2 sibs) had a de novo missense SNV.
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Other studies were not here reviewed as some of the individuals reported were published previously in larger cohorts.
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There is no associated phenotype in OMIM / G2P. SysID includes this gene among the candidate ID ones.
ZNF292 is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc and GeneDx).
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Overall ZNF292 could be added to the ID panel probably with green (or amber) rating.

[Please consider inclusion in other possibly relevant panels eg. autism, epilepsy]
Sources: Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1098 CNOT2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: CNOT2 was added
gene: CNOT2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Mode of inheritance for gene: CNOT2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: CNOT2 were set to 31512373; 31145527; 28135719; 28159701; 30768759; 21505450; 18076123; 22247066
Phenotypes for gene: CNOT2 were set to Intellectual developmental disorder with nasal speech, dysmorphic facies, and variable skeletal anomalies, MIM 618608
Penetrance for gene: CNOT2 were set to unknown
Review for gene: CNOT2 was set to GREEN
gene: CNOT2 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Heterozygous pathogenic CNOT2 variants cause Intellectual developmental disorder with nasal speech, dysmorphic facies, and variable skeletal anomalies (MIM 618608 - recently added disorder in OMIM). Larger 12q15 deletions, spanning CNOT2 have been reported in patients with similar phenotype.

Relevant individuals - most discussed below - include 2 patients with truncating de novo mutation, 1 with de novo intragenic deletion, few with small deletions spanning also 2-3 additional proximal genes and others with larger 12q15 deletions encompassing CNOT2 and several other genes.

Overall the phenotype - summarized by Uehara et al. (Ref1 - below) - seems to consist of language delay, mild motor delay (in most), some suggestive facial features (upslanted palpebral fissures, anteverted nares, thin upper lip and micrognathia). Nasal speech has also been reported in some individuals.

As commented by Uehara et al. (Ref1), CNOT2 (CCR4-NOT transcription complex subunit 2) is a member of the carbon catabolite repressor 4 complex (CCR4-NOT), the latter having an important role in deadenylation of mRNA and global mRNA expression. Disruption of the complex - which can be caused by loss of one of its components - results in various human disorders incl. neural diseases. siRNA CNOT2 depletion has been shown to induce CCR4-NOT disruption (cited PMIDs: 16284618, 29438013, 31006510, 21299754).

The type of variants (truncating, intragenic deletion, larger deletions) and the highly overlapping phenotypes in the respective patients suggest happloinsufficiency as the underlying mechanism. CNOT2 has also a pLI of 1 in gnomAD (o/e =0.06) and a %HI in Decipher of 4.39.

The gene appears to have relevant expression (https://www.proteinatlas.org/ENSG00000111596-CNOT2/tissue).
Animal models have not been discussed (or phenotypes possibly not sufficiently studied - MGI for Cnot2 : http://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:1919318).

CNOT2 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P. It is listed among the ID candidate genes in SysID.
This gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc).

Overall CNOT2 could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel with amber (DD although outcome is not known, presumed dysfunction of the CCR4-NOT complex, variant studies or animal models not available) or green rating (sufficient cases and variants, consistent phenotype).
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Individuals with CNOT2-only disruption:
[1] PMID: 31512373 (Uehara et al., 2019) - A 6 y.o. male investigated for hypotonia, feeding problems, DD (speech and motor), macrocephaly (+3 SD) and some possibly suggestive facial/other features was found to harbor a de novo stopgain variant (NM_001199302.1: c.946A>T, p.Lys316Ter) after trio exome sequencing. The variant and its de novo occurrence were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. NMD was the predicted effect (variant in ex11 of 21 / effect not further studied). Previous metabolic work-up and chromosomal testing had not revealed an alternative diagnosis.
[2] PMID: 31145527 (Alesi et al. 2019) - A 13 y.o. boy with hypotonia, failure to thrive, DD and following a specific schooling program for children with learning difficulties is reported. The authors comment on the facial phenotype (incl. upslanted p-f, anteverted nares, etc). Other features included valvular/supravalvular pulm. stenosis, mid aortic insufficiency, renal anomalies/failure, skeletal anomalies. Speech was nasal. CMA revealed an 85-kb 12q15 deletion spanning only CNOT2 (exons 3-15). Real-time PCR in proband and parents confirmed the variant and its de novo occurrence.
[3] PMID: 28135719 (DDD study, 2017) - An individual with developmental disorder and a de novo (validated) frameshift variant was identified [DDD4K.00807 - NM_014515.5:c.1158del / p.(L387Sfs*3)]. Phenotype in Decipher incl. abnormality of head/neck, nervous, skeletal system and growth. [https://decipher.sanger.ac.uk/ddd/research-variant/16b4f7866652f08e25a194f65535b4c5#overview].

Individuals with disruption of additional proximal genes due to CNVs:
[4] PMID: 28159701 (Alesi et al. 2017) - The authors report on a 29 y.o. individual with history of DD, learning difficulties, ID (WAIS-R IQ of 48 at the age of 17 y), some dysmorphic facial features. Additional features incl. recurrent infections, nasal voice as well as skeletal anomalies. CMA revealed a 742 kb microdeletion spanning CNOT2, KCNMB4 and PTPRB. Real-time PCR confirmed deletion and it's de novo occurrence in the proband.
[5] PMID: 30768759 (Uehara et al. 2019) - A female investigated among others for global DD (walking/1st words at 24m), mild ID, submucosal cleft palate with some distinctive facial features (upslanted p-f, micrognathia, etc) was found to harbor a 1.32-Mb deletion of 12q15 encompassing CNOT2 and 14 other genes. Given the phenotypic resemblance to patients with 12q15 deletions, the previously defined smallest region of overlap (ref 4,6), the LoF SNV in Decipher the authors suggested that CNOT2 is the critical gene for the phenotype of 12q15 deletion syndrome.

Larger deletions defining the smallest region of overlap
[6] PMID: 21505450 (Vergult et al. 2011) - 3 patients with de novo microdeletions of ~ 2.5 Mb in size with a 1.34 MB common region of overlap are reported. Learning diability, DD, nasal speech and hypothyroidism were among the common features.
[7] PMID: 18076123 (Schluth et al. 2008) - A girl with large (~10 Mb) de novo deletion of 12q15 - q21.2 identified by BAC array was described. The phenotype consisted of hypotonia, DD, moderate ID, growth delay and facial dysmorphic features.
[8] PMID: 22247066 (Lopez et al. 2012) - A patient with ID and features of Floating-Harbor syndrome was found to harbor a 4.7 Mb de novo 12q15-q21.1 deletion spanning CNOT2 and 18 additional genes.
[..]
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Intellectual disability v2.1098 TMX2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: TMX2 was added
gene: TMX2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: TMX2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: TMX2 were set to 31586943; 31270415
Phenotypes for gene: TMX2 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Microcephaly; Abnormal cortical gyration
Penetrance for gene: TMX2 were set to Complete
Review for gene: TMX2 was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 31586943 - Ghosh et al. 2019 - reported on 8 individuals from 4 consanguineous families from the Middle East and Central Asia, all with a phenotype of DD/ID, seizures and microcephaly with lissencephaly (microlissencephaly is the term applying to the combination of two) upon brain MRI.

All patients were investigated by exome sequencing and the variant localized within a region of ROH which was common to all 4 families. All were homozygous for a TMX2 missense variant (NM_001144012.2:c.500G>A or p.Arg167Gln / NM_015959.4:c.614G>A p.Arg205Gln or hg38 - Chr11:g.57739039G>A). The variant was considered to be the best candidate, upon review of all other homozygous ones.

Sanger sequencing confirmed homozygosity for the variant in affected subjects, with additional compatible segregation studies including parents in all families as well as unaffected sibs (in two families).

Despite presence of the same mutation in all, several proximal to this variant SNPs did not appear to be shared among the families studied, thus suggesting that the variant had arisen within different haplotype blocks.

The authors comment that the variant was not previously identified in public databases. (The variant seems to correspond to rs370455806, present in 10 htz individuals in gnomAD, as well as in the GME database [GME Genotype Count 992:0:1 (hmz?) | Allele Count: 2,1984] . GME includes primarily - although not necessarily - healthy individuals).

This SNV affecting the last nucleotide of an exon of several transcripts (correct ref. is NM_001144012.2 as appears in the supplement / using NM_001347898.1 as in the fig./text the variant would lie within an intron), an eventual splicing effect was studied. mRNA transcript levels were assessed following RT-PCR using different sets of primers. There was no evidence of novel splice isoforms but mRNA levels were reduced compared to controls (15-50% in affected individuals, to a lesser level in carriers). This led to the hypothesis that NMD of an aberrantly spliced mRNA might apply, although this was not proven.

TMX2 encodes a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). PDIs are transmembrane ER proteins which have a critical role in protein folding (PMID cited: 12670024). There were no relevant studies carried out in the article.

As for animal models, the authors comment that mice homozygous for null mutations display preweaning lethality with complete penetrance.(http://www.informatics.jax.org/diseasePortal/popup?isPhenotype=true&markerID=MGI:1914208&header=mortality/aging).
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Previously, Schot el al. (ESHG Conference 2018 Oral Presentation - Mutations in the thioredoxin related gene TMX2 cause primary microcephaly, polymicrogyria and severe neurodegeneration with impaired mitochondrial energy metabolism - available in PMID: 31270415 / https://www.nature.com/articles/s41431-019-0407-4 ) reported on 7 individuals from 5 unrelated families with biallelic TMX2 mutations. A newborn with microcephaly, polymicrogyria who died of refractory epilepsy, was compound heterozygous for 2 TMX2 variants. 6 additional individuals (from 4 unrelated families) with similar phenotype were found to harbor biallelic TMX2 mutations. It was commented that TMX2 is enriched in mitochondria-associated membrane of the ER with a role in ER stress protection and regulation of neuronal apoptosis. In line with this, fibroblasts from 2 unrelated patients showed secondary OXPHOS deficiency and increased glycolytic activity (the latter possibly as a compensatory mechanism).
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There is no associated phenotype in OMIM/G2P/SysID.
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Overall this gene could be considered for inclusion in the ID/epilepsy panel probably with amber (/red) rating pending further evidence.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1098 NSF Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: NSF was added
gene: NSF was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: NSF was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: NSF were set to 31675180
Phenotypes for gene: NSF were set to Seizures; EEG with burst suppression; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability
Penetrance for gene: NSF were set to unknown
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: NSF was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Review for gene: NSF was set to AMBER
Added comment: Suzuki et al. (2019 - PMID: 31675180) report on 2 unrelated individuals with de novo missense NSF variants. Overall the phenotype corresponded to an early infantile epileptic encephalopathy. The first patient developed vomiting and tonic seizures immediately after birth, with burst-suppression pattern upon EEG. Trio exome sequencing, followed by Sanger sequencing of proband and parents, revealed a de novo missense variant (NM_006178.3:c.1375G>A / p.Ala459Thr), absent from public databases and predicted in silico to be deleterious (CADD score of 30). The girl died 36 days after birth due to respiratory failure. Another subject, having necessitated mechanical ventilation due to absence of spontaneous respiration after birth, developed myoclonic seizures. EEG showed a burst-suppression pattern. At the age of 3, she was noted to have persistence of seizures and profound ID. Trio exome sequencing identified a missense NSF variant (c.1688C>T / p.Pro563Leu) also confirmed and shown to be de novo by Sanger sequencing. Again the variant was absent from public datasets and had a CADD score of 34. While expression of wt NSF allele in the developing eye of Drosophila had no effect, expression of mutants severely affected eye development - suggesting a dominant negative effect. NSF encodes a homo-hexameric AAA ATPase, which is recruited by SNAPs (Soluble NSF Attachment Proteins) - and the latter by SNAREs (SNAP REceptors) - thus having a role in vesicular transport and membrane fusion. There is currently no associated phenotype in OMIM/G2P. Overall, this gene could be considered for inclusion probably with amber/red rating pending further evidence (eg. additional work-up or alternative causes/explanations not discussed).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1098 WDFY3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: WDFY3: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 27008544, 31327001, 25198012, 28191889; Phenotypes: ?Microcephaly 18, primary, autosomal dominant - MIM 617520; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.1098 SCAMP5 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: SCAMP5 was added
gene: SCAMP5 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: SCAMP5 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: SCAMP5 were set to 31439720; 20071347
Phenotypes for gene: SCAMP5 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Behavioral abnormality
Penetrance for gene: SCAMP5 were set to unknown
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: SCAMP5 was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Review for gene: SCAMP5 was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 31439720 (Hubert et al. 2019) reported on 2 unrelated individuals with severe ID, seizures behavioral and brain MRI abnormalities (white matter hyperintensity and mesial temporal sclorosis), both harboring the same missense SCAMP5 mutation as a de novo event (NM_001178111.1:c.538G>T or p.Gly180Trp).

Previously aCGH +/- metabolic workup were non diagnostic.

The occurrence of the same de novo variant in both as well as the similar presentation (incl. MRI images) suggested SCAMP5 as the most probable candidate gene, despite presence of few other variants in both.

SCAMP5 is highly expressed in brain (https://www.proteinatlas.org/ENSG00000198794-SCAMP5) and previous studies have suggested a role in synaptic vesicle trafficking (PMIDs cited: 29562188, 25057210, etc).

Cultured skin fibroblasts from affected individuals failed to express SCAMP5.

Scamp is the Drosophila orthologue, with previous studies having demonstrated that mutants display defects in climbing, olfactory-assisted memory and susceptibility to heat induced seizures (PMIDs cited: 25478561, 19144841). Expression of the Scamp Gly302Trp variant in Drosophila ('equivalent' to the SCAMP5 Gly180Trp) revealed strongly reduced levels for the variant compared with wt upon Western Blot, either due to reduced expression or due to increased turnover. Overall the effect of Gly302Trp expression was similar to Scamp knockdown by RNAi (eg. rough eye phenotype, reduced ability to climb the walls of a graded tube after tapping, less/no flies reaching adult stage) but significantly different compared to wt.

As a result, a dominant-negative effect was presumed.
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PMID: 20071347 (Castermans et al. 2010) is cited as a previous report of a relevant affected individual. In this study a 40 y.o. male with early DD, mild ID (IQ of 63) and ASD was found to harbor a de novo apparently balanced t(1;15) translocation affecting CLIC4 and PPCDC (both not associated with ID). [1-Mb resolution aCGH revealed no relevant CNVs].

Studies were however focused on SCAMP5 given that the gene is located downstream of / proximal to PPCDC, has brain-enriched expression as well as involvement in synaptic trafficking and demonstrated:
- Less than 50% expression upon quantitative RT-PCR in patients leukocytes, compared to control.
- Silencing and overexpression of Scamp5 in mouse β-TC3 cells resulted in increased and suppressed respectively secretion of large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs).
- Given conservation of some components involved in secretion of dense core granules (DCGs) in platelets and LDCVs in neuronal cells, study of patient platelets - where SCAMP5 was confirmed to be expressed - suggested an altered pattern of DCGs.
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SCAMP5 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM/G2P/SysID and not commonly included in gene panels for ID.
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Overall, this gene could be considered for inclusion in the ID and epilepsy panels probably with amber (# of unrelated individuals, 1 recurrent de novo variant and 1 regulatory effect, gene expressed in brain with a role in synaptic vesicle trafficking) or red rating (pending further evidence).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1098 FAM160B1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: FAM160B1 was added
gene: FAM160B1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: FAM160B1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: FAM160B1 were set to 27431290; 31353455
Phenotypes for gene: FAM160B1 were set to Central hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of the face
Penetrance for gene: FAM160B1 were set to Complete
Review for gene: FAM160B1 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Anazi et al. (2017 - PMID: 27431290) in a study of 337 subjects with ID, reported on a consanguineous family (15DG2696) with 3 affected sibs. The proband, a 7 y.o. boy had hypotonia, DD, mild ID (IQ of 69), some facial dysmorphic features as well as increased skin elasticity and joint hypermobility. Initial investigations included metabolic testing for OA and CDGs, FMR1 and aCGH. A 4 y.o. sister and a 3 y.o. brother of the proband had similar presentation of DD. Exome sequencing, autozygosity mapping and segregation studies suggested a FAM160B1 hmz missense SNV as the likely causal variant (NM_001135051.1:c.248T>C or p.Leu83Pro). There were no other candidate variants. As the encoded protein has a yet unknown function, with uncertain in silico 3D modeling, the authors speculated disruption of helices affecting fold/(ligand binding) function as the underlying effect of this variant.

Mavioğlu et al. (2019 - PMID: 31353455) reported on a 38 y.o. female with history of motor and language delay, severe ID, ataxia, behavioral abrnormalities as well as some dysmorphic features. This individual was born to consanguineous parents (2nd cousins). There was history of a deceased, similarly affected sib. Initial investigations included metabolic work-up (plasma AA, urinary OA) and karyotyping. SNP genotyping in the family (parents, affected sib, 3 unaffected sibs) and multipoint linkage analysis for AR inheritance, yielded a maximum LOD score of 2.15. Selection of homozygous regions unique to the patient (but not present in unaffected sibs) did not suggest any known ID gene. Exome sequencing of the proband, with analysis of the variants in candidate regions revealed a homozygous stopgain SNV (NM_020940.4:c.115G>T or p.Glu39*) as the best candidate variant (with few others not considered to be relevant). FAM160B1 has a pLI of 1, LoF variants in public databases have MAFs below 0.000034 with no recorded homozygotes. In silico predictions suggested a deleterious effect (CADD score of 40, etc). The previous report by Anazi and fulfilment of the ACMG criteria for its classification of this variant as pathogenic led to its consideration as causal of the patient's phenotype.

Study of the expression of the 2 isoforms of the gene (isoform1: NM_020940, 2:NM_001135051) revealed that the first is ubiquitously expressed and the second only in testes. [To my understanding the 2 isoforms seem to differ only in their last exon, the 2 reported variants affecting both isoforms - http://genome.ucsc.edu/cgi-bin/hgTracks?db=hg19&lastVirtModeType=default&lastVirtModeExtraState=&virtModeType=default&virtMode=0&nonVirtPosition=&position=chr10%3A116577123%2D116663023&hgsid=777553295_dPP9DgaheaF82gTRTfZO6XS5lEzA ]

The function of this gene remains unknown. Animal models/phenotypes are probably not available.

There is no associated phenotype in OMIM/G2P. SysID lists FAM160B1 as a candidate ID gene.
FAM160B1 is not commonly included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories.

As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in the current panel probably with amber (2 families/variants, variable ID as a feature) or red rating pending further evidence (given the partial phenotypic overlap, unknown function of the gene, variants not further studied, no animal models).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1098 PCYT2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: PCYT2 was added
gene: PCYT2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: PCYT2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: PCYT2 were set to 31637422
Phenotypes for gene: PCYT2 were set to Global developmental delay; Developmental regression; Intellectual disability; Spastic paraparesis; Seizures; Spastic tetraparesis; Cerebral atrophy; Cerebellar atrophy
Penetrance for gene: PCYT2 were set to Complete
Review for gene: PCYT2 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Vaz et al. (2019 - PMID: 31637422 - DDD study among the co-authors) report on 5 individuals - from 4 families - with biallelic PCYT2 mutations.

The phenotype corresponded to a complex hererditary paraplegia with global DD, regression (4/5), ID (mild in 3/5, severe in 2/5), spastic para-/tetraparesis, epilepsy (5/5 - variable onset 2-16 yrs - focal or tonic-clonic seizures) and progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy.

Exome sequencing in all revealed biallelic PCYT2 variants, confirmed with Sanger s. in probands and their parents (NM_001184917.2 - corresponding to the canonical transcript used as Ref below):
- P1 (Fam1) : 2 missense SNVs in trans configuration, c.730C>T or p.His244Tyr and c.920C>T or p.Pro307Leu
- P2 (Fam2 - consanguineous of White British origin), P3 (Fam3 - Consanguineous of Turkish origin), P4,5 (Fam4 - consanguineous, unspecified origin) : homozygosity for c.1129C>T or p.Arg377Ter) affecting the last exon of 8/12 transcripts, including the canonical one.

Individuals with the same genotype displayed variable degrees of ID (eg P3 - severe / P2, P4,5 - mild ID).

For sibs in Fam4, homozygosity for a missense SACS variant led to consideration of the respective disorder (AR spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay) though the variant was predicted to be tolerated in silico and notably the MRI images not suggestive.

All variants were absent from / had extremely low AF in public databases, with no homozygotes.

Posphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a membrane lipid, particularly enriched in human brain (45% of phospholypid fraction). PE is synthesized either via the CDP-ethanolamine pathway or by decarboxylation of phosphatidylserine in mitochondria. PCYT2 encodes CTP:phosophoethanolamine cytidyltransferase (ET) which is an ubiquitously expressed rate-limiting enzyme for PE biosynthesis in the former pathway.

In silico, the 2 missense variants - localizing in the CTP catalytic domain 2 - were predicted to be damaging, as well as to affect protein stability.

Fibroblasts of 3 patients (P1, P2, P3) representing all variants were studied:
- Enzymatic activity was shown to be significantly reduced (though not absent) compared to controls. Abnormalities were noted upon Western Blot incl. absence in all 3 patients studied of one of the 2 bands normally found in controls (probably representing the longer isoform), reduced intensity in all 3 of another band probably corresponding to a shorter isoform, and presence of an additional band of intermediate molec. mass in patients with the truncating variant.
- RT-PCR on mRNA from patient fibroblasts did not reveal (significant) reduction compared to controls.
- Lipidomic profile of patient fibroblasts was compatible with the location of the block in the phospholipid biosynthesis pathway and different from controls.

The lipidomic profile had similarities with what has been reported for EPT1 deficiency, the enzyme directly downstream of ET. The SELENO1-related phenotype (/EPT1 deficiency) is also highly overlapping.

CRISPR-Cas9 was used to generate pcyt2 partial or complete knockout (ko) zebrafish, targeting either the final (ex13) or another exon (ex3) respectively. mRNA expression was shown to be moderately reduced in the first case and severely reduced/absent in the second, compared to wt. Similarly, complete-ko (ex3) led to significantly lower survival, with impaired though somewhat better survival of partial-ko (ex13) zebrafish.

Complete knockout of Pcyt2 in mice is embryonically lethal (PMID cited: 17325045) while heterozygous mice develop features of metabolic syndrome (PMID cited: 22764088).

Given lethality in knockout zebrafish / mice and the residual activity (15-20%) in patient fibroblasts, the variants reported were thought to be hypomorphic and complete loss of function possibly incompatible with life.

PCYT2 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM/G2P/SysID and not commonly included in gene panels for ID.

As a result this gene could included in the ID / epilepsy panels with green (~/>3 indiv/fam/variants with the nonsense found in different populations, consistent phenotype, lipidomics, in silico/in vitro/in vivo evidence) or amber rating.

[Please consider inclusion in other possibly relevant panels eg. for metabolic disorders, etc].
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1098 PDE6D Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: PDE6D was added
gene: PDE6D was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: PDE6D was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: PDE6D were set to 24166846; 30423442
Phenotypes for gene: PDE6D were set to ?Joubert syndrome 22 - MIM 615665
Penetrance for gene: PDE6D were set to Complete
Review for gene: PDE6D was set to AMBER
gene: PDE6D was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Thomas et al. (2014 - PMID: 24166846) reported on a consanguineous Pakistani family with 3 members presenting variable polydactyly, brain anomalies (incl. molar tooth sign), microphthalmia/coloboma with retinal disease, renal hypoplasia suggestive of Joubert syndrome.

Genotyping with a SNP array identified a unique 17-Mb region of homozygosity on chr2 with LOD score of 2.6. The region contained 208 genes, of which 15 present in ciliary gene databases. A homozygous splicing variant appeared to be the only relevant, PDE6D being a ciliary gene within this region [NM_002601.4:c.140-1G>A]. Status of all affected members, parents and 2 unaffected sibs was verified with Sanger sequencing.

PDE6D encodes a phosphodiesterase that binds to prenyl groups and has a critical role in ciliogenesis (Humbert et al. - PMID: 23150559 and OMIM).
Several lines of evidence provided support a role for PDE6D and the reported variants :
- Study of PDE6D expression during human embryogenesis suggests ubiquitous localization and highest levels in organs affected in ciliopathies (CNS, kidney tubules, respiratory tract epitherlial cells).
- RT-PCR of mRNA from control/patient fibroblasts and sequencing confirmed the splicing defect leading to an in-frame deletion of exon 3.
- Wt and mutant protein both localized in the basal body of primary cilia (patient/control fibroblasts). Cilia in both cases had normal morphology.
- Experiments in RPE cells confirmed that INPP5E (involved in Joubert/MORM syndrome) interacts (/is probably a cargo of) PDE6D, a process dependent on prenylation.
- Exon 3 deletion was confirmed to disrupt PDE6D binding to INPP5E.
- Analysis by immunofluoresence of INPP5E localization using control/patient fibroblasts and renal tissue showed absence of INPP5E from primary cilia in the case of patient cells (but not controls) suggesting that PDE6D is important for trafficking INPP5E to the cilium.
- Previous study in mice suggested altered photoreceptor physiology in Pde6d (-/-) animals, resulting in a slowly progressing rod/cone dystrophy. The effect was however limited to the eye. (PMID cited : 17496142 - Zhang et al., 2007).
- Morpholino knockdown of pde6d resulted in pericardial edema, eye abnormalities (microphthalmia and disorganized retinal cell layers) and kidney morphogenesis defects (distended, blocked pronephric openings and proximal tubule cysts). Edema was rescued upon coinjection of morpholino with wt (but not mutant) mRNA. Similarly coinjection led to complete or partial rescue of eye development in the case of wt and mutant mRNA respectively supporting pathogenicity and (partial) loss-of-function effect for the variant.
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Mégarbané et al. (2019 - PMID: 30423442) reported on an affected 6 month-old boy born to Lebanese first-cousin parents. Features included hypotonia, developmental delay, microcephaly, oculomotor apraxia, postaxial polydactyly of hands and feet and presence of a molar tooth sign upon brain MRI. Renal and retinal anomalies were absent (also given his age). Exome sequencing revealed homozygosity for a frameshift PDE6D variant [NM_002601.3:c.367_368insG or p.(Leu123Cysfs*13)]. Sanger sequencing confirmed presence of the variant in the proband and carrier status of the parents. The variant affected the penultimate exon (note : present in only this longest transcript) and was not predicted to trigger NMD but rather lead to elimination of a highly conserved PDZ-interaction domain.
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The phenotype associated with biallelic PDE6D variants in OMIM is ?Joubert syndrome 22 - MIM 615665 based only on the 1st report ('delayed psychomotor development' among the features). There is no relevant entry in G2P. PDE6D is listed as a Current primary (/confirmed) ID gene in SysID (the aforementioned PMIDs cited).

This gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx).
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Overall PDE6D could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably with amber rating (2 families/variants, DD but outcome otherwise unknown - evidence for the the gene causing JS seems however sufficient).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1098 NTNG2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: NTNG2 was added
gene: NTNG2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: NTNG2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: NTNG2 were set to 31372774; 31668703
Phenotypes for gene: NTNG2 were set to Central hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Behavioral abnormality; Microcephaly; Seizures
Penetrance for gene: NTNG2 were set to Complete
Review for gene: NTNG2 was set to GREEN
Added comment: [1] Abu-Libdeh et al. (2019 - PMID: 31372774) reported 8 individuals from 4 unrelated consanguineous families of Arab Muslim origin, all homozygous for NM_032536.3:c.376dup - p.(Ser126PhefsTer241). Common features included hypotonia, failure to achieve milestones and developmental stagnation without regression during the first year (~9m) of life and severe ID. Minimal purposeful hand use (grasping and bringing objects to mouth), hand stereotypies and bruxism were also observed. Microcephaly and impaired growth were almost universal (with the exception of 2 having an OFC at ~10% percentile). Relevant previous investigations were normal in all and included MECP2, SMN1, aCGH, metabolic testing, etc. The variant was identified by exome in all, and Sanger confirmed with compatible segregation studies in parents and sibs. The variant was found within a shared haplotype of ~4.35 Mb, probably due to a founder effect.

[2] Dias et al. (2019 - PMID: 31668703) described 16 individuals from 7 unrelated families from Iran, Mexico, Turkey, Egypt and Bangladesh. Parents were known to be consanguineous or shown to be distantly related. All patients were homozygous for missense variants private to each family (7 variants) identified following exome sequencing. Shared features incl. hypotonia, GDD, severe to profound ID and behavioral anomalies incl. autistic features/stereotypies (most), screaming/laughing spells (most), bruxism. Microcephaly (5/14), growth below average/FTT and GI problems were also observed.

Epilepsy was reported in 5 individuals belonging to 4 different families in these 2 studies (5/24 overall / 4 variants).

Netrin-G2, the encoded protein, is bound to the plasma membrane by GPI-anchors. Netrins-G2 and G1 (another member of the Netrin-G subfamily) are enriched in presynaptic terminals. Interaction with their cognate Netrin-G ligand trans-synaptic partners / receptors (NGL2, NGL1 respectively) has been shown to promote axon outgrowth, induce and maintain excitatory synapse formation. Complementary and non-overlapping expression in the developping and mature CNS has been shown for Netrin-G2/1 in mice (several references provided by Abu-Libdeh / Dias).

Variant effect : The frameshift variant was not studied by Abu-Libdeh et al. Variants in the 2nd ref. were all missense, displayed no-specific localization and were suggested to affect protein stability and/or expression at the cell surface as 4/7 involved loss or addition of cystein residues (possibly creating unpaired cysteins) and 2 of the remaining 3 were predicted to affect the hydrophobic core. In line with this, overexpression of wt/variant constructs in HeLa cells demonstrated substantially decreased cell surface expression for all variants.

Mouse models/phenotypes : Dias et al. showed that siRNA-mediated Ntng2 knockdown in N2a cells led to significant reduction in neurite number and length. Studied previously, Ntng2 knockout mice display impaired learning, memory, visual and motor functioning (PMID cited : 26746425).

NTNG2 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM/G2P. SysID lists it among the candidate ID genes, citing PMID: 29302074 (not here reviewed & NTNG2 not in the main text).

Overall this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as green (>3 individuals/families/variants, consistent phenotype in both reports, role of the gene, in silico and in vitro studies, animal model, etc) or amber.

[Please consider inclusion in other panels if relevant eg. ASD panel (many individuals having autistic / Rett-like features or epilepsy) or epilepsy (>3 individuals/families/variants although most families were also consanguineous)]
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1098 AP1B1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: AP1B1 was added
gene: AP1B1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: AP1B1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: AP1B1 were set to 31630788; 31630791
Phenotypes for gene: AP1B1 were set to Failure to thrive; Abnormality of the skin; Hearing abnormality; Abnormality of copper homeostasis; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability
Penetrance for gene: AP1B1 were set to Complete
Review for gene: AP1B1 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Boyden et al. (2019 - PMID: 31630788) and Alsaif et al (2019 - PMID: 31630791) report on the phenotype related to biallelic AP1B1 mutations.

Common features included failure to thrive, ichthyosis (with variable palmoplantar keratoderma/erythroderma/abnormal hair) and hearing loss. Each study focused on different additional features eg. thrombocytopenia or photophobia in all individuals reported by Boyden et al, while Alsaif et al. focused on abnormal copper metabolism (low plasma copper and ceruloplasmin) observed in all 3 affected individuals and enteropathy/hepatopathy observed in 2 sibs.

DD was observed in all 3 individuals (2 families) reported by Alsaif et al. and patient 424 reported by Boyden et al. ID was noted in all individuals of relevant age (2 from 2 families) in the study by Alsaif. Boyden commented that ID is not part of the phenotype. The adult (424) - despite his early DD - was noted to have normal intellect and had graduated college. The other patient (1325) was last followed up at 11 months (still DD was not reported).

AP1B1 encodes one of the large subunits (β1) of the adaptor protein complex 1. Each of the AP complexes is a heterotetramer composed of two large (one of γ, α, δ, ε and β1-β4 for AP-1 to AP-4 respectively), one medium (μ1-μ4) and one small (σ1-σ4) adaptin subunit. The complex is involved in vesicle-mediated transport.

Variants were confirmed in probands and carrier parents (NM_001127.3):
Boyden Pat424 (33y) : c.430T>C (p.Cys144Arg) in trans with c.2335delC (p.Leu779Serfs*26)
Boyden Pat1325 (11m) [consanguineous Ashkenazi Jewish family] : homozygosity for c.2374G>T (p.Glu792*)
Alsaif sibs P1,P2 (4y4m, 1y5m) [consanguineous - Pakistani origin] : homozygous for a chr22 75 kb deletion spanning only the promoter and ex1-2 of AP1B1
Alsaif P3 (4y6m) [consanguineous - Saudi origin] : homozygous for a c.38-1G>A

Variant / additional studies :
22q 75-kb deletion: PCR deletion mapping and Sanger delineated the breakpoints of the 22q12.2 del to chr22:29758984-29815476 (hg?). Complete absence of transcript upon RT-PCR (mRNA from fibrolasts).
Splicing variant (c.38-1G>A): RT-PCR confirmed replacement of the normal transcript by an aberrant harboring a 1 bp deletion (r.40del).
Stopgain variant (c.2374G>T): Western blot demonstrated loss of AP1B1 (and marked reduction also for AP1G1) in cultured keratinocytes of the homozygous patient.

Loss-of-function is the effect predicted by variants. Vesicular defects were observed in keratinocytes of an affected individual (homozygous for the nonsense variant). Rescue of these vesicular defects upon transduction with wt AP1B1 lentiviral construct confirmed the LoF effect. [Boyden et al.]

ATP7A and ATP7B, two copper transporters, have been shown to depend on AP-1 for their trafficking. Similar to MEDNIK syndrome, caused by mutations in AP1S1 and having an overlapping phenotype with AP1B1 (also including hypocupremia and hypoceruloplasminemia), fibroblasts from 2 affected individuals (from different families) demonstrated abnormal ATP7A trafficking. [Alsaif et al.]

Proteomic analysis of clathrin coated vesicles (2 ind from 2 fam) demonstrated that AP1B1 was the only AP1/AP2 CCV component consistently reduced in 2 individuals (from 2 families). [Alsaif et al.]

Boyden et al. provided evidence for abnormal differentiation and proliferation in skin from an affected individual. In addition E-cadherin and β-catenin were shown to be mislocalized in keratinocytes from this affected individual.

Loss of ap1b1 in zebrafish is not lethal but lead to auditory defects (/vestibular deficits). The inner ears appear to develop normally, although there is progressive degeneration of ear epithelia. There are no behavioral/neurological phenotypes listed for mouse models. [ http://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:1096368 ].

AP1B1 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM/G2P/SysID.

Overall this gene could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably with amber rating.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1098 FDFT1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: FDFT1 was added
gene: FDFT1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: FDFT1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: FDFT1 were set to 29909962
Phenotypes for gene: FDFT1 were set to Profound global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Cortical visual impairment; Abnormality of the skin; Abnormality of the face
Penetrance for gene: FDFT1 were set to Complete
Review for gene: FDFT1 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Biallelic pathogenic FDFT1 variants cause Squalene synthase deficiency (MIM 618156). 3 individuals from 2 families (and 3 variants) have been reported. DD, ID and seizures are part of the phenotype (3/3). The metabolic profile observed is specific and highly suggestive of disruption of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway (at the specific level) while the clinical presentation is similar to other disorders of the pathway (SLO). The effect of 2 variants has been studied in detail (in one case mis-splicing demonstrated and in the other regulatory effect). Overall, this gene could be considered for inclusion in the ID/epilepsy panel with amber rating. As the gene is currently present only in the DDG2P panel, please consider adding it to relevant ones (eg. IEMs, undiagnosed metabolic disorders, etc). [Details provided below].
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Coman et al. (2018 - PMID: 29909962) reported on 3 relevant individuals from 2 unrelated families.

The phenotype consisted of seizures (3/3 - neonatal onset - generalized), profound DD (ID can be inferred from the description in the supplement), variable brain MRI abnormalities (white matter loss, hypoplastic CC), cortical visual impairment, dry skin with photosensitivity as well facial dysmorphic features. Male subjects presented genital anomalies (cryptorchidism/hypospadias).

FDFT1 encodes squalene synthase, the enzyme which catalyzes conversion of farnesyl-pyrophosphate to squalene - the first specific step in cholesterol biosynthesis.

A specific pattern of metabolites was observed in all, similar to a pattern previously observed in animal models/humans treated with squalene synthase inhibitor or upon loading with farnesol (in animals). Overall the pattern was suggestive of a cholesterol biosynthesis defect at the level of squalene synthase as suggested by increased total farnesol levels (farnesyl-pyrophosphate + free farnesol), reduced/normal squalene, low plasma cholesterol as well as other metabolites.

Clinical features also resembled those observed in Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (another disorder of cholesterol biosynthesis).

WES was carried out in affected individuals and their parents and revealed for sibs of the first family, compound heterozygosity for a maternally inherited 120-kb deletion spanning exons 6-10 of FDFT1 and CTSB and a paternally inherited FDFT1 variant in intron 8 (TC deletion/AG insertion). Variant studies for the latter included:
- Minigene splice assay demonstrating retention of 22 bp in intron 8.
- Partial splicing defect with both nl and mis-spliced cDNA (patient fibroblasts)
- Reduced protein levels in lymphoblasts/fibroblasts from both sibs upon Western blot.
Contribution of the CTSB deletion was considered unlikely (carrier mother was unaffected).

As for the 2nd family, WES data allowed identification of a homozygous deep-intronic (although this is transcript-specific) 16-bp deletion in the proband. Parents were carriers. For the specific variant :
- cDNA studies failed to detect 3 (of 10) isoforms which are normally present in control fibroblasts. Eventual NMD (which would be predicted if the deletion resulted in splicing defect) was eliminated given the absent effect of cyclohexamide addition, thus suggesting a regulatory effect.
- Given a predicted promoter/enhancer effect of the deleted region, a luciferase assay performed, suggested that the sequence had promoter capacity, with the construct containing the 16-bp deletion showing reduced promoter activity.

Fdft1 knockout mice demonstrate embryonic lethality around mid-gestation while they exhibit severe growth retardation and defective neural tube closure.

In G2P FDFT1 is associated with 'Defect in Cholesterol Biosynthesis' (confidence:possible/biallelic/LoF). The gene belongs to the Current primary ID gene group of SysID. It is not commonly included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1098 IQSEC1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: IQSEC1 was added
gene: IQSEC1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: IQSEC1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: IQSEC1 were set to 31607425
Phenotypes for gene: IQSEC1 were set to Central hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Behavioral abnormality; Short stature
Penetrance for gene: IQSEC1 were set to Complete
Review for gene: IQSEC1 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Ansar et al. (2019 - PMID: 31607425) reported on 5 individuals with biallelic IQSEC1 variants.

Common features included hypotonia, DD, speech impairment, severe ID, behavioral problems as well as short stature. Early-onset seizures were observed in 3 sibs (for whom there was also a paternal family history of seizures).

These subjects belonging to 2 consanguineous families from Pakistan and S. Arabia were found to harbor homozygous missense variants private to each family (Fam1: NM_001134382.2:c.1028C>T or p.Thr354Met following SNP genotyping of several members and exome of the proband | Fam2: c.962G>A or p.Arg321Gln following exome in 2 affected members). Sanger confirmation and study of parents (+/- sibs) were compatible.

The homozygous variant was the only candidate in the 1st family (also following exclusion of other causes of ID/short stature), and most likely/compatible with the patient's phenotype in the 2nd.

As the authors note, IQSEC1-3 encode guanine exchange factors (GEFs) for the ARF family of GTPases. IQSEC2 is a known XLID gene, while biallelic IQSEC3 mutations in ID have been recently reported (PMID: 31130284), all presenting phenotypic similarities (ID, short stature, speech defect).

Previous studies cited had shown that IQSEC1 & 2 are concentrated at the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic synapses in mammalian brain, playing a role in actin-dependent processes incl. AMPA receptor trafficing at synapses (all refs in article).

Drosophila model: The ortholog of IQSEC1, 2 and 3 is schizo and the phenotype associated with its loss is a growth cone guidance defect through dysregulation of the Slit-Robo pathway (all refs in article). The authors studied overexpression of either reference IQSEC1 cDNA or variant cDNAs in wt flies, the former only being toxic/lethal. Loss of schizo was also embryonically lethal but was partially rescued by expression of reference IQSEC1 cDNA. Expression of cDNA for the 2 variants did not rescue lethality. As a result LoF appears to be the underlying effect of both variants. The authors provided evidence that schizo is localized in glia and neurons at various stages of development and is important for proper axon guidance in both CNS and PNS. In Drosophila, schizo is also localized in photoreceptors and RNAi-mediated knockdown resulted in severely impaired sight (also observed in 1 patient).

Mouse model: Through generation of Iqsec1-floxed mice, it was demonstrated that targeted depletion of Iqsec1 in the cortex resulted in increased density/immature morphology of dendritic spines.

IQSEC1 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM / G2P / SysID and not commonly included in gene panels for ID.

As a result, this gene could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel as probably as amber (2 families/variants).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1095 TAOK1 Ellen McDonagh reviewed gene: TAOK1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31230721; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.1092 SVBP Alistair Pagnamenta reviewed gene: SVBP: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: PMID: 31363758, 30607023; Phenotypes: brain abnormalities, microcephaly, intellectual disability, delayed gross motor development, spasticity, delayed speech development; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.1082 PMPCB Catherine Snow reviewed gene: PMPCB: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29576218; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.1082 PCDH12 Catherine Snow Phenotypes for gene: PCDH12 were changed from intellectual disability; microcephaly; epilepsy; perithalamic hyperechogenicity; periventricular hyperechogenicity; midbrain abnormalities; hypothalamic abnormalities to intellectual disability; microcephaly; epilepsy; perithalamic hyperechogenicity; periventricular hyperechogenicity; midbrain abnormalities; hypothalamic abnormalities; Microcephaly, seizures, spasticity, and brain calcification, 251280
Intellectual disability v2.1079 CDH2 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: CDH2: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.1076 TANC2 Rebecca Foulger changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: Updated rating from Red to Amber based on PMID:31616000 2019 article suggested by Andrea Haworth. Sufficient unrelated cases (19/20) with an ID/DD phenotype but the pathogenicity of the variants has not yet been verified. Therefore Amber with 'watchlist' tag is appropriate pending functional studies.; to: Comment on list classification: Updated rating from Red to Amber based on PMID:31616000 2019 article suggested by Andrea Haworth. Sufficient unrelated cases (19/20) with an ID/DD phenotype but the pathogenicity of the variants has not yet been verified. Not yet associated with a disorder in Gene2Phenotype or OMIM. Currently only 1 paper, therefore Amber with 'watchlist' tag is appropriate pending functional studies.
Intellectual disability v2.1076 TANC2 Rebecca Foulger Added comment: Comment on list classification: Updated rating from Red to Amber based on PMID:31616000 2019 article suggested by Andrea Haworth. Sufficient unrelated cases (19/20) with an ID/DD phenotype but the pathogenicity of the variants has not yet been verified. Therefore Amber with 'watchlist' tag is appropriate pending functional studies.
Intellectual disability v2.1064 FBXW11 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: FBXW11: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31402090, 16865294; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.1062 TDP2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: TDP2 was added
gene: TDP2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Mode of inheritance for gene: TDP2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: TDP2 were set to 24658003; 30109272; 31410782
Phenotypes for gene: TDP2 were set to Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 23, 616949)
Penetrance for gene: TDP2 were set to unknown
Review for gene: TDP2 was set to GREEN
gene: TDP2 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Biallelic pathogenic TGP2 variants cause Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 23 (MIM 616949). At least 6 affected individuals from 4 families have been reported, in all cases homozygous for LoF variants (3 different). ID, epilepsy and ataxia are consistent features of the disorder.

TDP2 encodes a phosphodiesterase that is required for efficient repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) produced by abortive topoisomerase II (TOP2) activity.

The gene is expressed in fetal and adult human brain.

Evidence at the variant level (mRNA, protein levels) and additional studies for impairment of TOP2-induced DSB repair support a role.

Animal models (primarily mice) reproduce the DSB repair defect, provide some histopathological evidence, show transcriptional dysregulation of genes (in line with the role of TOP2 in transcription). They have however failed to reproduce relevant neurological phenotypes.

Published studies are summarized below.

TDP2 is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc and GeneDx). There is no associated phenotype in G2P. TDP2 is listed among the current primary ID genes in SysID.

Overall, this gene could be considered for inclusion in the ID and epilepsy panels probably as green (>=3 patients/families/variants, relevant ID and seizures in all, expression in brain, mRNA/protein levels tested, impaired activity) or amber (absence of neurological phenotypes in mouse model).
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[1] - PMID: 24658003 (Gómez-Herreros et al. 2014):
Reports 3 individuals from a consanguineous Irish family. Features included seizures (onset by 2m, 6m and 12y), ID (3/3) and ataxia (3/3).

A splicing variant (NM_016614.3:c.425+1G>A) was found in a 9.08-Mb region of homozygosity shared by all. A further ZNF193 missense variant localizing in the same region was thought unlikely to contribute to the phenotype (evidence also provided in subsequent study).

The effect of the specific variant was proven by abnormal mRNA size, lower mRNA levels due to NMD (corrected upon cyclohexamide treatment), loss of TDP2 protein upon WB, loss of protein activity in lymphoblastoid cells from affected individuals, decreased repair of DSBs and increased cell death upon addition of etoposide (which promotes TOP2 abortive activity).

The authors report very briefly on a further patient (from Egypt), with ID, 'reports of fits' and ataxia. This individual, with also affected sibs, was homozygous LoF (c.413_414delinsAA / p.Ser138*). Again, the authors were not able to detect TDP2 activity in blood from this subject.

As also commented:
- TDP2 has relevant expression in human (particularly adult) brain.
- Mouse model : Tdp2 is expressed in relevant tissues, absence of Tdp2 activity was observed in neural tissue of mice homoyzgous for an ex1-3 del, with impairment of DSB repair. The authors were unable to detect a neurological phenotype with behavioral analyses, preliminary assesment of seizure propensity. Mice did not show developmental defects. Histopathology however, revealed ~25% reduction in the density of interneurons in cerebellum (a 'hallmark of DSB repair' and associated with seizures and ataxia). Transcription of several genes was shown to be disregulated.
- Knockdown in zebrafish appears to affect left-right axis detremination (cited PMID: 18039968).

[2] - PMID: 30109272 (Zagnoli-Vieira et al. 2018):
A 6 y.o. male with seizures (onset by 5m), hypotonia, DD and ID, microcephaly and some additional clinical features and testing (ETC studies on muscle biopsy, +lactate, +(lactate/pyruvate) ratio) which could be suggestive of mitochondrial disorder. This individual from the US was homozygous for the c.425+1G>A variant but lacked the ZNF193 one (despite a shared haplotype with the Irish patients). Again absence of the protein was shown upon WB in patient fibroblasts, also supported by its activity. Complementation studies restored the DSB repair defect. The defect was specific to TOP2-induced DSBs as suggested by hypersensitivity to etoposide but not to ionizing radiation. CRISPR/Cas9 generated mutant human A549 cells demonstrated abnormal DSB repair. Fibroblasts / edited A549 cells failed to show mitochondrial defects (which were noted in muscle).

[3] - PMID: 31410782 (Ciaccio et al. 2019):
A girl born to consanguineous Italian parents, presented with moderate/severe ID, seizures (onset at 12y) and - among others - gait ataxia, tremor and dysmetria. MRI at the age of 12, demonstrated cerebellar atrophy (although previous exams were N). WES revealed a homozygous nonsense variant (c.400C>T / p.Arg134Ter) for which each parent was found to be carrier. Previous investigations included aCGH, NGS testing for epilepsy and metabolic testing.
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Intellectual disability v2.1062 PCDH12 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: PCDH12: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 27164683, 28804758, 29556033, 30178464, 30459466, 18477666; Phenotypes: Microcephaly, seizures, spasticity, and brain calcification, 251280; Mode of inheritance: None; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.1062 NKAP Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: NKAP: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.09.009; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Tall stature, Scoliosis, Pectus excavatum, Pectus carinatum, Arachnodactyly, Camptodactyly, Abnormality of the cardiovascular system, Abnormality of the genitourinary system, Abnormality of the face, Obesity; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, monoallelic mutations in females may cause disease (may be less severe, later onset than males)
Intellectual disability v2.1062 APC2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: APC2 was added
gene: APC2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: APC2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: APC2 were set to 31585108; 25753423; 19759310; 22573669
Phenotypes for gene: APC2 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Morphological abnormality of the central nervous system
Penetrance for gene: APC2 were set to Complete
Review for gene: APC2 was set to GREEN
gene: APC2 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Probably 14 individuals from 9 families (8 consanguineous) with biallelic APC2 LoF variants have been reported.

ID and brain abnormalities were features in all, although the presentation was quite different between sibs in the first report (PMID: 25753423 - mild/mod ID, ventriculomegaly and CC anomalies, macrocephaly with variable height, Sotos-like facial features) and 12 subsequently described patients (PMID: 31585108 - severe ID, P>A lissencephaly/CC anomalies/ventriculomegaly/paucity of white matter in (almost) all, gT-C/myoclonic seizures in 8/12 with onset 3m-6y, OFC in the low percentiles).

In all cases relevant alternative diagnoses (eg. macrocephaly/overgrowth syndromes - 1st report, mutations in other lissencephaly genes, metabolic disorders - 2nd) were ruled out.

APC2 encodes Adenomatous polyposis coli protein 2, expressed in the CNS.

All variants reported to date were LoF (stopgain/frameshift/splicing) and were supported by parental-only studies. Mutations in the 1st report as well as 4/8 variants from the 2nd report localized within the last exon (NM_005883.2 / longest of >=3 isoforms), although the 2nd report did not observe obvious genotype-phenotype correlations.

Despite a pLI of 1 in gnomAD, Lee et al. comment that heterozygous carriers did not have any noticeable phenotype. They further note that carriers were not examined by brain MRI, though. 27 heterozygous high-confidence variants appear in individuals in gnomAD. Finally as commented on, APC2 is not mutated in colon cancer.

Animal models: Apc -/- mice displayed disrupted neuronal migration, with defects of lamination of cerebral cortex and cerebellum supporting the observed brain abnormalities. In addition Apc2-deficient mice also presented impaired learning and memory abilities. Extensive additional studies have shown Apc2 co-localization with microtubules affecting their stabilization, distribution along actin fibers (all supporting a role in cytoskeletal organization) and regulation of Rac1 (a Rho GTPase). Generation of Neuro2a cells demonstrated abnormal localization mainly in cell bodies of mutant hAPC2 proteins (due to frameshift in the last exon / deletion of the C-terminal part) - different from wt (neurites, growth cones, cell bodies). The first patient report also provided evidence for Apc2 being a downstream effector of Nsd1, with Nsd1 knockdown brains displaying impaired migration / laminar positioning of cortical neurons (similar to Apc2-/- model) and rescued by forced expression of Apc2.

Relevant articles:
PMIDs: 19759310 and 22573669 (Shintani et al. 2009 & 2012) [mouse model]
PMID: 25753423 (Almuriekhi et al. 2015) [2 individuals + mouse model]
PMID: 31585108 (Lee et al. 2019) [12 individuals from 8 families]
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In OMIM, the APC2-related phenotype is ?Sotos syndrome 3 (MIM 617169 - AR). G2P does not have any associated phenotype for this gene. In SysID, APC2 belongs to the Current primary ID genes.
APC2 is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. Radboudumc, GeneDx).
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Overall, this gene could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as green (>3 individuals/families/variants, highly specific pattern of lissencephaly in 12/14, mouse model supporting migration defects and impaired learning/memory) rather than amber (differences between the 1st and the other families reported as for the OFC and presence of lissencephaly).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1062 CDH2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis changed review comment from: Accogli et al. (2019 - PMID: 31585109) report on 9 individuals with de novo pathogenic CDH2 variants.

Overlapping features included axon pathfinding defects (corpus callosum agenesis/hypoplasia, mirror movements, Duane anomaly), cardiac, ocular and genital anomalies. Neurodevelopmental phenotypes included DD (8/9), ID (2/8 mild and 2/8 moderate, the remaining had either low-average/borderline int. functioning (2), did not present ID (2) or did not have relevant age for evaluation) and ASD (in 2).

CDH2 encodes cadherin-2 (N-cadherin) with high expression in neural tissue. As the authors note, the gene has important role in neural development, incl. proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells, neural tube formation, synaptogenesis, neuronal migration and axon elongation. N-cadherin, similar to other classical cadherins has an extracellular domain with 5 extracellular cadherin (EC) domain repeats that mediate cell adhesion either in cis or in trans (between molecules of the same / different cells).

Mutations in other cadherins have been associated among others with neurodevelopmental disorders (eg. PCDH19, PCDH12, etc).

Variants in all cases were de novo, identified following trio-WES. 7 missense variants (6 of which clustering within the EC4-EC5 linker region or the EC5 domain - calculated p=1.37x10-4) and 2 frameshift ones predicted not to lead to NMD were identified.

One individual had an additional DNM1 variant, formally fulfilling ACMG criteria for pathogenic. The authors however felt that presentation of the specific subject (low-average/borderline int. functioning, absence of seizures and microcephaly) was not compatible with the phenotype of DNM1-encephalopathy .

Missense SNVs within the EC4-EC5 region, were shown to impair cell-cell adhesion by affecting both self-binding and trans adhesion to wt N-cadherin (in L cells studied). This supported a possible dominant-negative effect. A single variant in the EC2 domain - previously shown to be critical for adhesion - was thought to have a similar effect. The authors speculated that truncating variants may also act in a dominant-negative manner (as has been demonstrated for other cadherins) although LoF remains possible.

Cdh2 knockout in mice is embryonically lethal. Mouse with conditional inactivation of Cdh2 in the cerebral cortex leads to cortical disorganization and CCA similar to the human phenotypes (PMIDs cited: 9015265, 17222817). Other animal studies (mouse, zebrafish, chicken, dog, etc) are also cited to link with specific defects.

Heterozygous CDH2 variants affecting the ectodomain have been associated with ARVC (2 variants, one of which segregated with the disorder in a 3-generation family, the other identified in two unrelated families with several affecteds - refs. provided in the article). Cardiac abnormalities were noted in several subjects (incl. electrical activity in 2). [Amber rating of this gene in Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy panel].
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The gene is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM / G2P / SysID and not commonly included in panels for ID.
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As a result CDH2 could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as amber (mild/moderate ID in 4/8, uncertainty regarding the underlying effect of some variants or additional phenotypes (ARVC)) or green (>3 individuals/variants/families, ID is a feature and in some cases of moderate degree).
Sources: Literature; to: Accogli et al. (2019 - PMID: 31585109) report on 9 individuals with de novo pathogenic CDH2 variants.

Overlapping features included axon pathfinding defects (corpus callosum agenesis/hypoplasia, mirror movements, Duane anomaly), cardiac, ocular and genital anomalies. Neurodevelopmental phenotypes included DD (8/9), ID (2/8 mild and 2/8 moderate, the remaining had either low-average/borderline int. functioning (2), did not present ID (2) or did not have relevant age for evaluation) and ASD (in 2).

CDH2 encodes cadherin-2 (N-cadherin) with high expression in neural tissue. As the authors note, the gene has important role in neural development, incl. proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells, neural tube formation, synaptogenesis, neuronal migration and axon elongation. N-cadherin, similar to other classical cadherins has an extracellular domain with 5 extracellular cadherin (EC) domain repeats that mediate cell adhesion either in cis or in trans (between molecules of the same / different cells).

Mutations in other cadherins have been associated among others with neurodevelopmental disorders (eg. PCDH19, PCDH12, etc).

Variants in all cases were de novo, identified following trio-WES. 7 missense variants (6 of which clustering within the EC4-EC5 linker region or the EC5 domain - calculated p=1.37x10-4) and 2 frameshift ones predicted not to lead to NMD were identified.

One individual had an additional DNM1 variant, formally fulfilling ACMG criteria for pathogenic. The authors however felt that presentation of the specific subject (low-average/borderline int. functioning, absence of seizures and microcephaly) was not compatible with the phenotype of DNM1-encephalopathy .

Missense SNVs within the EC4-EC5 region, were shown to impair cell-cell adhesion by affecting both self-binding and trans adhesion to wt N-cadherin (in L cells studied). This supported a possible dominant-negative effect. A single variant in the EC2 domain - previously shown to be critical for adhesion - was thought to have a similar effect. The authors speculated that truncating variants may also act in a dominant-negative manner (as has been demonstrated for other cadherins) although LoF remains possible.

Cdh2 knockout in mice is embryonically lethal. Conditional inactivation of Cdh2 in the cerebral cortex leads to cortical disorganization and CCA similar to the human phenotypes (PMIDs cited: 9015265, 17222817). Other animal studies (mouse, zebrafish, chicken, dog, etc) are also cited to link with specific defects.

Heterozygous CDH2 variants affecting the ectodomain have been associated with ARVC (2 variants, one of which segregated with the disorder in a 3-generation family, the other identified in two unrelated families with several affecteds - refs. provided in the article). Cardiac abnormalities were noted in several subjects (incl. electrical activity in 2). [Amber rating of this gene in Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy panel].
------
The gene is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM / G2P / SysID and not commonly included in panels for ID.
------
As a result CDH2 could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as amber (mild/moderate ID in 4/8, uncertainty regarding the underlying effect of some variants or additional phenotypes (ARVC)) or green (>3 individuals/variants/families, ID is a feature and in some cases of moderate degree).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1062 CDH2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: CDH2 was added
gene: CDH2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: CDH2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: CDH2 were set to 31585109; 9015265; 17222817
Phenotypes for gene: CDH2 were set to Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Abnormality of neuronal migration; Bimanual synkinesia; Duane anomaly; Abnormality of cardiovascular system; Abnormality of the eye; Abnormality of the genital system; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability
Penetrance for gene: CDH2 were set to unknown
Review for gene: CDH2 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Accogli et al. (2019 - PMID: 31585109) report on 9 individuals with de novo pathogenic CDH2 variants.

Overlapping features included axon pathfinding defects (corpus callosum agenesis/hypoplasia, mirror movements, Duane anomaly), cardiac, ocular and genital anomalies. Neurodevelopmental phenotypes included DD (8/9), ID (2/8 mild and 2/8 moderate, the remaining had either low-average/borderline int. functioning (2), did not present ID (2) or did not have relevant age for evaluation) and ASD (in 2).

CDH2 encodes cadherin-2 (N-cadherin) with high expression in neural tissue. As the authors note, the gene has important role in neural development, incl. proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells, neural tube formation, synaptogenesis, neuronal migration and axon elongation. N-cadherin, similar to other classical cadherins has an extracellular domain with 5 extracellular cadherin (EC) domain repeats that mediate cell adhesion either in cis or in trans (between molecules of the same / different cells).

Mutations in other cadherins have been associated among others with neurodevelopmental disorders (eg. PCDH19, PCDH12, etc).

Variants in all cases were de novo, identified following trio-WES. 7 missense variants (6 of which clustering within the EC4-EC5 linker region or the EC5 domain - calculated p=1.37x10-4) and 2 frameshift ones predicted not to lead to NMD were identified.

One individual had an additional DNM1 variant, formally fulfilling ACMG criteria for pathogenic. The authors however felt that presentation of the specific subject (low-average/borderline int. functioning, absence of seizures and microcephaly) was not compatible with the phenotype of DNM1-encephalopathy .

Missense SNVs within the EC4-EC5 region, were shown to impair cell-cell adhesion by affecting both self-binding and trans adhesion to wt N-cadherin (in L cells studied). This supported a possible dominant-negative effect. A single variant in the EC2 domain - previously shown to be critical for adhesion - was thought to have a similar effect. The authors speculated that truncating variants may also act in a dominant-negative manner (as has been demonstrated for other cadherins) although LoF remains possible.

Cdh2 knockout in mice is embryonically lethal. Mouse with conditional inactivation of Cdh2 in the cerebral cortex leads to cortical disorganization and CCA similar to the human phenotypes (PMIDs cited: 9015265, 17222817). Other animal studies (mouse, zebrafish, chicken, dog, etc) are also cited to link with specific defects.

Heterozygous CDH2 variants affecting the ectodomain have been associated with ARVC (2 variants, one of which segregated with the disorder in a 3-generation family, the other identified in two unrelated families with several affecteds - refs. provided in the article). Cardiac abnormalities were noted in several subjects (incl. electrical activity in 2). [Amber rating of this gene in Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy panel].
------
The gene is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM / G2P / SysID and not commonly included in panels for ID.
------
As a result CDH2 could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as amber (mild/moderate ID in 4/8, uncertainty regarding the underlying effect of some variants or additional phenotypes (ARVC)) or green (>3 individuals/variants/families, ID is a feature and in some cases of moderate degree).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1055 HNRNPR Catherine Snow reviewed gene: HNRNPR: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31079900, 26795593; Phenotypes: Intellectual Disability; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.1054 DDX6 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: DDX6: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31422817; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.1047 KCNMA1 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: KCNMA1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31427379, 31152168; Phenotypes: Cerebellar atrophy, developmental delay, and seizures, 617643; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.1047 SMG9 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: SMG9: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 27018474, 31390136; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.1047 METTL5 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: METTL5 was added
gene: METTL5 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: METTL5 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: METTL5 were set to 29302074; http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.09.007; https://imgc2019.sciencesconf.org/data/abstract_book_complete.pdf
Phenotypes for gene: METTL5 were set to Delayed speech and language development; Intellectual disability; Microcephaly; Behavioral abnormality
Penetrance for gene: METTL5 were set to Complete
Review for gene: METTL5 was set to GREEN
Added comment: [1] - PMID: 29302074 :
In a WES/WGS study of 404 consanguineous families with two or more offspring affected by ID, Hu et al. identified two sibs homozygous for a METTL5 missense variant [NM_014168:c.182G>A / p.Gly61Asp]. These 2 subjects, born to first cousin parents from Iran, presented with early learning impairment, aggressive behaviour, severe microcephaly (-7SD and -8SD) and ID formally evaluated to be in the severe range. Sanger confirmation of variants and segregation studies were performed for all available and informative members in families participating in the study. In silico predictions were all in favour of a deleterious effect (PolyPhen2, MutationTaster, SIFT, CADD) and the variant was absent from ExAC. The effect of the specific variant was studied in ref. 2 (below).

[2] - DOI: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.09.007 :
Richard et al. (2019) reported on 5 additional individuals from 2 consanguineous families. Common phenotype consisted of speech delay, moderate/severe ID (4/4), microcephaly (4/4 - though milder than in the first report), behavioral problems (ADHD, aggressiveness, autistic feat.) and possibly some overlapping facial features (nose and ear abnormalities). 3 sibs from the 1st family, from Pakistan, were homozygous for a frameshift variant (NM_014167.2:c.344_345delGA / p.Arg115Asnfs*19) while sibs from the 2nd family, from Yemen, were homozygous for p.Lys191Valfs*1 (c.571_572delAA). Confirmation and segregation studies supported a role for the variants.

The authors performed additional studies for METTL5 and all 3 variants reported to date, notably:
- Based on RNA-seq data from the Allen Brain Atlas, METTL5 is expressed in the developing and adult human brain (incl. cerebellar cortex, hippocampus and striatum).
- Immunostaining in mouse brain demonstrated ubiquitous expression (postnatal day 30).
- In rat hippocampal neurons, enrichment of METTL5 was found in the soma, the nucleus and pre- and post- synaptic regions.
- Myc-/GFP-tagged METTL5 wt or mutants were transiently expressed in COS7 cells, and were found in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Levels of the 2 frameshift variants were significantly reduced compared with wt, although this was not the case for Gly61Asp.
- Upon transfection of rat hippocampal neurons, METTL5-GFP tagged wt and mt proteins showed similar localicalization in nucleus and dendrites.
- Western blot on HEK293T cells transfected with Myc-METTL5 wt or mt constructs demonstrated decreased amounts for the frameshift (but not the missense) variants while comparison after addition of a proteasome inhibitor or cyclohexamide suggested that this is not probably due to decreased mutant protein - rather than mRNA (NMD) - stability.
- In zebrafish, morpholino knockdown of mettl5 led to reduced head size and head/body ratio (reproducing the microcephaly phenotype) and curved tails. Forebrain and midbrain sizes were also significantly reduced.

Based on the ACMG criteria, Gly61Asp is classified as VUS (PM2, PP1, PP3) and the frameshift ones as pathogenic (PS3, PM2, PM4, PP1, PP3).

The authors comment that METTL5 is an uncharacterized member of the methyltransferase superfamily (of 33 METTL proteins). Variants in other methyltransferase-like genes (mainly METTL23) have been associated with ID, while various histone-/DNA-/tRNA-/rRNA- methyltransferases such as EHMT1, DNMT3A, NSUN2, FTSJ1, etc have been implicated in ID. Given the role of methyltransferases in neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity, homology comparisons suggesting presence of relevant domain in METTL5 and accumulation of the protein in the nucleus, a role as epigenetic regulator is proposed (see also ref. 3).

[3] - Conference abstract by Helmut et al. ["A novel m6A RNA methyltransferase in mammals - characterization of Mettl5 mutant mice in the German Mouse Clinic" - Oral presentation in the 33rd International Mammalian Genome Conference Sept. 2019 - available at : https://imgc2019.sciencesconf.org/data/abstract_book_complete.pdf ]
The group using an in vitro methyltransferase assay, identified METTL5 as a m6A RNA methyltransferase. Generation of Mettl5-knockout mice using the CRISPR/Cas technology, suggested that homozygous mice are subviable, with lower body mass and abnormal growth of nasal bones in half. Homozygous mice were hypoactive and hypoexploratory during an open field test at the age of 8 weeks, while further alterations were observed in neurological functions. Phenotypic deviations were absent or very mild in heterozygous animals. As a result, the mouse model appeared to recapitulate relevant human phenotypes (microcephaly, ID and growth retardation).

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There is no associated entry in OMIM (neither for the gene nor for a related disorder). G2P does not list any phenotype for this gene, either.

METTL5 is included in the SysID database as a current primary ID gene (cited: 27457812, 28097321 / Given the shared co-authors with the study by Richard et al. as well as the overlapping variants, these articles probably report on the same individuals recently described in more detail).

The gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx).
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Overall, METTL5 could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as green (3 families, 3 variants, segregation, suggested role of the gene, relevant expression patterns, some evidence at the variant-level, zebrafish and mouse models) or amber (underlying effect of Gly61Asp unknown and variant classified as VUS).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1047 CSDE1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: CSDE1 was added
gene: CSDE1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: CSDE1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: CSDE1 were set to http://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax2166
Phenotypes for gene: CSDE1 were set to Autism; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability
Penetrance for gene: CSDE1 were set to unknown
Review for gene: CSDE1 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Guo et al. (2019 - DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax2166) report on 18 individuals from 18 unrelated families, with heterozygous likely gene disrupting (stopgain/frameshift/spice-site) CSDE1 variants.

Initial sequencing with MIPs found in 3 individuals from an autism cohort (4045 probands), while subsequent targeted sequencing of a larger cohort (autism spectrum/ID network) led to identification of 5 additional relevant individuals and Genematcher/collaborations a further 10 (the latter by WES).

Consistent phenotypes included ASD (10 of 15 formally evaluated), DD (motor: 15/17 - speech: 17/17) and ID (mild to severe in 14 of 16 assessed, in further 2 in the below-average range). Recurrent seizures or epilepsy were reported for 7 of 16 patients. Other variable features were anxiety or ADHD, increased OFC, ocular, hand and MRI anomalies.

The study was mainly focused on LGD variants with p.R123* (NM_001242891.1:c.367C>T) being a reccurrent one, found in 3 families.

8 of these variants were de novo, 8 further inherited (often from a less severely affected parent, although parental neuropsychiatric status was not available for individuals from all 3 groups). In 2 cases inheritance was unknown (only 1 parental sample available).

3 individuals with de novo missense variants were also identified. Features in those individuals also included ASD and/or DD and ID (2/3) [Table S1].

Arguments to support involvement of the CSDE1 variants included the:
- role of the gene encoding an RNA binding protein implicated in neuronal migration/differentiation (cited : 24012837, 29129916),
- statistically significant burden of the variants in the cohorts examined,
- relevant CSDE1 intolerance scores (pLI of 1 and %RVIS of 6.18),
- relevant human (mRNA) / mouse (protein) spatial and temporal expression patterns,
- exclusion of apparent alternative diagnoses to the extent possible in many subjects with CNVs/SNVs/ROH of uncertain significance in very few,
- cosegregation with rather similar neuropsychiatric phenotypes in case of carrier parents,
- enrichment of ASD-related genes (and FMRP targets) among CSDE1-binding targets,
- suppression of Ctnnb1 expression (at the protein level) affecting Wnt/β-catenin signalling,
- effect of knockdown and/or mutants in mouse (shRNA) and Drosophila (mt and siRNA) models affecting synapse formation and synaptic transmission,
- rescue of many of the previous phenotypes by expression of human CSDE1 (mice), expression of stabilized β-Catenin (mice) or RNAi-stable-dUNR (Drosophila) [also supporting LoF as the underlying effect of variants].

CSDE1 is not commonly included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories. There is no associated phenotype in OMIM/G2P.

Overall, this gene could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1046 INTS6 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: INTS6: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.1046 NUP188 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: NUP188: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.1046 CPD Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: CPD: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.1046 CA5A Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: CA5A: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26913920, 25834911, 24530203; Phenotypes: Hyperammonemia due to carbonic anhydrase VA deficiency (MIM 615751); Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.1046 TIMM50 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: TIMM50 was added
gene: TIMM50 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Mode of inheritance for gene: TIMM50 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: TIMM50 were set to 27573165; 30190335; 31058414; Serajee et al. (ASHG conference 2015 - abstract Nr. 2299T)
Phenotypes for gene: TIMM50 were set to 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type IX (MIM 617698)
Penetrance for gene: TIMM50 were set to Complete
Review for gene: TIMM50 was set to GREEN
gene: TIMM50 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Biallelic pathogenic TIMM50 variants cause 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type IX (MIM 617698).

At least 9 affected individuals from 5 unrelated (but often consanguineous) families of variable origin have been reported (based on a conference abstract and PMIDs : 27573165, 30190335, 31058414).

TIMM50 encodes encodes a subunit of the mitochondrial presequence import machinery called the TIM23 complex. TIMM50 serves as a major receptor in the intermembrane space that binds to proteins on their way to cross the mitochondrial inner membrane (summary by Shahrour et al., 2017 and OMIM).

The highly overlapping patient clinical features [seizures, DD and ID - the latter in all age-appropriate individuals (5 from 3 families - refs 2,4)], metabolic investigations (lactate elevations in many, elevated urinary 3MGA in almost all, variable mitochondrial complex deficiencies in some), additional extensive functional evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction or the similar phenotypes in other types of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria all support a role for the gene.

[AUH- / CLPB- / DNAJC19- / HTRA2- / OPA3- / SERAC1-related methylglutaconic acidurias are all included as relevant disorders in the ID panel, with the respective genes rated green.]

TIMM50 is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc and GeneDx).

The gene is not associated with any phenotype in G2P

As a result this gene could be considered for inclusion/upgrade as green in both ID and epilepsy panels respectively.

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[1] - Serajee et al. (ASHG conference 2015 - abstract Nr. 2299T) reported on a patient born to consanguineous parents of South Asian ancestry with intractable epilepsy, microcephaly, DD and spastic quadriplegia. Metabolic investigations revealed increased urinary 3MGA. Two similarly affected sisters with demonstrated increase of 3MGA, were deceased following an infection. WES in the affected child, 2 unaffected sibs and the parents suggested a homozygous missense variant as the likely cause of the disorder in the proband (c.1114G>A / p.G372S - Reference not specified though the variant probably corresponds to ENST00000314349.4 and ClinVar's entry VCV000208697.1 - www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/variation/208697/).

[2] - Shahroor et al. (2017, PMID: 27573165) reported on 2 consanguineous families, each with 2 affected individuals. Two sibs from the 1st family (of Bedouin origin) presented with seizures (onset at 3m and 4m respectively), DD and ID with slightly elevated plasma lactate and increased urinary 3MGA upon metabolic investigations. Enzymatic activities of mitochondrial complex I-V were carried out for 1 sib and were normal also after normalization for citrate synthase. Following a SNP array, WES was carried out in affected children and their parents. Both sibs were homozygous for a missense SNV [NM_001001563.1:c.755C>T / p.Thr252Met]. Segregation studies - also in 3 unaffected sibs - supported a role for the variant.

Two sibs from the 2nd family (of Muslim origin) presented with seizures (myoclonic jerks at 3m, generalized tonic movements at 2m - respectively) with DD and ID. Urinary 3MGA was elevated for both, with CSF lactate also elevated in one. WES revealed homozygosity for p.Arg217Trp (NM_001001563.1:c.649C>T) and segregation studies in parents and an unaffected sib were again compatible.

The authors could not demonstrate pathogenicity of the variants in a yeast based system although - as also commented on in Ref 4 - the human TIMM50 could not rescue the yeast ΔΤim50 growth defect and global conservation between the two proteins is poor.

[3] - Reyes et al. (2018, PMID: 30190335) reported on one individual with onset of infantile spasms at the age of 2m with hypsarrythmia upon EEG and psychomotor regression. Leigh-like features were noted upon brain MRI. Lactate was elevated in both plasma and CSF. Urinary 3MGA was normal. WES, Sanger confirmation and segregation studies demonstrated compound htz for 2 variants (NM_001001563:c.335C>A or p.S112* and c.569G>C or p.G190A). Functional studies demonstrated among others decrease in all components of the TIM23 complex and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential. Patient fibroblasts grown in glucose had lower levels of all complex II and IV subunits and one complex I subunit (due to the impairment in import system) with decreased mitochondrial respiration and increase in ROS production. Growth in galactose - shifting energy production toward OxPhos - caused massive cell death. The phenotype was rescued/substantially improved following complementation of patient fibroblasts with wt TIMM50.

[4] - Tort et al. (2019, PMID: 31058414) reported on a boy with seizures and ID (diagnosis of West syndrome), Leigh-like MRI anomalies, cardiomyopathy with elevated plasma and CSF lactate and persistent urinary elevation of 3MGA. The proband was found to be compound heterozygous for 2 TIMM50 variants [NM_001001563.5:c.341 G>A (p.Arg114Gln) in trans with c.805 G>A (p.Gly269Ser)] following WES and Sanger confirmation/segregation studies. In patient fibroblasts TIMM50 protein levels were severely reduced upon WB although mRNA levels were similar to control. Muscle biopsy revealed decreased activity of the complexes I-IV, when normalized to the citrate synthase activity. Accumulation of lipidic material in muscle fibers was shown to be associated with mitochondria upon EM. Expression and sublocalization of mitochondria-targeted proteins were not found to be affected in patient fibroblasts. In extracts from muscle biopsy reduced protein levels of SDHA, COX4L and MTCO1 were demonstrated, in line with the disruptions in the activities of the MRC. Mitochondrial morphology and network were shown to be altered in patient fibroblasts. Patient fibroblasts showed marked reduction of max respiratory capacity. Similar reduction was noted in CRISPR/Cas9 generated TIMM50-ko HEK293T cells, but rescued upon transient transfection with a plasmid encoding for wt TIMM50.

(Functional studies better summarized in the respective articles).
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Intellectual disability v2.1033 PAX7 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: PAX7: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31092906; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.1033 PAX7 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: PAX7: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.1029 PAX7 Louise Daugherty reviewed gene: PAX7: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Hypotonia, Axial hypotonia, Ptosis, Scoliosis, Delayed motor milestones, Myopathy, congenital, progressive, with scoliosis, 618578; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.1022 SMARCD1 Cristina Dias reviewed gene: SMARCD1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: PMID: 30879640; Phenotypes: developmental delay, intellectual disability, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, small hands, small feet; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v2.1022 CACNA2D2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: CACNA2D2 was added
gene: CACNA2D2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: CACNA2D2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: CACNA2D2 were set to 23339110; 24358150; 30410802; 29997391; 31402629; 11487633; 11756448; 4177347; 14660671; 15331424
Phenotypes for gene: CACNA2D2 were set to Cerebellar atrophy with seizures and variable developmental delay (MIM 618501)
Penetrance for gene: CACNA2D2 were set to Complete
Review for gene: CACNA2D2 was set to AMBER
gene: CACNA2D2 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Gene reviewed for the epilepsy panel. Due to the phenotype of EE, with variable GDD (severe in many cases) and/or ID (either specifically commented on or inferred in some cases, although not universal) this gene might also be relevant for the current panel. CACNA2D2 is also included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx) as well as the SysID database. There is no associated phenotype in G2P.

Copied from the epilepsy panel:

Biallelic pathogenic CACNA2D2 variants cause Cerebellar atrophy with seizures and variable developmental delay (MIM 618501).

A recent OMIM update, a subsequent relevant publication by Punatha et al. as well as several additional LP/P variants in ClinVar for the phenotype of epileptic encephalopathy, support possible upgrade to green.

The following affected individuals appear to be relevant [NM_006030.3 used as RefSeq unless otherwise specified]:

[1] Edvardson et al. (PMID: 23339110) - 3 sibs born to consanguineous parents with EIEE, severe GDD / ID (inferred from the descritpion, at least for the oldest one), cerebellar atrophy and movement abnormalities. A CACNA2D2 variant (c.3137T>C / p.Leu1046Pro) was found in affected individuals by SNP-arrays and WES in one of them. Functional studies (reduction in current density of calcium channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes) supported the deleterious effect of the variant. A role of a rare hmz CESLR3 variant could not be ruled out.

[2] Pippucci et al. (PMID: 24358150) - 1 individual born to consanguineous parents, presenting with EE (onset at 1-2 m), severe GDD, cerebellar atrophy and choreiform movements. Homozygosity for a LoF variant (c.1294delA - p.Asn432fs) was found by WES. The role of the variant was further supported by expression studies (80% reduced mRNA levels, protein levels estimated at 3% of control / milder effect in htz parents). The proband was also hmz for a CESLR3 variant. Previous studies incl. 'high-resolution karyotype' and metabolic investigations.

[3] Butler et al. (PMID: 30410802) - A 5 y.o. male, with EE (seizure onset at 7m / GDD) and cerebellar atrophy. Compound heterozygosity for c.782C>T (p.Pro261Leu) and c.3137T>C (p.Leu1046Pro) was demonstrated by WES and supported by segregation studies.

[4] Valence et al. (PMID: 29997391) - Reported on a 20 y.o. male belonging to a cohort of 20 individuals with congenital ataxia, all from consaguineous families. This individual, who had cerebellar atrophy, ataxia, a single episode of febrile seizures and normal cognitive impairment was homozygosity for c.2971G>A (p.Asp991Asn). RT-PCR revealed presence of a normal length transcript as well as an additional, longer one, due to a concurrent splicing effect (activation of a cryptic donor splice site and retention of 4 bases of intronic sequence). Presence of both nl/abn length transcripts was presumed to explain the mild phenotype (variability also commented in OMIM).

[5] Punatha et al. (PMID: 31402629) - 3 affected individuals from 2 consanguineous families presenting with early onset EE (onset 1-7m), GDD/ID, cerebelar atrophy and ataxia. Sibs from the first family were homozygous for c.1778G>C (p.Arg593Pro). An affected 5 y.o. child from the 2nd family was homozygous for c.485_486delAT (p.Tyr162Ter). Mutations were found by WES in regions of AOH.

The following variants - not reported in the literature - have been submitted in ClinVar as LP / P for EE:
[VCV000645106.1] NM_006030.4:c.1389+2T>C - EIEE with suppression bursts - Likely Pathogenic (Invitae)
[VCV000570589.1] NM_006030.4:c.1956_1960del (p.Asn652fs) - EIEE - Pathogenic (Invitae)
[VCV000578284.1] NM_006030.4:c.1555C>T (p.Gln519Ter) - EIEE - Pathogenic (Invitae)
[VCV000653393.1] NM_006030.4:c.851dup (p.Ala286fs) - EIEE with suppression bursts - Pathogenic (Invitae)
[VCV000411003.1] NM_006030.4:c.485_486del (p.Tyr161_Tyr162insTer) - EIEE - Pathogenic (Invitae)

Additional ones have been reported as LP / P although the condition is not specified.
[VCV000620551.1] NM_006030.4:c.1023C>A (p.Cys341Ter) - Likely pathogenic (GeneDx)
[VCV000373439.2] NM_006030.4:c.1846-1G>A - Likely pathogenic (GeneDx)
[VCV000423330.2] NM_006030.4:c.200dup (p.His68fs) - Pathogenic (GeneDx).

The aforementioned laboratories include CACNA2D2 in gene panels for epilepsy (Invitae) and/or ID (GeneDx).

A role for the CACNA2D2 is supported by :
- The highly overlapping features (with the exception of the milder phenotype reported by Valence et al.) incl. early onset of seizures, GDD, cerebellar atrophy in all (9/9 incl. the individual reported by Valence, as evaluated Punatha et al). Ataxia was a feature in many (with movement abnormalities also in the remaining ones).
- The role of the gene encoding the alpha-2-delta-2 auxiliary subunit of high voltage-gated calcium channels. Auxiliary subunits modulate calcium current and channel activation and inactivation kinetics, and may be involved in proper assembly and membrane localization of the channels (summary by Edvardson and OMIM).
- Functional / expression studies for some of the variants (as in Refs 1,2,4).
- Relevant expression patterns (notably in cerebellum) [GTEx project]
- Mouse models recapitulating the human phenotypes (summarized by Edvardson et al) : The 'ducky' mouse model (due to biallelic Cacna2d2 mutations) presenting absence epilepsy, spike-wave seizures and ataxia. Dysgenesis of the cerebellum is among the neuropathological findings (PMIDs cited : 11487633, 11756448, 4177347). The 'entla' mouse model (also AR due to an in-frame duplication) presents also epilepsy and ataxia (PMID : 14660671). Targeted knockout in another mouse model resulted also in ataxic gait, seizure susceptibility and cerebellar anomalies/degeneration (PMID: 15331424).

[Please consider inclusion in other relevant panels eg. for cerebellar anomalies / ataxia].
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1022 GABRA2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis changed review comment from: Heterozygous pathogenic GABRA2 variants cause Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 78 (MIM 618557) [new OMIM entry].

At least 8 relevant individuals have been reported to date in the following studies:
- Orenstein et al. (2018 - PMID: 29422393) - 1 individual
- Butler et al. (2018 - PMID: 29961870) - 1 subject
- Maljevic et al. (2019 - PMID: 31032849 - 3 unrelated children as well as 2 affected sibs
- Sanchis-Juan et al. (2019 - bioRxiv / https://doi.org/10.1101/678219) - 1 further patient

In all affected individuals the variants were missense and - in almost all cases - had occurred as de novo events. The 2 sibs reported by Maljevic however, had inherited a missense variant from their unaffected mosaic parent.

Clinical descriptions for individuals from the 3 studies are provided in OMIM and also summarized in the suppl. table 1 by Sanchis-Juan et al. (https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2019/06/21/678219/DC2/embed/media-2.xlsx). Seizures, DD and ID (relevant to the current panel) are among the reported features. Functional studies have been performed for most of the variants and are summarized for each one in the OMIM entry for GABRG2 and the aforementioned table as well.

The following variants have been reported (NM_000807.2): c.1003A>C - p.Asn335His (dn) / c.875C>A - Thr292Lys (dn) / c.871C>G - p.Leu291Val (dn) / c.788T>C - p.Met263Thr (dn) / c.851T>C - p.Val284Ala (dn) / c.975C>A - p.Phe325Leu (inherited from mosaic parent) / c.839C>T - p.Pro280Leu (dn - Sanchis-Juan et al).

As commented by Jenkins and Escayg (2019 - PMID: 31032848 / both among the authors of the 1st report) as well as by Sanchis-Juan et al., both loss- and gain- of function effects explain the pathogenicity of the various mutations reported to date. [In gnomAD GABRA2 has a Z-score for missense variants of 3.13 as well as a pLI of 1].
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GABRA2 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.
This gene is not commonly included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories.
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As a result, GABRA2 can be considered for inclusion in the epilepsy and ID panels probably as green (several relevant individuals, several reported variants with supporting functional studies for most, etc.).

[Consider inclusion in other possibly relevant gene panels eg. for ASD which was feature in some patients at relevant age and/or among those evaluated].; to: Heterozygous pathogenic GABRA2 variants cause Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 78 (MIM 618557) [new OMIM entry].

At least 8 relevant individuals have been reported to date in the following studies:
- Orenstein et al. (2018 - PMID: 29422393) - 1 individual
- Butler et al. (2018 - PMID: 29961870) - 1 subject
- Maljevic et al. (2019 - PMID: 31032849 - 3 unrelated children as well as 2 affected sibs
- Sanchis-Juan et al. (2019 - bioRxiv / https://doi.org/10.1101/678219) - 1 further patient

In all affected individuals the variants were missense and - in almost all cases - had occurred as de novo events. The 2 sibs reported by Maljevic however, had inherited a missense variant from their unaffected mosaic parent.

Clinical descriptions for individuals from the 3 studies are provided in OMIM and also summarized, Maljevic - Table 1 (7 patients) and/or in the suppl. table 1 by Sanchis-Juan et al. (8 patients) (https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2019/06/21/678219/DC2/embed/media-2.xlsx). Seizures, DD and ID (relevant to the current panel) are among the reported features. Functional studies have been performed for most of the variants and are summarized for each one in the OMIM entry for GABRG2 and the aforementioned table as well.

The following variants have been reported (NM_000807.2): c.1003A>C - p.Asn335His (dn) / c.875C>A - Thr292Lys (dn) / c.871C>G - p.Leu291Val (dn) / c.788T>C - p.Met263Thr (dn) / c.851T>C - p.Val284Ala (dn) / c.975C>A - p.Phe325Leu (inherited from mosaic parent) / c.839C>T - p.Pro280Leu (dn - Sanchis-Juan et al).

As commented by Jenkins and Escayg (2019 - PMID: 31032848 / both among the authors of the 1st report) as well as by Sanchis-Juan et al., both loss- and gain- of function effects explain the pathogenicity of the various mutations reported to date. [In gnomAD GABRA2 has a Z-score for missense variants of 3.13 as well as a pLI of 1].
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GABRA2 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.
This gene is not commonly included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories.
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As a result, GABRA2 can be considered for inclusion in the epilepsy and ID panels probably as green (several relevant individuals, several reported variants with supporting functional studies for most, etc.).

[Consider inclusion in other possibly relevant gene panels eg. for ASD which was feature in some patients at relevant age and/or among those evaluated].
Intellectual disability v2.1022 GABRA2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: GABRA2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29422393, 29961870, 31032849, 31032848, doi.org/10.1101/678219; Phenotypes: Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 78 (MIM 618557); Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.1022 GABRA2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: GABRA2 was added
gene: GABRA2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: GABRA2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: GABRA2 were set to 29422393; 29961870; 31032849; 31032848; doi.org/10.1101/678219
Phenotypes for gene: GABRA2 were set to Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 78 (MIM 618557)
Penetrance for gene: GABRA2 were set to unknown
Review for gene: GABRA2 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Heterozygous pathogenic GABRA2 variants cause Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 78 (MIM 618557) [new OMIM entry].

At least 8 relevant individuals have been reported to date in the following studies:
- Orenstein et al. (2018 - PMID: 29422393) - 1 individual
- Butler et al. (2018 - PMID: 29961870) - 1 subject
- Maljevic et al. (2019 - PMID: 31032849 - 3 unrelated children as well as 2 affected sibs
- Sanchis-Juan et al. (2019 - bioRxiv / https://doi.org/10.1101/678219) - 1 further patient

In almost all affected individuals, the variants were missense and had occurred as de novo events. The 2 sibs reported by Maljevic however, had inherited a missense variant from their unaffected mosaic parent.

Clinical descriptions for individuals from the 3 studies are provided in OMIM and also summarized in the suppl. table 1 by Sanchis-Juan et al. (https://www.biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2019/06/21/678219/DC2/embed/media-2.xlsx?download=true). Seizures, DD and ID (relevant to the current panel) are among the reported features. Functional studies have been performed for most of the variants and are summarized for each one in the OMIM entry for GABRG2 and the aforementionned table as well.

The following variants have been reported (NM_000807.2): c.1003A>C - p.Asn335His (dn) / c.875C>A - Thr292Lys (dn) / c.871C>G - p.Leu291Val (dn) / c.788T>C - p.Met263Thr (dn) / c.851T>C - p.Val284Ala (dn) / c.975C>A - p.Phe325Leu (inherited from mosaic parent) / c.839C>T - p.Pro280Leu (dn - Sanchis-Juan et al).

As commented by Jenkins and Escayg (2019 - PMID: 31032848 / both among the authors of the 1st report) as well as by Sanchis-Juan et al., both loss- and gain- of function effects explain the pathogenicity of the various reported (all) missense mutations. [In gnomAD GABRA2 has a Z-score for missense variants of 3.13 as well as a pLI of 1].
------
GABRA2 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.
This gene is not commonly included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories.
------
As a result, GABRA2 can be considered for inclusion in the epilepsy and ID panels probably as green (several relevant individuals, several reported variants with supporting functional studies for most, etc.).

[Consider inclusion in other possibly relevant gene panels eg. for ASD which was feature in some patients at relevant age and/or among those evaluated].
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1022 GABRA5 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: GABRA5: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29961870, 31056671; Phenotypes: Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 79 (MIM 618559); Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.1022 SLC25A12 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: SLC25A12: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31403263, 24515575, 19641205, 27290639, 26633542; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.1021 MED25 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: MED25: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30800049, DOI:10.1159/000501114, 25527630, 25792360; Phenotypes: Basel-Vanagait-Smirin-Yosef syndrome (MIM 616449); Mode of inheritance: None; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.1021 MED13 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: MED13 was added
gene: MED13 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen,Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: MED13 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: MED13 were set to 29740699
Phenotypes for gene: MED13 were set to Delayed speech and language development; Motor delay; Intellectual disability; Autistic behavior; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Abnormality of the eye; Constipation
Penetrance for gene: MED13 were set to unknown
Review for gene: MED13 was set to AMBER
gene: MED13 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Snijders Blok et al. (2018 - PMID: 29740699) report on 13 individuals with MED13 mutations.

Features included DD with speech difficulties (both universal) and motor delay in some. ID was observed in at least 9/13 and in most cases was in the borderline/mild range (moderate ID reported for 1 individual). Other features were ASD (5/13), ADHD, eye/vision abnormalities and in few individuals obstipation or congenital heart anomalies. Some possibly overlapping facial characteristics were also noted.

MED13 and MED13L are mutually exclusive components of the CDK8 kinase module that regulates the activity of the Mediator complex. The Mediator transmits signals from various transcription factors to RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Reversible binding of the CDK8 kinase controls Mediator - Pol II interaction (prevents Pol II recruitment) and thus acts as a molecular switch in Pol II - mediated transcription. DD and ID are features of the MED13L- and CDK8- related disorders.

3 stopgain, 2 frameshift, 6 missense variants and 1 in-frame deletion were reported. In 11 cases, the variants had occurred as de novo events, while 1 individual had inherited a nonsense variant from a similarly affected mother (unknown inheritance in her case).

Effect of a stopgain variant was studied with similar (total) transcript levels between the affected patient and his parents/controls upon qPCR. Sanger sequencing of cDNA amplicons was suggestive of the presence of an aberrant transcript at ~70% levels relative to the normal transcript. Truncated protein was undetectable by Western Blot in mononuclear blood cells from affected subjects. Total MED13 protein levels were not clearly different when comparing an affected individual with his unaffected parent (?).

Missense variants and the inframe deletion clustered either in the N- or the C-terminal domain, with the N-terminal ones all (T326I, T326del, P327S, P327Q / NM_005121.2 - NP_005112.2) affecting positions of a known phosphodegron sequence, important for the protein's ubiquitination and degradation. Another previously studied variant (T326A) had been shown to prevent degradation. As a result, the variants affecting aa 326-327 might lead to altered (increased) levels of MED13.

The remaining missense variants affected the C-terminal portion (Q2060L, A2064V).

As a result the impact of the different subcategories of variants remains unclear/inconclusive.

MED13 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM. This gene is part of the DD panel of G2P, associated with "MED13 - Neurodevelopment disorder" (dis. confidence : probable / mutation consequence : LoF / GDD, speech/language delay, ID, autistic behavior among the assigned phenotypes).

MED13 is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc).

ID is part of the phenotype of MED13-related disorder, however as the severity in most individuals - when present - was in the borderline/mild range (not relevant for the present panel) and/or the underlying effect of mutations remains unclear, amber rating can probably be considered for this gene.
Sources: Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1017 GOT2 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: GOT2: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31422819; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Seizures; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.1015 HNRNPR Konstantinos Varvagiannis changed review comment from: Duijkers et al. (2019 - PMID: 31079900) report on the phenotype of 4 individuals with de novo HNRNPR variants and provide additional information on a previously published case (Helbig et al, 2016 - PMID: 26795593). All 5 were unrelated.

The phenotype consisted of DD (5/5 - moderate to severe in 4 for which this has been commented on), postnatal microcephaly, seizures, brachydactyly, with additional (cardiac, urogenital, etc) anomalies observed in few. Some partially overlapping facial features were also noted.

3 truncating variants as well as a missense one, all localizing within the last exon of the gene (NM_001102398.2 used as ref. although this exon is shared by all transcripts).

HNRNPR encodes heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R, which is part of the spliceosome C. The latter functions in the nucleus to process and transport mRNA. Apart from splicing hnRNPs are also involved in other levels of gene regulation (PMID: 27215579). Some hnRNPs have been found in the cytoplasm in stress granules, aggregations of protein, RNAs and stalled initiation complexes that are formed as stress response upon oxidative insult and dissipate upon cessation of this insult.

Western blot in LCLs from affected individuals demonstrated the presence of the truncated protein as well as the full-length and short isoform (as expected by the variant localization).
As the C-terminal part has features of a "prion-like domain" (PrLD), critical for the formation of stress granules in the case of hnRNP-related disorders, comparison of fibroblasts from affected and healthy individuals revealed abnormal persistence of these granules in affected individuals following a recovery period, despite similar formation either at basal levels or under conditions of stress.

In line with a role of hnRNPs in splicing and gene regulation, RNA-Sequencing in fibroblasts from 2 affected individuals revealed abnormal splicing of some genes (eg. HOXA5, HOXB3, LHX9) and significant dysregulation of genes important for the development (upregulation of FOXG1, TBX1, several members of the HOX family and downregulation of LHX9, IRX3, etc) possibly contributing to the patient features.

Helbig et al. provide details on animal studies incl.expression in neural tissues (cerebrum and cerebellum), higher levels of expression early in the development (of both R1/R2 isoforms), etc (extensive discussion in the supplement with several articles cited).

HNRNPR is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM/G2P.

As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion as amber (developmental outcome not commented on sufficiently despite moderate/severe DD in most).
Sources: Literature; to: Duijkers et al. (2019 - PMID: 31079900) report on the phenotype of 4 individuals with de novo HNRNPR variants and provide additional information on a previously published case (Helbig et al, 2016 - PMID: 26795593). All 5 were unrelated.

The phenotype consisted of DD (5/5 - moderate to severe in 4 for which this has been commented on), postnatal microcephaly, seizures, brachydactyly, with additional (cardiac, urogenital, etc) anomalies observed in few. Some partially overlapping facial features were also noted.

3 truncating variants as well as a missense one, all localizing within the last exon of the gene (NM_001102398.2 used as ref. although this exon is shared by all transcripts).

HNRNPR encodes heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R, which is part of the spliceosome C. The latter functions in the nucleus to process and transport mRNA. Apart from splicing hnRNPs are also involved in other levels of gene regulation (PMID: 27215579). Some hnRNPs have been found in the cytoplasm in stress granules, aggregations of protein, RNAs and stalled initiation complexes that are formed as stress response upon oxidative insult and dissipate upon cessation of this insult.

Western blot in LCLs from affected individuals demonstrated the presence of the truncated protein as well as the full-length and short isoform (as expected by the variant localization).
As the C-terminal part has features of a "prion-like domain" (PrLD), critical for the formation of stress granules in the case of hnRNP-related disorders, comparison of fibroblasts from affected and healthy individuals revealed abnormal persistence of these granules in affected individuals following a recovery period, despite similar formation either at basal levels or under conditions of stress.

In line with a role of hnRNPs in splicing and gene regulation, RNA-Sequencing in fibroblasts from 2 affected individuals revealed abnormal splicing of some genes (eg. HOXA5, HOXB3, LHX9) and significant dysregulation of genes important for the development (upregulation of FOXG1, TBX1, several members of the HOX family and downregulation of LHX9, IRX3, etc) possibly contributing to the patient features.

Helbig et al. provide details on animal studies incl.expression in neural tissues (cerebrum and cerebellum), higher levels of expression early in the development (of both R1/R2 isoforms), etc (extensive discussion in the supplement with several articles cited).

HNRNPR is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM/G2P.

As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion as amber (developmental outcome not commented on sufficiently despite moderate/severe DD in most) or green.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1015 HNRNPR Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: HNRNPR was added
gene: HNRNPR was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: HNRNPR was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: HNRNPR were set to 31079900; 26795593
Phenotypes for gene: HNRNPR were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Postnatal microcephaly; Short digit
Penetrance for gene: HNRNPR were set to unknown
Review for gene: HNRNPR was set to GREEN
Added comment: Duijkers et al. (2019 - PMID: 31079900) report on the phenotype of 4 individuals with de novo HNRNPR variants and provide additional information on a previously published case (Helbig et al, 2016 - PMID: 26795593). All 5 were unrelated.

The phenotype consisted of DD (5/5 - moderate to severe in 4 for which this has been commented on), postnatal microcephaly, seizures, brachydactyly, with additional (cardiac, urogenital, etc) anomalies observed in few. Some partially overlapping facial features were also noted.

3 truncating variants as well as a missense one, all localizing within the last exon of the gene (NM_001102398.2 used as ref. although this exon is shared by all transcripts).

HNRNPR encodes heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein R, which is part of the spliceosome C. The latter functions in the nucleus to process and transport mRNA. Apart from splicing hnRNPs are also involved in other levels of gene regulation (PMID: 27215579). Some hnRNPs have been found in the cytoplasm in stress granules, aggregations of protein, RNAs and stalled initiation complexes that are formed as stress response upon oxidative insult and dissipate upon cessation of this insult.

Western blot in LCLs from affected individuals demonstrated the presence of the truncated protein as well as the full-length and short isoform (as expected by the variant localization).
As the C-terminal part has features of a "prion-like domain" (PrLD), critical for the formation of stress granules in the case of hnRNP-related disorders, comparison of fibroblasts from affected and healthy individuals revealed abnormal persistence of these granules in affected individuals following a recovery period, despite similar formation either at basal levels or under conditions of stress.

In line with a role of hnRNPs in splicing and gene regulation, RNA-Sequencing in fibroblasts from 2 affected individuals revealed abnormal splicing of some genes (eg. HOXA5, HOXB3, LHX9) and significant dysregulation of genes important for the development (upregulation of FOXG1, TBX1, several members of the HOX family and downregulation of LHX9, IRX3, etc) possibly contributing to the patient features.

Helbig et al. provide details on animal studies incl.expression in neural tissues (cerebrum and cerebellum), higher levels of expression early in the development (of both R1/R2 isoforms), etc (extensive discussion in the supplement with several articles cited).

HNRNPR is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM/G2P.

As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion as amber (developmental outcome not commented on sufficiently despite moderate/severe DD in most).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1015 DDX6 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: DDX6 was added
gene: DDX6 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: DDX6 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: DDX6 were set to 31422817
Phenotypes for gene: DDX6 were set to Generalized hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Unsteady gait; Abnormality of the cardiovascular system; Abnormality of the genitourinary system; Abnormality of limbs
Penetrance for gene: DDX6 were set to unknown
Review for gene: DDX6 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Balak et al. (2019 - PMID: 31422817) report on 5 individuals with de novo likely pathogenic DDX6 variants.

Clinical details are provided for 4. Frequent features included hypotonia, DD, ID (4/4), gait instability, cardiac, genitourinary as well anomalies of the extremities.

DDX6 belongs to the DEAD box family of RNA helicases. This helicase is an essential component of processing bodies (P-bodies / PBs), which are mebrane-less organelles involved in storage of mRNAs and proteins related to mRNA decay thus playing an important role in translational repression/post-transcriptional regulation (PMID: 29381060).

All 5 variants had occurred as de novo events, clustered in exon 11 (NM_004397.5) and affected residues 372-373 of the QxxR motif (c.1115A>G or p.His372Arg / c.1118G>A or p.Arg373Gln) or 390-391 of the V motif (c.1168T>C or p.Cys390Arg / c.1171A>C or p.Thr391Pro / c.1172C>T or p.Thr391Ile). The specific motifs (and RecA-2 domain) are involved in RNA binding, helicase activity and protein-partner binding.

Fibroblasts from 2 individuals were studied. Patient cells contained fewer PBs compared to cells from relatives/control-subjects, despite similar amounts of DDX6 protein upon immunobloting. Additional studies suggested that DDX6 variants caused impaired binding of other DDX6 protein partners involved in PB formation / translation repression (eg. LSM14A, 4E-T, etc) thus resulting in defective PB assembly.

Transcriptome analysis in fibroblasts from one affected individual revealed (significant) differential expression of >1000 genes, enriched for genes related to protein translation, ribosome and RNA processing.

As the authors discuss, given the residual PB assembly, haploinsufficiency is favored over a dominant-negative effect which would result in complete suppression of PBs (as sugested by a previous study of a dominant-negative DDX6 variant - PMID cited: 19297524). [In gnomAD, DDX6 has a Z-score for missense variants of 3.78 and a pLI of 1].

DDX6 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM.
In G2P it is associated with ID (disease confidence : probable / mutations : all missense/in frame).

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel as green (sufficient cases, relevant phenotype, functional studies) or amber.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.1015 TRAPPC6B Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: TRAPPC6B: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28626029, 28397838, DOI 10.1055/s-0039-1693664; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.1015 KCNMA1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: KCNMA1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31427379, 31152168, 27567911; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.1001 AFF3 Rebecca Foulger Mode of pathogenicity for gene: AFF3 was changed from to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Intellectual disability v2.1000 WDR37 Rebecca Foulger Mode of pathogenicity for gene: WDR37 was changed from None to Other
Intellectual disability v2.996 AFF3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis changed review comment from: Voisin et al. (2019 - https://doi.org/10.1101/693937) report on 10 individuals with de novo missense AFF3 variants affecting a 9-amino-acid sequence (degron) important for the protein's degradation and summarize the phenotype of an additional individual previously described by Steichen-Gersdorf et al. (2008 - PMID: 18616733) with a 500 kb affecting only AFF3 (LAF4) and removing also this sequence.

The phenotype of missense variants consisted of kidney anomalies, mesomelic dysplasia, seizures, hypertrichosis, intellectual disability and pulmonary problems and was overlapping with that of the deletion. [10 of 11 subjects exhibited severe developmental epileptic encephalopathy].

9 probands harbored missense variants affecting the codon 258 while one individual had a variant affecting codon 260 [c.772G>T or p.Ala258Ser (x2), c.772G>A or p.Ala258Thr (x6), c.773C>T or p.Ala258Val (x1) and c.779T>G or p.(Val260Gly) (x1) - NM_001025108.1 / NP_001020279.1]. The deletion removed exons 4-13.

AFF1-4 are ALF transcription factor paralogs, components of the transcriptional super elongation complex regulating expression of genes involved in neurogenesis and development.

Using HEK293T cells expressing FLAG-tagged AFF3 (and AFF4) wt or mutants, accumulation of mutated forms was shown upon immunoblot.

Aff3+/- and/or -/- mice exhibit skeletal defects. These were more pronounced in homozygous mice which demonstrated also some elements in favor of kidney dysfunction and/or metabolic deregulation and possible neurological dysfunction (signs of impaired hearing and diminished grip strength). Homozygous mice had CNS anomalies (enlarged lateral ventricles and decreased corpus callosum size) similar to some affected individuals, although these were not observed in another Aff3-/- model. Knock-in mice modeling the microdeletion and the Ala258Thr variant displayed lower mesomelic limb deformities and early lethality respectively [cited PMIDs : 21677750, 25660031, knock-in model was part of the present study].

Accumulation of the protein in zebrafish (by overexpression of the human wt AFF3 mRNA), led to morphological defects.

Reanalysis of transcriptome data from previously generated HEK293T cell lines knocked down for AFF2, AFF3 and AFF4 by shRNAs (study) suggested that these transcription factors are not redundant.

Finally, CHOPS syndrome (#616368) due to mutations of AFF4 also leading to increased protein stability presents a partially overlapping phenotype (incl. cognitive impairment) to that of AFF3.
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In G2P, AFF3 is associated with Skeletal dysplasia with severe neurological disease (disease confidence : probable / ID and seizures among the assigned phenotypes). There is no associated phenotype in OMIM.
Some diagnostic laboratories include AFF3 in their ID panel (eg. among the many co-authors' affiliations GeneDx and Victorian Clinical Genetics - which was already listed as source for AFF3 in the current panel).
----
As a result this gene can be considered for upgrade to green (relevant phenotype and severity, sufficient cases, evidence for accumulation similar to AFF4, animal models, etc) or amber (pending publication of the article).; to: Voisin et al. (2019 - https://doi.org/10.1101/693937) report on 10 individuals with de novo missense AFF3 variants affecting a 9-amino-acid sequence (degron) important for the protein's degradation and summarize the phenotype of an additional individual previously described by Steichen-Gersdorf et al. (2008 - PMID: 18616733) with a 500 kb affecting only AFF3 (LAF4) and removing also this sequence.

The phenotype of missense variants consisted of kidney anomalies, mesomelic dysplasia, seizures, hypertrichosis, intellectual disability and pulmonary problems and was overlapping with that of the deletion. [10 of 11 subjects exhibited severe developmental epileptic encephalopathy].

9 probands harbored missense variants affecting the codon 258 while one individual had a variant affecting codon 260 [c.772G>T or p.Ala258Ser (x2), c.772G>A or p.Ala258Thr (x6), c.773C>T or p.Ala258Val (x1) and c.779T>G or p.(Val260Gly) (x1) - NM_001025108.1 / NP_001020279.1]. The deletion removed exons 4-13.

AFF1-4 are ALF transcription factor paralogs, components of the transcriptional super elongation complex regulating expression of genes involved in neurogenesis and development.

Using HEK293T cells expressing FLAG-tagged AFF3 (and AFF4) wt or mutants, accumulation of mutated forms was shown upon immunoblot.

Aff3+/- and/or -/- mice exhibit skeletal defects. These were more pronounced in homozygous mice which demonstrated also some elements in favor of kidney dysfunction and/or metabolic deregulation and possible neurological dysfunction (signs of impaired hearing and diminished grip strength). Homozygous mice had CNS anomalies (enlarged lateral ventricles and decreased corpus callosum size) similar to some affected individuals, although these were not observed in another Aff3-/- model. Knock-in mice modeling the microdeletion and the Ala258Thr variant displayed lower mesomelic limb deformities and early lethality respectively [cited PMIDs : 21677750, 25660031, knock-in model was part of the present study].

Accumulation of the protein in zebrafish (by overexpression of the human wt AFF3 mRNA), led to morphological defects.

Reanalysis of transcriptome data from previously generated HEK293T cell lines knocked down for AFF2, AFF3 and AFF4 by shRNAs (study) suggested that these transcription factors are not redundant.

Finally, CHOPS syndrome (#616368) due to mutations of AFF4 also leading to increased protein stability presents a partially overlapping phenotype (incl. cognitive impairment) to that of AFF3.
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Shimizu et al. (8/2019 - PMID: 31388108) describe an additional individual with de novo AFF3 missense variant. The phenotype overlaps with that summarized by Voisin et al. incl. mesomelic dysplasia with additional skeletal anomalies, bilateral kidney hypoplasia and severe DD at the age of 2.5 years. Seizures and pulmonary problems were not observed. Although a different RefSeq is used the variant is among those also reported by Voisin et al. [NM_002285.2:c.697G>A (p.Ala233Thr) corresponding to NM_001025108.1:c.772G>A (p.Ala258Thr)].
----
In G2P, AFF3 is associated with Skeletal dysplasia with severe neurological disease (disease confidence : probable / ID and seizures among the assigned phenotypes). There is no associated phenotype in OMIM.
Some diagnostic laboratories include AFF3 in their ID panel (eg. among the many co-authors' affiliations GeneDx and Victorian Clinical Genetics - which was already listed as source for AFF3 in the current panel).
----
As a result this gene can be considered for upgrade to green (relevant phenotype and severity, sufficient cases, evidence for accumulation similar to AFF4, animal models, etc) or amber (pending publication of the article).

[Review modified to add additional reference/case report]
Intellectual disability v2.996 GRIA2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: GRIA2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31300657; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.996 AFF3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: AFF3: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments; Publications: https://doi.org/10.1101/693937, 18616733; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, Seizures, Abnormality of skeletal morphology, Abnormality of the urinary system, Hypertrichosis, Abnormality of the respiratory system; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.996 WDR37 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: WDR37: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments; Publications: 31327510, 31327508; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Seizures, Abnormality of the eye, Abnormality of nervous system morphology, Hearing abnormality, Abnormality of the cardiovascular system, Abnormality of the skeletal system, Abnormality of the genitourinary system; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.996 WDR37 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: WDR37 was added
gene: WDR37 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: WDR37 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: WDR37 were set to 31327510; 31327508
Phenotypes for gene: WDR37 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Abnormality of the eye; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Hearing abnormality; Abnormality of the cardiovascular system; Abnormality of the skeletal system; Abnormality of the genitourinary system
Penetrance for gene: WDR37 were set to unknown
Review for gene: WDR37 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Two concurrent publications by Reis et al. and Kanca et al. (2019 - PMIDs: 31327510, 31327508) report on the phenotype of individuals with de novo WDR37 mutations.

The study by Reis et al. provides clinical details on 4 affected individuals, while 5 further are described by Kanca et al.

4 different de novo variants were reported in these individuals who appear to be unrelated in (and between) the 2 studies [NM_014023.3]:
- c.356C>T (p.Ser119Phe) [Reis indiv. 1 - 3y, Kanca proband 3 - 5m2w]
- c.389C>T (p.Thr130Ile) [Reis indiv. 2 - 22m , Kanca proband 5 - 6w]
- c.374C>T (p.Thr125Ile) [Reis indiv. 3 - 8y , Kanca proband 1 - 7y]
- c.386C>G (p.Ser129Cys) [Reis indiv. 4 - unkn age, Kanca probands 2 and 4, 6.5y and 19y]

Common features included DD/ID (severity relevant for the current panel), seizures (9/9), ocular anomalies (corneal opacity/Peters anomaly, coloboma, microphthalmia etc.) and variable brain, hearing, cardiovascular, skeletal and genitourinary anomalies. Some facial and/or other dysmorphic features (incl. excess nuchal skin / webbed neck) were also frequent among affected individuals. Feeding difficulties and growth deficiency were also among the features observed.

The function of WDR37 is not known. Variants demonstrated comparable protein levels and cellular localization compared to wt.

Reis et al. provide evidence using CRISPR-Cas9 mediated genome editing in zebrafish, to introduce the Ser129Cys variant observed in affected individuals as well as novel missense and frameshift variants. Poor growth (similar to the human phenotype) and larval lethality were noted for missense variants. Head size was proportionately small. Ocular (coloboma/corneal) or craniofacial anomalies were not observed. Zebrafish heterozygous for LoF variants survived to adulthood.

Based on these a dominant-negative mechanism was postulated for missense alleles.

RNA-seq analysis in zebrafish showed upregulation of cholesterol biosynthesis pathways (among the most dysregulated ones).

Previous data in mice, suggest a broad expression pattern for Wdr37 with enrichment in ocular and brain tissues, significant associations in homozygous mutant mice for decreased body weight, grip strength, skeletal anomalies and possible increase (p =< 0.05) in ocular (lens/corneal) and other anomalies [BioGPS and International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium cited].

CG12333 loss (the Drosophila WDR37 ortholog) causes increased bang sensitivity in flies (analogous to the human epilepsy phenotype), defects in copulation and grip strength, phenotypes that were rescued by human reference but not variant cDNAs.

As discussed by Kanca et al. based on data from Drosophila and mice, limited phenotypic similarity of CNVs spanning WDR37 and adjacent genes with the reported individuals and the presence of LoF variants in control populations haploinsufficiency appears unlikely. Gain-of-function is also unlikely, as expression of human variants in flies did not exacerbate the observed phenotypes. A dominant-negative effect is again proposed.

WDR37 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM/G2P.

As a result WDR37 can be considered for inclusion in the ID and epilepsy panels with green (relevant phenotype, sufficient cases, animal models) or amber rating.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.995 POU3F3 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: POU3F3: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.993 SHANK1 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: SHANK1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30053575, 20868654; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.992 PIGB Catherine Snow reviewed gene: PIGB: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.990 PHF21A Catherine Snow reviewed gene: PHF21A: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.989 GTF3C3 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: GTF3C3: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.982 MTO1 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: MTO1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.978 UFC1 Catherine Snow Added phenotypes Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth, 618076 for gene: UFC1
Publications for gene UFC1 were changed from 29868776; 27431290; 30237576 to 30914295
Intellectual disability v2.977 FRMPD4 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: FRMPD4: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.975 DLG4 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: DLG4: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.970 CYP27A1 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: CYP27A1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.968 GRIA2 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: GRIA2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.965 DEGS1 Rebecca Foulger commented on gene: DEGS1: PMID:30620338: Karsai et al., 2019 identified a homozygous p.Ala280Val variant in DEGS1 in a Turkish patient of consanguineous parents. Both parents and healthy siblings were heterozygous carriers of the variant. Leading symptoms were early-onset developmental delay, movement disorder, progressive spasticity, and epilepsy.
Intellectual disability v2.963 ATN1 Catherine Snow Mode of pathogenicity for gene: ATN1 was changed from to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Intellectual disability v2.961 ATN1 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: ATN1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.953 CTBP1 Chris Buxton reviewed gene: CTBP1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Other; Publications: 27094857, 31041561; Phenotypes: intellectual disability, ataxia, hypotonia, tooth enamel defect; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v2.953 DEGS1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: DEGS1 was added
gene: DEGS1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: DEGS1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: DEGS1 were set to 30620337; 30620338; 31186544
Phenotypes for gene: DEGS1 were set to Leukodystrophy hypomyelinating 18, MIM 618404)
Penetrance for gene: DEGS1 were set to Complete
Review for gene: DEGS1 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Several individuals with biallelic pathogenic DEGS1 variants have been reported to date, in the following studies :
[1] Pant et al. 2019 (PMID: 30620337) : 19 patients from 13 unrelated families
[2] Karsai et al. 2019 (PMID: 30620338) : 1 individual
[3] Dolgin et al. 2019 (PMID: 31186544) : 4 individuals belonging to a large consanguineous kindred

As summarized in the first article and OMIM, affected individuals may have very poor psychomotor development, dystonia, spasticity, seizures with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy upon brain imaging and/or progressive atrophy of corpus callosum, thalami and cerebellum. Although a severe form overall was reported for many individuals in the first study, variable severity (eg. mild to severe ID) was reported among individuals belonging to the same kindred in the report by Dolgin et al.

DEGS1 encodes Δ4-dehydroceramide desaturase which catalyzes conversion of dihydroceramide (DhCer) to ceramide (Cer) in the de novo ceramide biosynthetic pathway. Ceramide is the central unit of all sphingolipids, which are components of cellular membranes and play key roles in several processes incl. cell differentiation, neuronal signaling and myelin sheath formation.

Sphingolipid balance is important for the CNS as demonstrated in the case of lysosomal disorders (eg. Gaucher, Niemann Pick, Farber) one enzymatic step away from DEGS1.

Variants of all types (missense, stopgain, frameshift) have been reported with the majority/almost all located in the fatty acid desaturase (FAD) domain.

Extensive studies have been carried out and demonstrated:
- impaired DEGS1 activity in patients' fibroblasts and muscle suggested by increased DhCer/Cer ratio and compatible broader biochemical effects (higher levels of dihydrosphingosine, dihydrosphingomyelins, etc. and lower levels of sphingosine, monohexosylceramides, etc).
- increased ROS production in patient fibroblasts (similar to a Drosophila model of excess DhCer),
- high expression of the gene in child and adult CNS tissues from control individuals (evaluated by RT-qPCR in Ref. 1). A previous study has suggested that DEGS1 expression is upregulated during the 4-9th week of human embryogenesis (PMID cited: 20430792) which may suggest an important role for neural system development.
- decreased expression for some variants either evaluated at the mRNA (RT-qPCR) / protein level (by Western Blot)
- In zebrafish loss of Degs1 resulted in increased DhCer/Cer ratio, locomotor disability and impaired myelination similar to the patients' phenotype. Fingolimod, a sphingosine analog inhibiting Cer synthase (one step prior to DEGS1 in the de novo ceramide biosynthesis pathway, and converting sphingosine to ceramide in the salvage pathway) reduced the DhCer/Cer imbalance, ameliorated the locomotor phenotype and increased the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes in zebrafish, while it reduced the ROS levels in patient fibroblasts.

Previous animal models:
Apart from the zebrafish model (Pant et al.), higher DhCer/Cer ratios have been shown in homozygous Degs1 -/- mice similar to what is also observed in D. melanogaster. As summarized in MGI (and the previous studies as well) "mice homozygous for a knock-out allele exhibit premature death, decreased to absent ceramide levels, decreased body weight, scaly skin, sparse hair, tremors, hematological and blood chemistry abnormalities, decreased bone mineral content and density and decreased liver function." (PMIDs cited: 17339025, 28507162).
----
The respective OMIM entry is Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 18 (#618404). DEGS1 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.
----
As a result, DEGS1 can be considered for inclusion in the ID and epilepsy panels probably as green (relevant phenotype, sufficient number of individuals, supportive expression and biochemical studies, animal models, etc).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.951 POU3F3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: POU3F3 was added
gene: POU3F3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Mode of inheritance for gene: POU3F3 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: POU3F3 were set to https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.06.007; 24550763
Phenotypes for gene: POU3F3 were set to Generalized hypotonia; Delayed speech and language development; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autistic behavior
Penetrance for gene: POU3F3 were set to unknown
Review for gene: POU3F3 was set to GREEN
gene: POU3F3 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Snijders Blok et al. (2019, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.06.007) report on 19 individuals with heterozygous POU3F3 variants.

Features included hypotonia in some, DD/ID (19/19) with impairment in speech and language skills, and autism-like symptoms with formal ASD diagnosis in 7(/19). Epilepsy was reported for 2 individuals. Overlapping facial features were noted among these individuals.

POU3F3 encodes a member of the class III POU family of transcription factors expressed in the central nervous system (Sumiyama et al. 1996, PMID: 8703082 cited in OMIM) and as the authors comment holds a role in regulation of key processes, eg. cortical neuronal migration, upper-layer specification and production and neurogenesis (PMIDs cited: 11859196, 12130536, 22892427, 17141158).

In almost all subjects (17/19) the variant had occurred as a de novo event, while one individual had inherited the variant from a similarly affected parent.

In total 12 nonsense/frameshift variants, 5 missense ones as well as 1 in-frame deletion were identified following (mostly) trio exome sequencing. All variants were absent from gnomAD, with in silico predictions in favour of pathogenicity.

The few missense variants and the in-frame deletion were found either in the POU-specific (NM_006236.2:c.1085G>T / p.Arg362Leu found in 2 subjects) or the POU-homeobox domain (where 2 variants affected the same residue, namely p.Arg407Gly/Leu, the other variant was p.Asn456Ser).

POU3F3 is an intronless gene and as a result truncating variants are not subject to NMD. The gene appears to be intolerant to LoF variants (pLI of 0.89 in gnomAD).

Western blot analysis of YFP-tagged POU3F3 variants (in HEK293 cell lysates) showed that the YFP-fusion proteins were expressed and had the expected molecular weights.

For several truncating variants tested as well as the in-frame deletion, aberrant subcellular localization pattern was demonstrated although this was not the case for 4 missense variants.

In vitro studies were carried out and suggested that POU3F3, as is known to be the case for POU3F2, is able to activate an intronic binding site in FOXP2. Using a luciferase assay, transcriptional activation was severely impaired for truncating variants tested, significantly lower for many missense ones with the exception of those affecting Arg407 in which case luciferase expression was either similar to wt (for Arg407Gly) or even increased in the case of Arg407Leu.

As the authors comment, both loss- and gain- of function mechanisms may underly pathogenicity of variants.

The ability of mutant proteins to form dimers either with wt or themselves was tested. Dimerization capacity was intact for most missense variants but was lost/decreased for truncating variants. The in-frame deletion resulted in impaired dimerization with wt, although homo-dimerization was found to be normal.
---
Dheedene et al. (2014 - PMID: 24550763) had previously reported on a boy with ID. aCGH had demonstrated a de novo 360-kb deletion of 2q12.1 spanning only POU3F3 and MRPS9 the latter encoding a mitochondrial ribosomal protein (which would be most compatible with a - yet undescribed - recessive inheritance pattern / disorder).
---
POU3F3 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM/G2P.
The gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc, among the principal authors of the study).
---
As a result POU3F3 seems to fulfill criteria for inclusion in the current panel probably as green [DD/ID was a universal feature - severity of ID was relevant in 5/10 individuals for whom details were available, functional evidence provided] or amber.
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Intellectual disability v2.948 HK1 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on mode of pathogenicity: A gain of function effect is presumed to cause disease.
Intellectual disability v2.948 HK1 Ivone Leong Mode of pathogenicity for gene: HK1 was changed from to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Intellectual disability v2.938 CTBP1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis changed review comment from: 12 individuals with a recurrent missense variant in CTBP1 have been reported, all summarized in the last article:
- Beck et al. 2016 (PMID: 27094857) : 4 individuals
- Sommerville et al. 2017 (PMID: 28955726) : 1 subject
- Beck et al. 2019 (PMID: 31041561) : 7 further individuals

Features included hypotonia, DD/ID, ataxia and tooth enamel defects. The degree of ID - when present - appeared to be highly variable based at least on the first two reports (3 individuals with severe ID, 1 with borderline-normal intellectual functioning, 1 did not exhibit ID) where this feature was further commented on.

A recurrent missense variant was found in all 12 affected individuals [NM_001328.2:c.1024C>T - p.(Arg342Trp) or NM_001012614.1:c.991C>T - p.(Arg331Trp)]. De novo occurrence this SNV was shown for (almost) all individuals, although in one case maternal sequencing reads were compatible with low-level somatic mosaicism (4/75 reads) not detected by Sanger sequencing. The mother of this individual was phenotypically normal. The variant is absent from gnomAD. Several in silico predictions (SIFT, PolyPhen2, MutationTaster, etc) suggest a deleterious effect.

Given recurrence of this specific variant, and presence of LoF ones in healthy individuals (pLI of 0.98 though in gnomAD) Beck et al. suggested a dominant negative or a gain-of-function effect rather than a loss of function mechanism.

Exclusion of alternative causes: was mainly discussed for the subject reported by Sommerville et al., due to the primary suspicion of a mitochondrial disorder (sequencing and research for mtDNA rearrangements, additional analysis of nuclear genes for mitochondrial disorders).

Expression: CTBP1 encodes C-terminal binding protein 1, with expression among others in brain and cerebellum (https://gtexportal.org/home/gene/CTBP1).

Role and Functional studies:
- The major nuclear isoform of CTBP1 (corresponding to NM_001328.2) and of its paralog CTBP2 function as transcriptional regulators (corepressors). The PLDLS(Pro-Leu-Asp-Leu-Ser)-binding cleft domain where this variant lies, acts as a high-affinity protein-binding interface to recruit DNA-binding repressors and chromatin modifying enzymes (PMID: 17967884).
- In a human glioblastoma cell line interaction of various cofactors with (Flag-tagged) CTBP1 was studied by immunoprecitipation with the Flag antibody and subsequent proteomic (LC-MS) analysis. This demonstrated reduced interaction in the case of R342W (compared to wt) with Zn-finger transcription factors, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, histone H3-K4 demethylase etc. Western blot analyses also revealed reduced interaction of the R342W with several CTBP cofactors.
- RNA-seq analysis in glioblastoma cell line revealed similar overall transcriptional profiles between wt and R342W though multiple RNA species showed significant differences (eg. genes involved in the biological processes of mitotic nuclear division, DNA repair, transcription and regulation of transcription among those that were most upregulated and genes involved in brain development among the most downregulated).
- Patient fibroblasts under conditions of glucose deprivation exhibited strikingly more cell death compared to control fibroblasts. Study of mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic genes by q-RT-PCR revealed that Noxa expression under glucose deprivation vs under normal glucose was 8 to 10-fold enhanced for control fibroblasts, but more than 30-fold enhanced in the case patient fibroblasts. Western blot analyses were also in line with this.
- Mitochondrial dysfunction (probably secondary) with evidence of decreased complex I (and complex IV) activities in skeletal muscle was the case for 2 individuals among multiple patients who had muscle biopsies.

Animal models:
- Beck et al. discuss previously published mouse models where Ctbp1/2 both play overlapping transcriptional roles during development. Homozygous deletion of Ctbp2 is embryonically lethal (>E10.5). Homozygous deletion of Ctbp1 results in viable mice with reduced size and lifespan (Cited: Hildebrand et al. 2002 - PMID: 12101226)
- As commented on by Sommerville et al., Ctbp1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts resulted in elongated mitochondria, abnormal mitochondrial cristae, diminished ATP and O2 consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential.

----
CTBP1 is associated with Hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay, and tooth enamel defect syndrome (617915) in OMIM. It is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.
Some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx participating in the first study and others) include this gene in panels for intellectual disability.
----

As a result, CTBP1 can be added in the current panel probably as green.; to: 12 individuals with a recurrent missense variant in CTBP1 have been reported, all summarized in the last article:
- Beck et al. 2016 (PMID: 27094857) : 4 individuals
- Sommerville et al. 2017 (PMID: 28955726) : 1 subject
- Beck et al. 2019 (PMID: 31041561) : 7 further individuals

Features included hypotonia, DD/ID, ataxia and tooth enamel defects. The degree of ID - when present - appeared to be highly variable based at least on the first two reports (3 individuals with severe ID, 1 with borderline-normal intellectual functioning, 1 did not exhibit ID) where this feature was further commented on.

A recurrent missense variant was found in all 12 affected individuals [NM_001328.2:c.1024C>T - p.(Arg342Trp) or NM_001012614.1:c.991C>T - p.(Arg331Trp)]. De novo occurrence this SNV was shown for (almost) all individuals, although in one case maternal sequencing reads were compatible with low-level somatic mosaicism (4/75 reads) not detected by Sanger sequencing. The mother of this individual was phenotypically normal. The variant is absent from gnomAD. Several in silico predictions (SIFT, PolyPhen2, MutationTaster, etc) suggest a deleterious effect.

Given recurrence of this specific variant, and presence of LoF ones in healthy individuals (pLI of 0.98 though in gnomAD) Beck et al. suggested a dominant negative or a gain-of-function effect rather than a loss of function mechanism.

Exclusion of alternative causes: was mainly discussed for the subject reported by Sommerville et al., due to the primary suspicion of a mitochondrial disorder (sequencing and research for mtDNA rearrangements, additional analysis of nuclear genes for mitochondrial disorders).

Expression: CTBP1 encodes C-terminal binding protein 1, with expression among others in brain and cerebellum (https://gtexportal.org/home/gene/CTBP1).

Role and Functional studies:
- The major nuclear isoform of CTBP1 (corresponding to NM_001328.2) and of its paralog CTBP2 function as transcriptional regulators (corepressors). The PLDLS(Pro-Leu-Asp-Leu-Ser)-binding cleft domain where this variant lies, acts as a high-affinity protein-binding interface to recruit DNA-binding repressors and chromatin modifying enzymes (PMID: 17967884).
- In a human glioblastoma cell line interaction of various cofactors with (Flag-tagged) CTBP1 was studied by immunoprecitipation with the Flag antibody and subsequent proteomic (LC-MS) analysis. This demonstrated reduced interaction in the case of R342W (compared to wt) with Zn-finger transcription factors, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, histone H3-K4 demethylase etc. Western blot analyses also revealed reduced interaction of the R342W with several CTBP cofactors.
- RNA-seq analysis in glioblastoma cell line revealed similar overall transcriptional profiles between wt and R342W though multiple RNA species showed significant differences (eg. genes involved in the biological processes of mitotic nuclear division, DNA repair, transcription and regulation of transcription among those that were most upregulated and genes involved in brain development among the most downregulated).
- Patient fibroblasts under conditions of glucose deprivation exhibited strikingly more cell death compared to control fibroblasts. Study of mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic genes by q-RT-PCR revealed that Noxa expression under glucose deprivation vs under normal glucose was 8 to 10-fold enhanced for control fibroblasts, but more than 30-fold enhanced in the case patient fibroblasts. Western blot analyses were also in line with this.
- Mitochondrial dysfunction (probably secondary) with evidence of decreased complex I (and complex IV) activities in skeletal muscle was the case for 2 individuals among multiple patients who had muscle biopsies.

Animal models:
- Beck et al. discuss previously published mouse models where Ctbp1/2 both play overlapping transcriptional roles during development. Homozygous deletion of Ctbp2 is embryonically lethal (>E10.5). Homozygous deletion of Ctbp1 results in viable mice with reduced size and lifespan (Cited: Hildebrand et al. 2002 - PMID: 12101226)
- As commented on by Sommerville et al., Ctbp1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts resulted in elongated mitochondria, abnormal mitochondrial cristae, diminished ATP and O2 consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential (Cited: Kim and Youn 2009 - PMID: 19136938).

----
CTBP1 is associated with Hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay, and tooth enamel defect syndrome (617915) in OMIM. It is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.
Some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx participating in the first study and others) include this gene in panels for intellectual disability.
----

As a result, CTBP1 can be added in the current panel probably as green.
Intellectual disability v2.938 CTBP1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: CTBP1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments; Publications: 27094857, 28955726, 31041561; Phenotypes: Hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay, and tooth enamel defect syndrome (MIM 617915); Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.938 CTBP1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis changed review comment from: 12 individuals with a recurrent missense variant in CTBP1 have been reported, all summarized in the last article:
- Beck et al. 2016 (PMID: 27094857) : 4 individuals
- Sommerville et al. 2017 (PMID: 28955726) : 1 subject
- Beck et al. 2019 (PMID: 31041561) : 7 further individuals

Features included hypotonia, DD/ID, ataxia and tooth enamel defects. The degree of ID - when present - appeared to be highly variable based at least on the first two reports (3 individuals with severe ID, 1 with borderline-normal intellectual functioning, 1 did not exhibit ID) where this feature was further commented on.

A recurrent missense variant was found in all 12 affected individuals [NM_001328.2:c.1024C>T - p.(Arg342Trp) or NM_001012614.1:c.991C>T - p.(Arg331Trp)]. De novo occurrence this SNV was shown for (almost) all individuals, although in one case maternal sequencing reads were compatible with low-level somatic mosaicism (4/75 reads) not detected by Sanger sequencing. The mother of this individual was phenotypically normal. The variant is absent from gnomAD. Several in silico predictions (SIFT, PolyPhen2, MutationTaster, etc) suggest a deleterious effect.

Given recurrence of this specific variant, and presence of LoF ones in healthy individuals (pLI of 0.98 though in gnomAD) Beck et al. suggested a dominant negative or a gain-of-function effect rather than a loss of function mechanism.

Exclusion of alternative causes: was mainly discussed for the subject reported by Sommerville et al., due to the primary suspicion of a mitochondrial disorder (sequencing and research for mtDNA rearrangements, additional analysis of nuclear genes for mitochondrial disorders).

Expression: CTBP1 encodes C-terminal binding protein 1, with expression among others in brain and cerebellum (https://gtexportal.org/home/gene/CTBP1 ).

Role and Functional studies:
- The major nuclear isoform of CTBP1 (corresponding to NM_001328.2) and of its paralog CTBP2 function as transcriptional regulators (corepressors). The PLDLS(Pro-Leu-Asp-Leu-Ser)-binding cleft domain where this variant lies, acts as a high-affinity protein-binding interface to recruit DNA-binding repressors and chromatin modifying enzymes (PMID: 17967884).
- In a human glioblastoma cell line interaction of various cofactors with (Flag-tagged) CTBP1 was studied by immunoprecitipation with the Flag antibody and subsequent proteomic (LC-MS) analysis. This demonstrated reduced interaction in the case of R342W (compared to wt) with Zn-finger transcription factors, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, histone H3-K4 demethylase etc. Western blot analyses also revealed reduced interaction of the R342W with several CTBP cofactors.
- RNA-seq analysis in glioblastoma cell line revealed similar overall transcriptional profiles between wt and R342W though multiple RNA species showed significant differences (eg. genes involved in the biological processes of mitotic nuclear division, DNA repair, transcription and regulation of transcription among those that were most upregulated and genes involved in brain development among the most downregulated).
- Patient fibroblasts under conditions of glucose deprivation exhibited strikingly more cell death compared to control fibroblasts. Study of mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic genes by q-RT-PCR revealed that Noxa expression under glucose deprivation vs under normal glucose was 8 to 10-fold enhanced for control fibroblasts, but more than 30-fold enhanced in the case patient fibroblasts. Western blot analyses were also in line with this.
- Mitochondrial dysfunction (probably secondary) with evidence of decreased complex I (and complex IV) activities in skeletal muscle was the case for 2 individuals among multiple patients who had muscle biopsies.

Animal models:
- Beck et al. discuss previously published mouse models where Ctbp1/2 both play overlapping transcriptional roles during development. Homozygous deletion of Ctbp2 is embryonically lethal (>E10.5). Homozygous deletion of Ctbp1 results in viable mice with reduced size and lifespan (Cited: Hildebrand et al. 2002 - PMID: 12101226)
- As commented on by Sommerville et al., Ctbp1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts resulted in elongated mitochondria, abnormal mitochondrial cristae, diminished ATP and O2 consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential.

----
CTBP1 is associated with Hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay, and tooth enamel defect syndrome (617915) in OMIM. It is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.
Some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx participating in the first study and others) include this gene in panels for intellectual disability.
----

As a result, CTBP1 can be added in the current panel probably as green.
Sources: Literature; to: 12 individuals with a recurrent missense variant in CTBP1 have been reported, all summarized in the last article:
- Beck et al. 2016 (PMID: 27094857) : 4 individuals
- Sommerville et al. 2017 (PMID: 28955726) : 1 subject
- Beck et al. 2019 (PMID: 31041561) : 7 further individuals

Features included hypotonia, DD/ID, ataxia and tooth enamel defects. The degree of ID - when present - appeared to be highly variable based at least on the first two reports (3 individuals with severe ID, 1 with borderline-normal intellectual functioning, 1 did not exhibit ID) where this feature was further commented on.

A recurrent missense variant was found in all 12 affected individuals [NM_001328.2:c.1024C>T - p.(Arg342Trp) or NM_001012614.1:c.991C>T - p.(Arg331Trp)]. De novo occurrence this SNV was shown for (almost) all individuals, although in one case maternal sequencing reads were compatible with low-level somatic mosaicism (4/75 reads) not detected by Sanger sequencing. The mother of this individual was phenotypically normal. The variant is absent from gnomAD. Several in silico predictions (SIFT, PolyPhen2, MutationTaster, etc) suggest a deleterious effect.

Given recurrence of this specific variant, and presence of LoF ones in healthy individuals (pLI of 0.98 though in gnomAD) Beck et al. suggested a dominant negative or a gain-of-function effect rather than a loss of function mechanism.

Exclusion of alternative causes: was mainly discussed for the subject reported by Sommerville et al., due to the primary suspicion of a mitochondrial disorder (sequencing and research for mtDNA rearrangements, additional analysis of nuclear genes for mitochondrial disorders).

Expression: CTBP1 encodes C-terminal binding protein 1, with expression among others in brain and cerebellum (https://gtexportal.org/home/gene/CTBP1).

Role and Functional studies:
- The major nuclear isoform of CTBP1 (corresponding to NM_001328.2) and of its paralog CTBP2 function as transcriptional regulators (corepressors). The PLDLS(Pro-Leu-Asp-Leu-Ser)-binding cleft domain where this variant lies, acts as a high-affinity protein-binding interface to recruit DNA-binding repressors and chromatin modifying enzymes (PMID: 17967884).
- In a human glioblastoma cell line interaction of various cofactors with (Flag-tagged) CTBP1 was studied by immunoprecitipation with the Flag antibody and subsequent proteomic (LC-MS) analysis. This demonstrated reduced interaction in the case of R342W (compared to wt) with Zn-finger transcription factors, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, histone H3-K4 demethylase etc. Western blot analyses also revealed reduced interaction of the R342W with several CTBP cofactors.
- RNA-seq analysis in glioblastoma cell line revealed similar overall transcriptional profiles between wt and R342W though multiple RNA species showed significant differences (eg. genes involved in the biological processes of mitotic nuclear division, DNA repair, transcription and regulation of transcription among those that were most upregulated and genes involved in brain development among the most downregulated).
- Patient fibroblasts under conditions of glucose deprivation exhibited strikingly more cell death compared to control fibroblasts. Study of mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic genes by q-RT-PCR revealed that Noxa expression under glucose deprivation vs under normal glucose was 8 to 10-fold enhanced for control fibroblasts, but more than 30-fold enhanced in the case patient fibroblasts. Western blot analyses were also in line with this.
- Mitochondrial dysfunction (probably secondary) with evidence of decreased complex I (and complex IV) activities in skeletal muscle was the case for 2 individuals among multiple patients who had muscle biopsies.

Animal models:
- Beck et al. discuss previously published mouse models where Ctbp1/2 both play overlapping transcriptional roles during development. Homozygous deletion of Ctbp2 is embryonically lethal (>E10.5). Homozygous deletion of Ctbp1 results in viable mice with reduced size and lifespan (Cited: Hildebrand et al. 2002 - PMID: 12101226)
- As commented on by Sommerville et al., Ctbp1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts resulted in elongated mitochondria, abnormal mitochondrial cristae, diminished ATP and O2 consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential.

----
CTBP1 is associated with Hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay, and tooth enamel defect syndrome (617915) in OMIM. It is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.
Some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx participating in the first study and others) include this gene in panels for intellectual disability.
----

As a result, CTBP1 can be added in the current panel probably as green.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.938 CTBP1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: CTBP1 was added
gene: CTBP1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: CTBP1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: CTBP1 were set to 27094857; 28955726; 31041561
Phenotypes for gene: CTBP1 were set to Generalized hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Ataxia; Abnormality of dental enamel
Penetrance for gene: CTBP1 were set to unknown
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: CTBP1 was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Review for gene: CTBP1 was set to GREEN
gene: CTBP1 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: 12 individuals with a recurrent missense variant in CTBP1 have been reported, all summarized in the last article:
- Beck et al. 2016 (PMID: 27094857) : 4 individuals
- Sommerville et al. 2017 (PMID: 28955726) : 1 subject
- Beck et al. 2019 (PMID: 31041561) : 7 further individuals

Features included hypotonia, DD/ID, ataxia and tooth enamel defects. The degree of ID - when present - appeared to be highly variable based at least on the first two reports (3 individuals with severe ID, 1 with borderline-normal intellectual functioning, 1 did not exhibit ID) where this feature was further commented on.

A recurrent missense variant was found in all 12 affected individuals [NM_001328.2:c.1024C>T - p.(Arg342Trp) or NM_001012614.1:c.991C>T - p.(Arg331Trp)]. De novo occurrence this SNV was shown for (almost) all individuals, although in one case maternal sequencing reads were compatible with low-level somatic mosaicism (4/75 reads) not detected by Sanger sequencing. The mother of this individual was phenotypically normal. The variant is absent from gnomAD. Several in silico predictions (SIFT, PolyPhen2, MutationTaster, etc) suggest a deleterious effect.

Given recurrence of this specific variant, and presence of LoF ones in healthy individuals (pLI of 0.98 though in gnomAD) Beck et al. suggested a dominant negative or a gain-of-function effect rather than a loss of function mechanism.

Exclusion of alternative causes: was mainly discussed for the subject reported by Sommerville et al., due to the primary suspicion of a mitochondrial disorder (sequencing and research for mtDNA rearrangements, additional analysis of nuclear genes for mitochondrial disorders).

Expression: CTBP1 encodes C-terminal binding protein 1, with expression among others in brain and cerebellum (https://gtexportal.org/home/gene/CTBP1 ).

Role and Functional studies:
- The major nuclear isoform of CTBP1 (corresponding to NM_001328.2) and of its paralog CTBP2 function as transcriptional regulators (corepressors). The PLDLS(Pro-Leu-Asp-Leu-Ser)-binding cleft domain where this variant lies, acts as a high-affinity protein-binding interface to recruit DNA-binding repressors and chromatin modifying enzymes (PMID: 17967884).
- In a human glioblastoma cell line interaction of various cofactors with (Flag-tagged) CTBP1 was studied by immunoprecitipation with the Flag antibody and subsequent proteomic (LC-MS) analysis. This demonstrated reduced interaction in the case of R342W (compared to wt) with Zn-finger transcription factors, histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, histone H3-K4 demethylase etc. Western blot analyses also revealed reduced interaction of the R342W with several CTBP cofactors.
- RNA-seq analysis in glioblastoma cell line revealed similar overall transcriptional profiles between wt and R342W though multiple RNA species showed significant differences (eg. genes involved in the biological processes of mitotic nuclear division, DNA repair, transcription and regulation of transcription among those that were most upregulated and genes involved in brain development among the most downregulated).
- Patient fibroblasts under conditions of glucose deprivation exhibited strikingly more cell death compared to control fibroblasts. Study of mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic genes by q-RT-PCR revealed that Noxa expression under glucose deprivation vs under normal glucose was 8 to 10-fold enhanced for control fibroblasts, but more than 30-fold enhanced in the case patient fibroblasts. Western blot analyses were also in line with this.
- Mitochondrial dysfunction (probably secondary) with evidence of decreased complex I (and complex IV) activities in skeletal muscle was the case for 2 individuals among multiple patients who had muscle biopsies.

Animal models:
- Beck et al. discuss previously published mouse models where Ctbp1/2 both play overlapping transcriptional roles during development. Homozygous deletion of Ctbp2 is embryonically lethal (>E10.5). Homozygous deletion of Ctbp1 results in viable mice with reduced size and lifespan (Cited: Hildebrand et al. 2002 - PMID: 12101226)
- As commented on by Sommerville et al., Ctbp1 knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts resulted in elongated mitochondria, abnormal mitochondrial cristae, diminished ATP and O2 consumption and mitochondrial membrane potential.

----
CTBP1 is associated with Hypotonia, ataxia, developmental delay, and tooth enamel defect syndrome (617915) in OMIM. It is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.
Some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx participating in the first study and others) include this gene in panels for intellectual disability.
----

As a result, CTBP1 can be added in the current panel probably as green.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.938 TRPM3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis changed review comment from: Dyment et al. (2019 - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-019-0462-x) report on 7 unrelated individuals with a recurrent de novo TRPM3 missense variant [NM_020952.4:c.2509G>A - NP_066003.3:p.(Val837Met)] as well as an additional individual with a further de novo missense variant [c.2810C>A or p.(Pro937Gln) - same ref. sequences].

Overlapping features included hypotonia (7/8 - in one case mixed tone abnormality), DD/ID (8/8 - all individuals at appropriate age - degree relevant), EEG-confirmed epilepsy (7/8). Autism-like features were observed in 4 (out of 6 for whom this information was reported). Other features were noted in a minority (or were private to certain) of these individuals.

Different clinical types of seizures were reported incl. absence, generalized-toni-clonic, infantile spasms as well as subclinical ones. Onset was in infancy or early childhood.

In all individuals the variant was found following trio exome sequencing.

The first variant fulfilled ACMG criteria to be classified as pathogenic due to it's de novo occurrence, prevalence in affected individuals (>=6 affected individuals and in the same time) absence from population databases, in silico predictions in favour of pathogenicity (PS2, PS4_Moderate, PM2, PP3).

The Pro937Gln variant is however classified as a VUS. The subject harboring this variant had an additional de novo variant in another gene (DDB1) not associated with any phenotype, to date.

Several other genetic causes had previously been ruled out for most individuals by other investigations : aCGH was normal in all, FMR1 testing in 6 subjects, genes (PHF6, MECP2, MCT8) or smaller panels for ID (the latter in 3 subjects), mtDNA or testing of nuclear genes for mitochondrial disorders, etc.

TRPM3 encodes transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel, subfamily M, member 3. TRP channels are a superfamily of gated cation channels sensitive to various physical or chemical stimuli (Clapham 2003 - PMID: 14654832 cited) eg. temperature or pain.

The gene is highly expressed in the brain in humans and other vertebrates (Grimm et al. 2003 - PMID : 12672799 and GTEx - https://gtexportal.org/home/gene/TRPM3).

Animal models : In rat brain, expression is initially restricted to neurons but later - as myelination progresses - shifts to oligodendrocytes (cited : Hoffmann et al. 2010 - PMID: 20163522). Most subjects had normal brain MRI appart from one individual with nonspecific white matter hyperintensities and another with possible mild cerebral volume loss. Trpm3 -/- mice show attenuated nocifensive behavior after heat or dermal injection of pregnenolone sulfate. Heat or pain insensitivity was reported only for 2 individuals.

Functional studies were not carried out, although some hypotheses are proposed following in silico modeling of the TRPM3 variants using an available structure for TRPM7.

As discussed by Dyment et al., happloinsufficiency appears to be unlikely given the presence of LoF variants in ExAC/gnomAD (pLI of 0), some intragenic copy number variants in DGV. In addition, pathogenicity of deletions spanning only TRPM3 or additional proximal genes was not evident in 2 cases:
- In the first case a exon 1-9 deletion was found in 2 brothers with Becker muscular dystrophy due to DMD intragenic duplication and autism/cognitive impairment though the TRPM3 deletion was found also in unaffected family members. The deletion was also found in unaffected relatives. A multiple hit hypothesis was hypothesized for this family. [Pagnamenta et al. 2011 - PMID: 21484199]
- Kuniba et al. [2009 - PMID: 19343044] reported a 1.27-Mb deletion spanning TRPM3, KLF9, SMC5 and MAMDC2 in a patient with Kabuki syndrome working diagnosis. Segregation studies were however not possible. At the time, the molecular etiology of Kabuki syndrome (KMT2D/KDM6A) was not known.
-----
TRPM3 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM or G2P.
This gene is included in panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx participating in the above study).
-----
As a result, TRPM3 seems to fulfill criteria for inclusion in the ID/epilepsy panels probably as green (# of individuals, degree of ID relevant, EEG-confirmed epilepsy) or amber (if further functional evidence would be required).

[Please consider eligibility for inclusion in other possibly relevant panels eg. autism, etc].
Sources: Literature; to: Dyment et al. (2019 - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-019-0462-x) report on 7 unrelated individuals with a recurrent de novo TRPM3 missense variant [NM_020952.4:c.2509G>A - NP_066003.3:p.(Val837Met)] as well as an additional individual with a further de novo missense variant [c.2810C>A or p.(Pro937Gln) - same ref. sequences].

Overlapping features included hypotonia (7/8 - in one case mixed tone abnormality), DD/ID (8/8 - all individuals at appropriate age - degree relevant), EEG-confirmed epilepsy (7/8). Autism-like features were observed in 4 (out of 6 for whom this information was reported). Other features were noted in a minority (or were private to certain) of these individuals.

Different clinical types of seizures were reported incl. absence, generalized-toni-clonic, infantile spasms as well as subclinical ones. Onset was in infancy or early childhood.

In all individuals the variant was found following trio exome sequencing.

The first variant fulfilled ACMG criteria to be classified as pathogenic due to it's de novo occurrence, prevalence in affected individuals (>=6 affected individuals and in the same time) absence from population databases, in silico predictions in favour of pathogenicity (PS2, PS4_Moderate, PM2, PP3).

The Pro937Gln variant is however also present once in gnomAD (1/251370 alleles or AF:3.98e-6) and is classified as VUS according to the ACMG criteria. The subject harboring this variant had an additional de novo variant in another gene (DDB1) not associated with any phenotype, to date.

Several other genetic causes had previously been ruled out for most individuals by other investigations : aCGH was normal in all, FMR1 testing in 6 subjects, genes (PHF6, MECP2, MCT8) or smaller panels for ID (the latter in 3 subjects), mtDNA or testing of nuclear genes for mitochondrial disorders, etc.

TRPM3 encodes transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel, subfamily M, member 3. TRP channels are a superfamily of gated cation channels sensitive to various physical or chemical stimuli (Clapham 2003 - PMID: 14654832 cited) eg. temperature or pain.

The gene is highly expressed in the brain in humans and other vertebrates (Grimm et al. 2003 - PMID : 12672799 and GTEx - https://gtexportal.org/home/gene/TRPM3).

Animal models : In rat brain, expression is initially restricted to neurons but later - as myelination progresses - shifts to oligodendrocytes (cited : Hoffmann et al. 2010 - PMID: 20163522). Most subjects had normal brain MRI appart from one individual with nonspecific white matter hyperintensities and another with possible mild cerebral volume loss. Trpm3 -/- mice show attenuated nocifensive behavior after heat or dermal injection of pregnenolone sulfate. Heat or pain insensitivity was reported only for 2 individuals.

Functional studies were not carried out, although some hypotheses are proposed following in silico modeling of the TRPM3 variants using an available structure for TRPM7.

As discussed by Dyment et al., happloinsufficiency appears to be unlikely given the presence of LoF variants in ExAC/gnomAD (pLI of 0), some intragenic copy number variants in DGV. In addition, pathogenicity of deletions spanning only TRPM3 or additional proximal genes was not evident in 2 cases:
- In the first case a exon 1-9 deletion was found in 2 brothers with Becker muscular dystrophy due to DMD intragenic duplication and autism/cognitive impairment though the TRPM3 deletion was found also in unaffected family members. The deletion was also found in unaffected relatives. A multiple hit hypothesis was hypothesized for this family. [Pagnamenta et al. 2011 - PMID: 21484199]
- Kuniba et al. [2009 - PMID: 19343044] reported a 1.27-Mb deletion spanning TRPM3, KLF9, SMC5 and MAMDC2 in a patient with Kabuki syndrome working diagnosis. Segregation studies were however not possible. At the time, the molecular etiology of Kabuki syndrome (KMT2D/KDM6A) was not known.
-----
TRPM3 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM or G2P.
This gene is included in panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx participating in the above study).
-----
As a result, TRPM3 seems to fulfill criteria for inclusion in the ID/epilepsy panels probably as green (# of individuals, degree of ID relevant, EEG-confirmed epilepsy) or amber (if further functional evidence would be required).

[Please consider eligibility for inclusion in other possibly relevant panels eg. autism, etc].
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.938 TRPM3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: TRPM3 was added
gene: TRPM3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: TRPM3 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: TRPM3 were set to doi.org/10.1038/s41431-019-0462-x
Phenotypes for gene: TRPM3 were set to Generalized hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Autistic behavior
Penetrance for gene: TRPM3 were set to unknown
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: TRPM3 was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Review for gene: TRPM3 was set to GREEN
gene: TRPM3 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Dyment et al. (2019 - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-019-0462-x) report on 7 unrelated individuals with a recurrent de novo TRPM3 missense variant [NM_020952.4:c.2509G>A - NP_066003.3:p.(Val837Met)] as well as an additional individual with a further de novo missense variant [c.2810C>A or p.(Pro937Gln) - same ref. sequences].

Overlapping features included hypotonia (7/8 - in one case mixed tone abnormality), DD/ID (8/8 - all individuals at appropriate age - degree relevant), EEG-confirmed epilepsy (7/8). Autism-like features were observed in 4 (out of 6 for whom this information was reported). Other features were noted in a minority (or were private to certain) of these individuals.

Different clinical types of seizures were reported incl. absence, generalized-toni-clonic, infantile spasms as well as subclinical ones. Onset was in infancy or early childhood.

In all individuals the variant was found following trio exome sequencing.

The first variant fulfilled ACMG criteria to be classified as pathogenic due to it's de novo occurrence, prevalence in affected individuals (>=6 affected individuals and in the same time) absence from population databases, in silico predictions in favour of pathogenicity (PS2, PS4_Moderate, PM2, PP3).

The Pro937Gln variant is however classified as a VUS. The subject harboring this variant had an additional de novo variant in another gene (DDB1) not associated with any phenotype, to date.

Several other genetic causes had previously been ruled out for most individuals by other investigations : aCGH was normal in all, FMR1 testing in 6 subjects, genes (PHF6, MECP2, MCT8) or smaller panels for ID (the latter in 3 subjects), mtDNA or testing of nuclear genes for mitochondrial disorders, etc.

TRPM3 encodes transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channel, subfamily M, member 3. TRP channels are a superfamily of gated cation channels sensitive to various physical or chemical stimuli (Clapham 2003 - PMID: 14654832 cited) eg. temperature or pain.

The gene is highly expressed in the brain in humans and other vertebrates (Grimm et al. 2003 - PMID : 12672799 and GTEx - https://gtexportal.org/home/gene/TRPM3).

Animal models : In rat brain, expression is initially restricted to neurons but later - as myelination progresses - shifts to oligodendrocytes (cited : Hoffmann et al. 2010 - PMID: 20163522). Most subjects had normal brain MRI appart from one individual with nonspecific white matter hyperintensities and another with possible mild cerebral volume loss. Trpm3 -/- mice show attenuated nocifensive behavior after heat or dermal injection of pregnenolone sulfate. Heat or pain insensitivity was reported only for 2 individuals.

Functional studies were not carried out, although some hypotheses are proposed following in silico modeling of the TRPM3 variants using an available structure for TRPM7.

As discussed by Dyment et al., happloinsufficiency appears to be unlikely given the presence of LoF variants in ExAC/gnomAD (pLI of 0), some intragenic copy number variants in DGV. In addition, pathogenicity of deletions spanning only TRPM3 or additional proximal genes was not evident in 2 cases:
- In the first case a exon 1-9 deletion was found in 2 brothers with Becker muscular dystrophy due to DMD intragenic duplication and autism/cognitive impairment though the TRPM3 deletion was found also in unaffected family members. The deletion was also found in unaffected relatives. A multiple hit hypothesis was hypothesized for this family. [Pagnamenta et al. 2011 - PMID: 21484199]
- Kuniba et al. [2009 - PMID: 19343044] reported a 1.27-Mb deletion spanning TRPM3, KLF9, SMC5 and MAMDC2 in a patient with Kabuki syndrome working diagnosis. Segregation studies were however not possible. At the time, the molecular etiology of Kabuki syndrome (KMT2D/KDM6A) was not known.
-----
TRPM3 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM or G2P.
This gene is included in panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx participating in the above study).
-----
As a result, TRPM3 seems to fulfill criteria for inclusion in the ID/epilepsy panels probably as green (# of individuals, degree of ID relevant, EEG-confirmed epilepsy) or amber (if further functional evidence would be required).

[Please consider eligibility for inclusion in other possibly relevant panels eg. autism, etc].
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.923 TRAPPC12 Louise Daugherty Phenotypes for gene: TRAPPC12 were changed from Encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with brain atrophy and spasticity, 617669 to Encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with brain atrophy and spasticity, 617669; Developmental delay
Intellectual disability v2.922 TRAPPC12 Louise Daugherty Phenotypes for gene: TRAPPC12 were changed from to Encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with brain atrophy and spasticity, 617669
Intellectual disability v2.920 TRAPPC12 Louise Daugherty reviewed gene: TRAPPC12: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28777934; Phenotypes: Encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with brain atrophy and spasticity, 617669; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.878 SETD1B Ivone Leong reviewed gene: SETD1B: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31110234; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.868 PUF60 Leanne Baxter reviewed gene: PUF60: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Syndromic intellectual disability, prenatal onset growth failure, bifid uvula, retinal atrophy, congenital microcephaly, short stature, long fingers, deviation of toes, short thorax; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.853 ALKBH8 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: ALKBH8 was added
gene: ALKBH8 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: ALKBH8 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Phenotypes for gene: ALKBH8 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures
Penetrance for gene: ALKBH8 were set to Complete
Review for gene: ALKBH8 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Monies et al. (2019 - PMID: 31079898) report on 7 individuals from 2 different consanguineous Saoudi families, harboring homozygous truncating ALKBH8 pathogenic variants. The same individuals are included in another concurrent publication from the same group (Monies et al. 2019 - PMID: 31130284).

All presented with DD and ID (Fam1 : moderate in the proband, degree not commented on for his 3 sibs / Fam2 : mild in the proband, severe in all his 3 sibs). Epilepsy was reported for 6/7 individuals although the type has not been commented on (onset 9-12 months to 2 years). Variable other features were noted in few.

Affected subjects from the first family were homozygous for a stopgain variant (NM_001301010.1:c.1660C>T or p.Arg554Ter) while individuals from the second family were homozygous for a frameshift one (c.1794delC or p.Trp599Glyfs*19). The variants affected in both cases the last exon of ALKBH8 and RT-PCR confirmed that they escape NMD.

Alternative causes were ruled out, at least for the proband from the second family (chromosomal analysis, SNP-array, metabolic investigations).

Linkage analysis of both families confirmed linkage to the same autozygous interval of chr11q22.3 with a LOD score of 6.

Segregation analyses in both families, confirmed homozygosity for the truncating variants in affected members and heterozygosity in their parents (or several unaffected sibs, none of those studied was homozygous for the ref. allele).

In mouse or human cells, ALKBH8 has previously been shown to be involved in tRNA modifications of the wobble uridines of specific tRNAs (PMIDs cited: 20308323, 20583019, 21653555).

LC-MS/MS analyses of tRNA extracted from LCLs derived from affected individuals, unaffected relatives (UR) and independent controls (IC) revealed that wobble nucleotide modifications were completely absent (or dramatically decreased in the case of mcm5U) in affected individuals but readily detected in UR/IC. As specific modifications were absent, substantial amounts of precursors (eg. cm5U - the precursor of mcm5U) were detected in affected individuals but not in unaffected ones.

Absence of wobble modifications (eg. mchm5U) has equally been observed in Alkbh8 knockout mice. Alkbh8-deficient mice show similar increases in precursors. Alkbh8 KO mice are however phenotypically normal (the authors comment that eventual cognitive defects were not formally evaluated and might have been missed - PMIDs cited: 20123966, 21285950).

As a result, the studies carried out confirmed the loss-of-function effect and were in line with previous functional studies in animal models, although the pathogenesis of ID remains unclear.

The expression profile of ALKBH8 is also unclear (wide profile of expression suggested developmentally, the authors studied LCLs, other studies suggest that embryonic expression is broad but becomes progressively more restricted to specific neuronal cells).

Mutations in other genes involved in tRNA modification (eg. ADAT3, PUS3, PUS7) have been shown underlie disorders affecting the CNS, with ID as a feature.

ALKBH8 is not currently associated with any phenotype in OMIM / G2P.

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID/epilepsy panels as amber pending further evidence.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.853 AP2M1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: AP2M1 was added
gene: AP2M1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: AP2M1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: AP2M1 were set to 31104773
Phenotypes for gene: AP2M1 were set to Generalized hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Ataxia; Autistic behavior
Penetrance for gene: AP2M1 were set to Complete
Review for gene: AP2M1 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Helbig et al. (2019 - PMID: 31104773) report on 4 individuals with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy due to a recurrent de novo AP2M1 missense variant (NM_004068.3:c.508C>T or p.Arg170Trp). Seizure types included atonic, myoclonic-atonic, absence seizures (with or without eyelid myoclonia), tonic-clonic etc. Hypotonia, developmental delay (prior to the onset of seizures at 1y 3m to 4y) and intellectual disability were observed in all four. Other features included ataxia (3/4) or autism spectrum disorder (2/4).

AP2M1 encodes the μ-subunit of the adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2). AP2M1 is highly expressed in the CNS. The AP-2 complex is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis at the plasma mebrane of neurons and non-neuronal cells. This mechanism is important for recycling synaptic vesicle components at mammalian central synapses. Previous evidence suggests regulation of GABA and/or glutamate receptors at the neuronal surface by AP-2 (several references provided by Helbig et al.).

The authors provide evidence for impaired (reduced) clathrin-mediated endocytosis of transferrin in AP-2μ-depleted human HeLa cells upon plasmid-based re-expression of the Arg170Trp variant compaired to re-expression of WT. A similar defect was demonstrated upon comparison of the same process when WT and Arg170Trp re-expression was studied in primary astrocytes from conditional AP-2μ knockout mice.

Expression levels, protein stability, membrane recruitment and localization of the AP-2 complex in clathrin-coated pits were similar for the Arg170Trp variant and WT. As a result, the effect of the specific variant is suggested to be mediated by alteration of the AP-2 complex function (/impaired recognition of cargo membrane proteins) rather than haploinsufficiency.

AP2M1 is highly intolerant to missense / LoF variants with z-score and pLI in ExAC of 5.82 and 0.99 respectively.

As the authors discuss, heterozygous Ap2m1 mutant mice do not have an apparent phenotype. Homozygous mutant mice die before day 3.5 postcoitus, suggesting a critical role in early embryonic development (PMID 16227583 cited)

AP2M1 is currently not associated with any phenotype in OMIM / G2P.

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in the epilepsy and ID panels probably as green (4 individuals with highly similar phenotype of DEE, relevance of phenotype and/or degree of ID, functional studies, etc) rather than amber (single recurrent variant - although this is also the case for other genes rated green).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.847 DYNC1I2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: DYNC1I2 was added
gene: DYNC1I2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: DYNC1I2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: DYNC1I2 were set to 31079899
Phenotypes for gene: DYNC1I2 were set to Microcephaly; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Abnormality of head or neck
Penetrance for gene: DYNC1I2 were set to Complete
Review for gene: DYNC1I2 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Ansar et al. (2019 - PMID: 31079899) report on five individuals from 3 families, with biallelic likely pathogenic DYNC1I2 variants.

The phenotype consisted of microcephaly, intellectual disability, cerebral malformations and suggestive facial features. 2/5 individuals, from different families presented seizures.

Affected individuals from a consanguineous Pakistani family were homozygous for a splicing variant (c.607+1G>A - RNA was unavailable for further studies). One individual from a futher family was compound heterozygous for a missense variant (c.740A>G or p.Tyr247Cys) and a 374 kb deletion encompassing DYNC1I2 as well as 3 other genes (DCAF17, CYBRD1, SLC25A12). Another individual was found to harbor c.740A>G (p.Tyr247Cys) in trans with c.868C>T (p.Gln290*). [NM_001378.2 used as reference].

DYNC1I2 encodes Dynein Cytoplasmic 1 intermediate chain 2, a component of the cytoplasmic dynein 1 complex. This complex is involved in retrograde cargo transport within the cytoplasmic microtubule network. Emerging evidence suggests a critical role of this complex in neurodevelopment and homeostasis (PMIDs cited by the authors: 25374356, 28395088). Mutations in other genes encoding components of the complex (principally DYNC1H1) give rise to neurological disorders, some of which with ID as a principal feature (eg. Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 13 - MIM 614563).

In zebrafish, DYNC1I2 has 2 orthologs - dync1i2a and dync1i2b. The former is suggested to be the functionally relevant DYNC1I2 ortholog as CRISPR-Cas9 dync1i2a disruption and/or suppression with morpholinos resulted in altered craniofacial patterning and reduction in head size (similar to the microcephaly phenotype reported in affected individuals).

In vivo complementation studies suggested a loss of function effect for the p.Tyr247Cys variant, similar to the p.Gln290* one.

Evidence is provided for a role of increased apoptosis, probably secondary to altered cell cycle progression (prolonged mitosis due to abnormal spindle morphology), to explain the reduced head size/microcephaly phenotype.

There is no associated phenotype in OMIM/G2P.

As a result, DYNC1I2 could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as amber (ID reported for 5 individuals from 3 families, severity of ID not specified for all, eg. fam. 2 for whom the deletion was also spanning other genes which might contribute to the phenotype).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.845 ACTL6B Rebecca Foulger commented on gene: ACTL6B: Bell et al., 2019 (PMID:31031012) identified 11 individuals (from 10 families) with biallelic variants in ACTL6B and global developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and spasticity. They also identified 10 unrelated individuals with de novo heterozygous variants with ID, developmental delay, hypotonia, Rett-like stereotypies (e.g. handwringing), and minor facial dysmorphisms: 9/10 of these individuals had the identical de novo c.1027G>A (p.Gly343Arg) mutation. Engineered knock-out of ACTL6B in wild-type human neurons resulted in profound deficits in dendrite development.
Intellectual disability v2.843 ACTL6B Rebecca Foulger Added comment: Comment on mode of pathogenicity: Bell et al., 2019 (PMID:31031012) suggest that biallelic variants are loss-of-function, and heterozygous variants are gain-of-function.
Intellectual disability v2.843 ACTL6B Rebecca Foulger Mode of pathogenicity for gene: ACTL6B was changed from to None
Intellectual disability v2.841 UFC1 Rebecca Foulger Phenotypes for gene: UFC1 were changed from Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth, 618076 to Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth, 618076; global developmental delay with progressive microcephaly
Intellectual disability v2.803 PHACTR1 Eleanor Williams Added comment: Comment on mode of pathogenicity: Proposed dominant negative or incomplete penetrance mode of action (PMIDs: 23033978, 28135719)
Intellectual disability v2.803 PHACTR1 Eleanor Williams Mode of pathogenicity for gene: PHACTR1 was changed from to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Intellectual disability v2.800 ZNF142 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: ZNF142 was added
gene: ZNF142 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: ZNF142 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: ZNF142 were set to 31036918
Phenotypes for gene: ZNF142 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Tremor; Dystonia
Penetrance for gene: ZNF142 were set to unknown
Review for gene: ZNF142 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Khan et al. (2019 - PMID: 31036918) describe the phenotype of 7 females from 4 families, harboring biallelic likely pathogenic ZNF142 variants.

Overlapping features included cognitive impairment (ID in 6/7 from 3 families, borderline intellectual functioning was reported one occasion), speech impairement and motor impairment (7/7), and variably penetrant seizures (5/7), tremor (4/7) and dystonia (3/7). Most individuals (5/7) had experienced at least one episode of seizures (tonic-clonic) though seizures were recurrent in 3 sibs.

Other disorders with ID (eg. Angelman syndrome, Rett syndrome, chromosomal disorders) or movement disorders as a feature were previously ruled out for many subjects.

6 individuals were homozygous or compound heterozygous for LoF (stopgain or frameshift) variants. One individual harbored 2 missense SNVs in the compound heterozygous state. Variants reported include (NM_001105537.2): c. 817_818delAA (p.Lys273Glufs*32), c.1292delG (p.Cys431Leufs*11), c.3175C>T (p.Arg1059*), c.4183delC (p.Leu1395*), c.3698G>T (p.Cys1233Phe), c.4498C>T (p.Arg1500Trp) with the LoF variants predicted to result in NMD. Expression or functional studies were not carried out.

ZNF142 encodes a C2H2 domain-containing transcription factor. Mutations in other zinc finger proteins (ZNF/zfp) have been reported in several neurodevelopmental disorders impacting the CNS (eg. ZBTB20 and ZBTB11 heterozygous and biallelic mutations, respectively) and/or presenting with movement disorders among their manifestations (eg. YY1).

As the authors comment, homozygous ablation of the orthologous (Zfp142) locus in mice results in behavioral and neurological phenotypes [MGI ref.ID: J:211773 cited - http://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/reference/J:211773 (though Zfp142 or its locus do not seem to appear in the list)].

ZNF142 is not - at least commonly - included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories. It is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM, nor in G2P.

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in the current panel as probably as green (individuals from 3 families, appropriate degree of ID for the current panel) or amber (if further evidence would be required).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.800 ACTL6B Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: ACTL6B: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31031012, 30656450, 26539891, 27171548, 30237576; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Seizures, Spasticity, Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Stereotypic behavior, Abnormality of the face; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.800 POLA1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: POLA1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31006512; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Microcephaly, Growth abnormality, Hypogonadism; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.800 SNAP25 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: SNAP25 was added
gene: SNAP25 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Mode of inheritance for gene: SNAP25 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: SNAP25 were set to 29491473; 28135719; 29100083; 25381298; 25003006
Phenotypes for gene: SNAP25 were set to ?Myasthenic syndrome, congenital 18, 616330
Penetrance for gene: SNAP25 were set to Complete
Review for gene: SNAP25 was set to GREEN
gene: SNAP25 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Probably 9 individuals with heterozygous SNAP25 pathogenic variants have been reported to date, most summarized in the first reference (NM_130811.2 used as reference for all variants below):
- Fukuda et al. (2018 - PMID: 29491473) 2 sibs (~11 and 2.5 y.o) with seizures and cerebellar ataxia but not ID. harboring c.176G>C (p.Arg59Pro) variant which was inherited from a mosaic unaffected parent.
- DDD study (2017 - PMID: 28135719) [also in Heyne et al. 2018 - PMID: 29942082] 3 inividuals (11 m - 7 y of age) with DD and seizures due to c.118A>G (p.Lys40Glu), c.127G>C (p.Gly43Arg) and c.520C>T (p.Gln174*) de novo variants.
- Hamdan et al. (2017 - PMID: 29100083) a 23 y.o. male with epilepsy and ID and c.496G>T (p.Asp166Tyr) de novo variant
- Shen et al. (2014 - PMID: 25381298) a 11 y.o. female with epilepsy and ID and c.200T>A (p.Ile67Asn) de novo variant
- Rohena et al. (2013 - PMID: 25003006) a 15 y.o. female with epilepsy and ID and c.142G>T (p.Val48Phe) de novo variant
- Decipher patient 292139, a male with c.212T>C (p.Met71Thr) with hypotonia, DD, poor coordination and additional features (epilepsy not reported).

Seizures of variable type [absence seizures, generalized tonic-clonic (most), focal clonic, myoclonic, etc] have been reported for most (8/9) of these individuals. DD was a feature in several subjects and intellectual outcome has been specifically commented on for 5 (2 without and 3 with ID - moderate/severe/not further specified).

SNAP25 encodes a (t-)SNARE protein essential for synaptic vesicle exocytosis. Mutations in genes for other components of the SNARE complex (eg. STXBP1) have been associated with epilepsy and/or ID.

SNAP25a and SNAP25b are the 2 major protein isoforms [corresponding transcripts: ENST00000304886 (NM_003081) and ENST00000254976 (NM_130811) respectively]. These isoforms are produced by utilization of alternative exons 5 (5a or 5b) though the amino-acid sequence encoded by these exons appears to be identical except for 9 residues. Most variants reported to date affect both transcripts (and protein isoforms) although 2 were specific for ENST00000254976 (or SNAP25b isoform - Fukuda et al. and Shen et al.).

Mouse Snap25 has also 2 isoforms. Both are predominantly localized in embryonic and adult mouse brains. Snap25a is produced before Snap25b though the latter becomes the major isoform early postnatally (by the second week) [PMIDs cited: 7878010, 21526988].

Based on the phenotype of some individuals with chromosome 20 deletions in Decipher (note: only 3 deletions spanning SNAP25 however appear currently, the phenotype is not specified and 2 of them are >4.5Mb) or the pLI of 0.96 in gnomAD, haploinsufficiency has been proposed as a likely mechanism. A dominant-negative effect was however suggested for the Ile67Asn studied by Shen et al. Functional studies have not been performed for other variants.

Animal models discussed:
- Snap25 null drosophila show complete loss of synaptic transmission upon electroretinogram recordings (PMID cited: 12242238).
- In mice, elimination of Snap25b expression resulted in developmental defects, seizures and impaired short-term synaptic plasticity (PMID cited: 19043548).
- Mice with a 4.6 Mb deletion encompassing 12 genes (incl. Snap25) display seizure predisposition (PMID cited: 23064108).
- Heterozygosity for Ile67Thr in (blind-drunk mutant) mice results in impaired vesicle trafficking, impaired sensorimotor gating and ataxia (PMID cited:17283335).

In OMIM, heterozygous SNAP25 mutations are associated with ?Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 18 (with intellectual disability and ataxia). SNAP25 is part of the DD panel, associated with "Epilepsy and intellectual disability" (disease confidence: probable).

This gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc). SNAP25 is among the genes discussed by Erger et al. (PMID: 30914295) as associated with ID in OMIM/HPO/G2P/SysID but not included in the current panel.

As a result SNAP25 can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as green (3 individuals with ID, role of SNARES in "synaptopathies", supportive animal models) or amber (if functional studies for individual variants would be required).
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Intellectual disability v2.800 CYP27A1 Philip Dawson reviewed gene: CYP27A1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 24442603, 29484516; Phenotypes: Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX), 213700, intellectaul disability including childhood & adult onset; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.800 CACNA1B Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: CACNA1B was added
gene: CACNA1B was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: CACNA1B was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Phenotypes for gene: CACNA1B were set to Global developmental delay; Developmental regression; Seizures; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of movement
Penetrance for gene: CACNA1B were set to Complete
Review for gene: CACNA1B was set to GREEN
Added comment: Gorman et al. (2019 - doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.03.005) report on 6 individuals from 3 unrelated families, with biallelic LoF CACNA1B variants. The phenotype corresponds to a developmental epilepic encephalopathy with hyperkinetic movement disorder (ID was a universal feature, DD and/or regression occurred prior to the onset of seizures in several individuals) .

CACNA1B encodes calcium channel, voltage-dependent N type, α-1B subunit (Ca v2.2). As commented by the authors, Ca v2.1 and v2.2 are important for SNARE-mediated release of neurotransmitters through modulation of Ca+2 levels. In addition, Ca v2.2 has been postulated to have a role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, migration of immature neurons, etc. It is thought to have a crucial role in neurotransmission in the early postnatal period (Ca v2.2 channels are subsequently replaced by Ca v2.1 in mature synapses within the thalamus, cerebellum and auditory brainstem). Knockout mice display neurodevelopmental abnormalities including impaired locomotor activity and memory impairment (all ref. cited within the article).

3 sibs, born to 1st cousin parents, harbored p.Leu1222Argfs*29 (NM_000718.4:c.3665del) in the homozygous state. One additional individual was homozygous for p.Arg383*. Compound heterozygosity for a frameshift and a splicing variant (p,Gly1192Cysfs* and c.4857+1G>C) was identified in 2 sibs from a 3rd family.

Expression/functional studies have not been performed for any of the variants reported.

In OMIM, monoallelic CACNA1B pathogenic variants are associated with ?Dystonia 23 (MIM 614860) based on the identification of a heterozygous missense (R1389H) mutation in members of a Dutch with myoclonus-dystonia syndrome (Groen et al. 2015 - PMID: 25296916).

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in the epilepsy and ID panels as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.800 DOCK3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: DOCK3: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30976111, 28195318, 29130632; Phenotypes: Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, and ataxia, 618292; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.800 BCORL1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: BCORL1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 24123876, 30941876; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Autism, Behavioral abnormality; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, monoallelic mutations in females may cause disease (may be less severe, later onset than males); Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.789 KDM3B Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: KDM3B: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.02.023; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Short stature, Behavioral abnormality, Seizures; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.789 KDM3B Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: KDM3B: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.02.023; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Short stature, Behavioral abnormality, Seizures; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v2.787 CDK8 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: CDK8: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments; Publications: 30905399; Phenotypes: Generalized hypotonia, Feeding difficulties, Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Behavioral abnormality, Abnormality of cardiovascular system morphology, Hearing impairment, Abnormality of vision, Anorectal anomaly, Seizures; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.787 ARHGEF6 Richard Scott reviewed gene: ARHGEF6: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: 300436; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v2.784 KMT2E Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: KMT2E: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: https://doi.org/10.1101/56609; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Autism, Seizures, Abnormality of skull size; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.784 BRSK2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: BRSK2 was added
gene: BRSK2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: BRSK2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: BRSK2 were set to https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.02.002
Phenotypes for gene: BRSK2 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autism; Behavioral abnormality
Penetrance for gene: BRSK2 were set to unknown
Review for gene: BRSK2 was set to GREEN
gene: BRSK2 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Hiatt et al. (2019 - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.02.002) report on 9 individuals, each with private heterozygous BRSK2 variant.

Features included among others speech or motor delay, ID (8/9), ASD and variable behavioral anomalies.

6 variants predicted LoF (stopgain, frameshift or affecting splice-site) while 3 additional ones were missense (2 in the protein kinase domain and 1 in the kinase-associated 1 domain). In 6 individuals the variant had occurred as a de novo event while for 3 others parental samples were unavailable. Given the unknown inheritance, a single variant did not meet sufficient ACMG criteria to be classified as P/LP.

All variants had in silico predictions supporting a deleterious effect and were absent from bravo database and gnomAD, where the gene appears to be relatively intolerant to protein-altering variation.

As the authors note BRSK2 encodes a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in axonogenesis and polarization of cortical neurons. Although Brsk2- (or Brsk1-) knockout mice appear to be healthy and fertile, double knockouts for these genes resulted in pups with decreased spontaneous movement, poor response to tactile stimulation that died shortly after birth. In mice Brsk2 (and Brsk1) expression is restricted to the nervous system (PMID cited by the authors: 15705853) while in humans this gene is most highly expressed in brain (PMID cited: 23715323 - GTEx project).

BRSK2 has been shown to interact with other neurodevelopmental genes eg. TSC2, PTEN, WDR45.

Within the cohort of individuals studied, there was statistically significant enrichment for de novo BRSK2 variants when compared to the estimated backround mutation rate.

Two further BRSK2 de novo protein-altering variants were previously reported in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders (Iossifov et al. - PMID: 25363768 and DDD study - PMID: 28135719) although the missense variant in the latter study is also present in gnomAD database.

BRSK2 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM, nor in G2P.
The gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. among those participating in the study).

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.784 SMARCD1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: SMARCD1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.02.001; Phenotypes: Generalized hypotonia, Feeding difficulties, Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Abnormality of the hand, Abnormality of the foot; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.784 ATN1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: ATN1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments; Publications: 30827498; Phenotypes: Generalized hypotonia, Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Seizures, Feeding difficulties, Abnormality of the cardiovascular system, Cleft palate, Abnormality of the kidney; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.783 TRRAP Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: TRRAP was added
gene: TRRAP was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: TRRAP was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: TRRAP were set to 30827496
Phenotypes for gene: TRRAP were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autism; Microcephaly; Abnormal heart morphology; Abnormality of the urinary system; Seizures
Penetrance for gene: TRRAP were set to unknown
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: TRRAP was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Review for gene: TRRAP was set to GREEN
gene: TRRAP was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Cogné et al. (DDD study among the co-authors - PMID: 30827496) report on 24 individuals with pathogenic TRRAP variants.

17 different variants were reported. All variants were missense SNVs and on most occasions had occurred as de novo or apparently de novo events (paternity and maternity not checked). On one occasion, a parent was not unavailable although the respective grand-parents were not found to harbor the variant. Parental germline mosaicism explained the occurence of a variant in 2 sibs.

The authors suggest a strong genotype-phenotype correlation. Individuals whose variant localized within the residues 1031-1159 (NM_001244580.1) presented with a syndromic form of ID with additional malformations. ID was a universal feature in this group (for those subjects evaluated). For variants outside this cluster of residues the phenotype was rather that of ASD without ID or isolated ID with or without ASD, albeit with some exceptions (eg. F860L also associated with a syndromic presentation). ID was a feature in the majority of individuals belonging to the latter group (67% - all with DD) or overall irrespective of the variant localization (85% for those evaluated - all with DD).

Epilepsy was a feature in 4 individuals (4/24) belonging to either group.

All 17 variants were absent from gnomAD with CADD scores supporting a deleterious effect (SIFT/PolyPhen2 (both) predicted a tolerated/benign effect for some eg. Ala1043Thr). A few variants were recurrent, namely Ala1043Thr (5 individuals), Glu1106Lys (2), Gly1883Arg (2), Pro1932Leu (in 2 sibs).

6 further subjects (individuals 25-30, reported separately in the supplement) harbored 6 additional variants with lesser evidence for pathogenicity.

TRRAP is among the 5 most intolerant genes to missense mutations (z-score of 10.1 in ExAC) while it is also intolerant to LoF variants (pLI of 1). No deletions have been reported in DECIPHER and no LoF were identified in the study. Given type of variants and their clustering rather a gain-of-function effect or dominant-negative effect is suggested. As the authors note a LoF effect of non-clustering variants, associated with a milder phenotype cannot excluded. [Mode of pathogenicity to change if thought to be useful].

TRRAP encodes a protein involved in the recruitment to chromatin of histone acetyltransferases. The latter control the process of acetylation of lysine residues in histones and other DNA-binding proteins thus playing a major role in regulation of gene expression. In line with this, RNA sequencing analysis in skin fibroblasts from affected subjects demonstrated dysregulation of expression for several genes implicated in neuronal function and ion transport.

As summarized by the authors: In mice, Trapp knockout is embryonically lethal. Brain-specific knockout leads to premature differentiation of neural progenitors and abnormal brain development. Brain atrophy and microcephaly are observed (microcephaly was a feature in some affected individuals as well, primarily those with variants affecting residues 1031-1159). [PMIDs cited: 11544477, 24792116].

De novo TRRAP variants have been reported also in individuals with neuropsychiatric disorders (PMIDs: 21822266, 23042115, 28392909, 30424743) while TRRAP has been classified among the prenatally-biased genes relevant to its brain expression (PMID:23042115).

A de novo missense variant (c.11270G>A or p.R3757Q) was also previously reported in a study of 264 individuals with epileptic encephalopathy (Epi4K Consortium - PMID: 23934111 - indiv. ND29352).
-----------
TRRAP is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM, nor in G2P.
The gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx participating in the current study).
-----------
As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.782 CARS Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: CARS was added
gene: CARS was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: CARS was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Phenotypes for gene: CARS were set to Microcephaly; Neurodevelopmental delay; Brittle hair; Fragile nails
Penetrance for gene: CARS were set to Complete
Review for gene: CARS was set to GREEN
Added comment: Kuo et al. (2019 - doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.01.006) report on 4 individuals from 3 families with biallelic pathogenic CARS variants.

Common features included microcephaly, DD, brittle hair and nails. All 4 were adults and presented with motor, language and cognitive disabilities.

Reported genotypes (and variants) included [NM_001751.5 and NP_001742.1]:
- c.1138C>T (p.Gln380*) and c.1022G>A (p.Arg341His) (1 individual)
- c.1076C>T (p.Ser359Leu) and c.1199T>A (p.Leu400Gln) (2 sibs)
- c.2061dup (p.Ser688Glnfs ∗2) in homozygous state (1 individual - no reported consanguinity)

Segregation studies confirmed the in trans occurrence of the variants in affected individuals and carrier state in unaffected parents or other family members.

CARS encodes Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS). ARSs are a group of enzymes responsible for ligating amino acids to cognate tRNA molecules. CARS responsible for charging cysteine to tRNA molecules in the cytoplasm (CARS2 is responsible for charging cysteine to tRNA molecules in mitochondria).

Mutations in several ARSs have been linked to disorders with features overlapping to CARS-related phenotype.

Studies included:
- Western blot (pat. fibroblasts) confirmed expression of stable truncated p.Ser688Glnfs ∗2 but absence of the predicted truncating p.Gln380*. Expression in fibroblasts from the individual with compound heteroz. for the missense variants was similar to controls.
- Subcellular localization did not appear to be affected.
- Aminocacylation was significantly reduced (~40-80%) using protein lysates from affected individual fibroblasts (all families) supporting a LoF effect.
- A yeast complementation assay suggested LoF/hypomorphic effect with no or reduced yeast cell growth depending on the variant tested (hypomorphic variants: Arg341His and Ser359Leu). Aminoacylation assays (in yeast) showed reduced activity (by 50% and 84% respectively) for the 2 hypomorphic variants (compatible with the observations in patient fibroblasts).
- Conservation and the presumed effect of individual variants (in catalytic domain, truncation upstream of anticodon-binding domain or in a region affecting binding specificity of CARS and tRNA-cys) also supported pathogenicity.

All individuals demonstrated strikingly similar hair-shaft anomalies upon polarized light microscopy (eg. trichorrhexis/tiger-tail patterns/abnormal shaft diameter) in line with macroscopical observations of fine brittle hair suggesting a common underlying genetic cause (presumably explained by high cysteine content of keratins).
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CARS is not associatated with any phenotype in OMIM, nor in G2P.
The gene is not - at least commonly - included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories.
-------
As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in the current panel as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.742 HK1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: HK1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30778173, 28135719; Phenotypes: Abnormal muscle tone, Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Visual impairment, Neurological speech impairment, Ataxia; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.706 ASNS Louise Daugherty Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by external expert and reviewed by curation team, enough evidence to support gene-disease association and relevance to this panel to rate this gene Green. From PMID: 29375865 (2018) A. Abhyankar et al. summarised Ruzzo et al. (PMID:24139043) studied nine children from four families presenting with similar phenotypes and reported two missense mutations‐c.1084T>G (p.F362V; NM_183356) and c.1648C>T (p.R550C; NM_183356) in the asparagine synthetase domain that dramatically reduce ASNS protein abundance. The authors concluded that accumulation of aspartate/glutamate secondary to ASNS depletion in the brain resulted in the neurologic impairment. One of the two mutations reported in that study, c.1084T>G (p.F362V; NM_183356), is four residues upstream of NP_001664.3:p.Gly366Glu seen in our patient. HEK293 cells expressing c.1084T>G (p.F362V; NM_183356) mutant allele showed dramatic reduction in protein abundance. Additionally, Ruzzo et al. reported a hypomorphic ASNS mouse knockout with structural brain abnormalities and deficits in learning/memory. Subsequently, eight more cases of ASNSD have been reported in the literature PMID: 2566342,27422383, 27469131, 27743885.
Intellectual disability v2.654 CUX1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: CUX1 was added
gene: CUX1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Mode of inheritance for gene: CUX1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: CUX1 were set to 30014507; 20510857; 25059644
Phenotypes for gene: CUX1 were set to Global developmental delay with or without impaired intellectual development, 618330
Penetrance for gene: CUX1 were set to unknown
Review for gene: CUX1 was set to GREEN
gene: CUX1 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Heterozygous pathogenic variants in CUX1 cause Global developmental delay with or without impaired intellectual development (MIM 618330).

Platzer et al. (2018 - PMID: 30014507) report on 9 individuals from 7 families with heterozygous null-allele variants in CUX1.

All individuals displayed DD (speech delay 9/9 - motor delay 7/9 - hypotonia 3/7 for whom this information was available). Mild/moderate ID was a feature in 5/8. Catch up was observed in 3/8 individuals who - despite a history of previous significant DD - displayed a normal age-related intelligence. For 1/9 individual (Decipher 338131) information on eventual ID was unavailable. Overall the phenotype was compatible with non-syndromic DD with possible ID.

CUX1 encodes Cut homebox-1 transcription factor.

5 LoF variants (Gln21*, Gln800Argfs*19, Gln873*, Ala1067Cysfs*3, Leu1262Argfs*10) and 2 intragenic deletions (deletion of exons 9-24 in one subject and 3-24 in another) are reported.

In 6/9 individuals the variant (SNV/CNV) had occurred as a de novo event. Mosaic de novo intragenic deletion was reported for the subject from Decipher. In one family 2 sibs with mild ID had inherited a LoF variant from their affected mother with moderate ID (origin of the variant unknown in her case).

Leu1262Argfs*10 lies in the penultimate exon (NM_001202543.1 used as ref.) and is presumed to escape NMD.

Expression studies (or functional studies) are not performed for any of the variants.

As Gln800Argfs*19, found in one subject with mild ID in the present study, has been reported once in gnomAD, and given the presence of 12 individuals overall with LoF variants in the specific database, plausible explanations are discussed (among others : mild phenotype, incomplete penetrance, somatic mosaicism, exclusion of individuals with severe early-onset disorders in gnomAD, etc).

Given the reported variants, the probability of LoF intolerance (pLI:1.00), and the haploinsufficiency score (% HI) of 7.19, haploinsufficiency is thought to be the underlying mechanism. CUX1 however appears to be intolerant also to missense SNVs (z-score : 5.05).

Mouse models suggest a role for Cux1 in brain development and signaling. As the authors note, Cux1 (similar to its paralog, Cux2) is selectively expressed in layer II to IV cortical neurons. In Cux1-deficient mice, dendrites display a simpler morphology with decrease in dendritic length and number of branches (PMIDs cited: 20510857, 25059644). (MGI db for Cux1 - http://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:88568 : "Homozygotes for a targeted null mutation exhibit delayed lung development and neonatal mortality. Survivors show growth retardation and hair defects. Homozygotes for a partially deleted protein have curly hair, and females tend to lose their litters").

Finally, heterozygous mutations in CUX2, encoding cut-like homeobox-2 transcription factor, cause Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 67 (MIM 618141 - in all cases reported to date due to a recurrent missense variant. Gene rated green in the current panel).
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CUX1 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.
This gene is included in panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc).
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As a result, CUX1 can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Intellectual disability v2.632 PHF21A Alistair Pagnamenta reviewed gene: PHF21A: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: PMID: 30487643, 22770980, 27124303, 28127865, 26333423; Phenotypes: intellectual disability, craniofacial anomalies, epilepsy, ASD, overgrowth; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v2.620 RNF135 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: RNF135: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30665703, 17632510, 26368817; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.617 FRMPD4 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: FRMPD4: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29267967, 25644381; Phenotypes: Mental retardation, X-linked 104, 300983; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, monoallelic mutations in females may cause disease (may be less severe, later onset than males); Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.614 INTS1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: INTS1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28542170, 30622326, 17544522; Phenotypes: Hypotonia, Global developmental delay, Cataract, Abnormality of the skeletal system; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.611 USP7 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: USP7: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26365382, 19946331; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Delayed speech and language development, Intellectual disability, Behavioral abnormality, Seizures, Abnormality of brain morphology, Hypogonadism; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.611 CYFIP2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: CYFIP2 was added
gene: CYFIP2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: CYFIP2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: CYFIP2 were set to 29534297; 29667327; 30664714; 25432536; 27524794; 12818175; 20537992
Phenotypes for gene: CYFIP2 were set to Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile 65, 618008
Penetrance for gene: CYFIP2 were set to unknown
Review for gene: CYFIP2 was set to GREEN
gene: CYFIP2 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Heterozygous pathogenic variants in CYFIP2 cause Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 65 (MIM 618008)
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[Apologies for any eventual mistakes esp.as for the functional evidence]:

Nakashima et al. (2018 - PMID: 29534297) report on 4 unrelated individuals with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo missense CYFIP2 variants.

The phenotype consisted of early-onset intractable seizures (diagnosis of West syndrome in 2, Ohtahara syndrome in further individuals) with hypotonia (3/4), DD/ID (4/4) and microcephaly (3/4).

All variants affected Arg87 residue (NM_001037333.2:c.259C>T or p.Arg87Cys in 2 individuals, the 2 other subjects harbored Arg87Leu and Arg87Pro respectively).

CYFIP2 encodes the cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2. CYFIP2 (similar to CYFIP1) is a component of the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) which has been shown to play a role in actin remodeling, axon elongation, dendritic morphogenesis and synaptic plasticity (several PMIDs cited).

In the inactive state of the WRC complex, CYFIP2 binds to the VCA domain of WAVE. GTP-bound Rac1 (GTPase) leads to release of the VCA domain from CYFIP2 which allows binding of this domain to the Arp2/3 complex (active WRC state) and in turn stimulates actin polymerization and lamellipodia formation.

Using lymphoblastoid cell lines from affected individuals and healthy controls and CYFIP2 expression was evaluated by Western Blot and was found to be similar between the 2 groups.

Additional studies suggested weaker binding of the WAVE1 VCA domain to mutant CYFIP2 compared to WT CYFIP2 (upon transfection of HEK293T cells). This could possibly favor activation of WRC (/the WAVE signalling pathway).

As a result a gain-of-function effect on the WAVE signalling pathway is suggested as a possible mechanism.

Using B16F1 mouse melanoma cells lamellipodia formation (process in which CYFIP2 has previously been implicated) was not shown to be impaired in the case of mutant CYFIP2. However aberrant accumulation of F-actin (and co-localization with mutant CYFIP2) was observed in the present study.

Only large 5q deletions spanning CYFIP2 (and several other genes) have been described to date.

Cyfip2 heterozygous knockout in mice results in abnormal behavior and memory loss. WAVE activity was enhanced (despite reduced WAVE protein production). Homozygous Cyfip2 loss is lethal (PMIDs cited by the authors: 25432536, 27524794). Impaired axonal growth, guidance and branching is noted in Drosophila mutants (CYFIP1/2 ortholog) (PMID cited: 12818175). The authors comment that Cyfip2 (nev) mutant zebrafish show a similar phenotype to mutant flies (PMID cited: 20537992).
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Peng et al. (2018 - PMID: 29667327) in a study of 56 Chinese families with West Syndrome (epileptic/infantile spasms, hypsarrhytmia and ID) identified 1 individual with the Arg87Cys CYFIP2 variant as a de novo occurrence.
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Zweier et al. (2019 - DDD study among the co-authors - PMID: 30664714) report on 12 unrelated subjects with heterozygous pathogenic de novo CYFIP2 variants.

The common phenotype consisted of tone abnormalities (12/12), DD/ID (12/12) and seizures (12/12 though a single individual had experienced a single episode of febrile seizure). Absolute or relative microcephaly and/or additional features were also noted in several individuals.

7 missense variants (4 occurrences of the Arg87Cys variant) as well as splice variant (shown to lead to exon skipping) are reported, as de novo events in these individuals. The splice variant was expected to escape NMD producing a truncating protein.

Although the variants are distantly located in the primary structure, spatial clustering (in the tertiary structure) is suggested by in silico modelling (all in proximity at the CYFIP2-WAVE1 interface).

CYFIP2 appears to be intolerant to both missense and LoF variants (Z-score of 6.15 and pLI of 1 respectively in ExAC).

The authors comment that haploinsufficiency as a mechanism is rather unlikely given the absence of small CNVs or variants predicted to lead to NMD. Again, a gain-of-function effect of these variants on WAVE activation (partial-loss-of function in terms of WRC stabilization and/or conformation of the VCA region in the inactive state) is proposed.
--------------
CYFIP2 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.
The gene is included in gene panels for intellectual disability offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. participants in these studies).
--------------
As a result this gene could be considered for inclusion in this panel as green.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.597 PLEKHG2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: PLEKHG2 was added
gene: PLEKHG2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: PLEKHG2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: PLEKHG2 were set to 26539891; 26573021; 24001768
Phenotypes for gene: PLEKHG2 were set to Leukodystrophy and acquired microcephaly with or without dystonia, 616763
Penetrance for gene: PLEKHG2 were set to unknown
Review for gene: PLEKHG2 was set to AMBER
gene: PLEKHG2 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Karaca et al. (2015 - PMID: 26539891) in a study of 128 - mostly consanguineous - families with neurogenetic disorders and brain malformations, identified an individual homozygous for a PLEKHG2 missense variant (NM_022835.2:c.1708G>A or p.Gly570Arg). This individual (BAB4830) had a similarly affected sib. Features included hypotonia, intellectual disability, microcephaly, cerebellar atrophy and nystagmus (description provided in supplement - Table S1). This variant has been submitted in ClinVar as likely pathogenic by the corresponding laboratory (SCV000537940.1).
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Edvardson et al. (2016 - PMID: 26573021) reported on 5 individuals from 2 unrelated consanguineous Palestinian families, harboring a missense variant in the homozygous state (NM_022835.2:c.610C>T or p.Arg204Trp - 1/5 was unavailable for testing).
Unaffected relatives here either heterozygous for this variant or homozygous for the reference allele.

Common features included hypotonia (5/5), DD/ID (5/5), postnatal microcephaly (5/5), dystonia (3/5), nystagmus (2/5) or seizures (1/5) [many of these similar to those reported by Karaca et al]. Brain MRI images were consistent with leukodystrophy and prolonged relaxation of dorsal tegmental tracts (similar findings were not commented by Karaca et al).

PLEKHG2 encodes a Rho guanine exchange factor (RhoGEF). RhoGEFs activate RhoGTPases through release of GDP and binding of GTP. Mutations in other RhoGEFs have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

PLEKHG2 activity was shown to be significantly decreased in HEK293A cells transfected with R204W-PLEKHG2 when compared to tranfection with wt. Western blotting suggested that this was not the result of defective expression.

Using lymphoblastoid cell lines from peripheral B lymphocytes from individuals homozygous for R204W and controls, similar levels of expression were shown between the 2 groups.

As the authors note, PLEKHG2 is required for Rac- and Cdc42-stimulated actin polymerization in leukocytes (PMID cited: 24001768).

SDF1a-stimulated actin polymerization was studied in patient cells and was shown to be significantly impaired. In line with this actin polymerization was also impaired upon siRNA-mediated downregulation of PLEKHG2 expression in control cells.
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A subsequent submission of the Gly570Arg variant in ClinVar (2017 - SCV000609979.1 - same variant as the one reported by Karaca et al) reports this as a VUS.
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PLEKHG2 is associated with Leukodystrophy and acquired microcephaly with or without dystonia (616763) in OMIM.
This gene is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.
PLEKHG2 is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories.
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As a result, this gene could be considered for inclusion in this panel probably as amber (or green if the current evidence is considered to be sufficient).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.597 DHPS Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: DHPS was added
gene: DHPS was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: DHPS was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: DHPS were set to 21389784; 21850436
Phenotypes for gene: DHPS were set to Abnormal muscle tone; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; EEG abnormality; Behavioral abnormality; Abnormality of head or neck
Penetrance for gene: DHPS were set to Complete
Review for gene: DHPS was set to GREEN
Added comment: Ganapathi et al. (doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.12.017 - PMID : NA) report on 5 individuals from 4 unrelated families with biallelic pathogenic variants in DHPS.

The phenotype consisted of DD/ID (5/5), tone abnormalities (hypotonia/hypertonia/spasticity - 5/5), seizures (5/5 - in one case though unclear staring spells) with EEG abnormalities (5/5). Additionally most individuals displayed behavioral issues, or some common facial features.

Several other disorders had been ruled prior to the diagnosis, in all cases by exome sequencing.

All individuals harbored a specific missense variant (c.518A>G or p.Asn173Ser) in trans with various other variants incl. a splice site mutation (c.1014+1G>A), an in-frame deletion of 2 amino acids (c.912_917delTTACAT or p.Tyr305_Ile306del) or a variant abolishing the translation initiation codon (c.1A>G or p.Met1?) [All variants using NM_001930.3 as a reference].

Deoxyhypusine synthase (encoded by DHPS) is an enzyme participating in the first step of hypusine synthesis, an amino-acid which is specific to eukaryotic initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) and its homolog (eIF5A2).

eIF5A, its hypusinated form and DHPS have all been previously implicated in cellular proliferation/differentiation. eIF5A has also been proposed to be a mRNA translation elongation factor. A role of eIF5A in neuronal growth and survival has been proposed previously (all ref. in present article).

Neither eIF5A, nor DHPS or DOHH (an enzyme required for the second step of hypusination) have been associated to any disorders previously. Mutations in genes encoding other eukaryotic elongator factors (eg. EEF1A2, EEF2) have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

Concerning the DHPS variants reported:

cDNA studies suggested that the c.1014+1G>A variant is translated but results in aberrant splicing and truncation of the protein before its active site.

The in-frame deletion as well as the missense variant were shown to have absent or partial (20%) enzyme activity in vitro respectively compared to wild-type (following expression in E.coli BL21(DE3) cells).

In line with this, reduced hypusination of eIF5A was observed for these 2 variants when compared to wild-type DHPS, upon co-transfection of constructs overexpressing DHPS (wt or mut.) and eIF5A in HEK293T cells.

Absence of homozygous DHPS LoF variants in population databases might suggest that complete deficiency is incompatible with normal embryonic development. Mice heterozygous for Dhps deletion do not demonstrate severe phenotypes, though homozygosity is embryonically lethal (PMIDs: 21389784, 21850436).
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DHPS is not associated with any phenotype in G2P, nor in OMIM.
This gene is not - at least commonly - included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories.
---------
As a result, DHPS can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.595 NUS1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: NUS1 was added
gene: NUS1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Mode of inheritance for gene: NUS1 was set to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic (but BIALLELIC mutations cause a more SEVERE disease form), autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: NUS1 were set to 25066056; 29100083; 24824130; 30348779
Phenotypes for gene: NUS1 were set to #617082 - ?Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type 1aa; #617831 - Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 55, with seizures; Abnormality of extrapyramidal motor function
Penetrance for gene: NUS1 were set to unknown
Review for gene: NUS1 was set to AMBER
gene: NUS1 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Mutations in NUS1 have been implicated in recessive as well as dominant forms of ID (1 and 3 unrelated individuals respectively). The latter individuals presented with a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy with ID. At least 2 of these individuals had tremor and other movement disorders. A recent study proposes that NUS1 variants contribute to Parkinson's disease (1 individual with de novo variant affecting the canonical splice site, 26 additional individuals with missense variants - for which segregation studies where not however performed). ID is not commented on for these individuals.

NUS1 is included in the DD panel of G2P, associated with "Epilepsy and intellectual disability". (Monoallelic LoF variants / Disease confidence : probable). This gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc). Associated phenotypes in OMIM and others discussed in the literature are summarized below (to my understanding).

As a result, NUS1 can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as amber.
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Recessive - [MIM #617082 - ?Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type 1aa] :

Park et al. (2014 - PMID: 25066056) report on an individual homozygous for a NUS1 missense variant (R290H) and suggest that biallelic variants cause a congenital disorder of glycosylation.

The authors based in studies in yeast, mice and man provide evidence that NUS1 encodes the Nogo-B receptor (NgBR), a subunit of cis-prenyltransferase (cis-PTase), important for its activation. cis-PTase catalyzes one of the reactions for dolichol biosynthesis. Dolichol, in turn, is a carrier of glycans for N-linked glycosylation, O-mannosylation and GPI anchor biosynthesis.

Genetic defects in the dolichol biosynthetic pathway have been linked to other forms of CDG and/or other recessive or dominant neurodevelopmental disorders (eg. SRD5A3- and DHDDS-related disorders).

Similarities are provided at the cellular level between different organisms. Heterozygous knockout mice appear normal. Homozygosity is associated with embryonic lethality before E6.5. Conditional knockout in mouse embryonic fibroblasts led to accumulation of free cholesterol, decreased cis-PTase activity, and mannose incorporation in protein (the first & third rescued by transduction with lentiviral human NgBR).

In patient fibroblasts protein levels appeared similar to controls. Interaction with Nogo-B (and hCIT - the product of DHDDS) was not affected. As in mice, accumulation of free cholesterol was observed in cells, with decreased cis-PTase activity and mannose incorporation. LAMP-1 and ICAM-1 were hypoglycosylated in patient fibroblasts. Altered dolichol profiles in serum and urine were observed in carriers of the NUS1 variant, similarly to what described in individuals with DHDDS LoF variants.
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Dominant - [MIM #617831 - Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 55, with seizures].

Hamdan et al. (2017 - PMID: 29100083) report on 3 unrelated individuals with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (onset: 10m - 2.5y) and ID. Two individuals harbored de novo LoF variants while a third subject had a deletion of exon 2. Movement disorders were noted in all 3 and included tremor (2 subjects) or ataxia (1 additional subject).

The authors cite a previous study on 6q22.1 deletions the critical region of which encompassed only NUS1 and the promoter of SLC35F1 (Szafranski et al. - PMID: 24824130). Haploinsufficiency is discussed as a possible mechanism (pLI of 0.87). A more severe phenotype due to dramatic reduction of NUS1 activity is proposed for the previously reported patient with CDG.
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Other:
Guo et al. (2018 - PMID: 30348779) suggest that NUS1 pathogenic variants contribute to Parkinson's disease. By performing WES in 39 individuals with early onset Parkinson's disease and their unaffected patients (and sibs) the authors identified 1 individual with de novo insertion affecting a NUS1 canonical splice site. RT-PCR demonstrated increased mRNA levels compared with controls. Skipping of 91 bp of exon 3 was demonstrated.

Study in 2 large sporadic PD-patient (N=1852+3237)/control cohorts (N=1565+2858) suggested association between NUS1 non-synonymous variants and PD (P=1.01e-5, OR:11.3). Other genetic causes of PD were excluded in 26 additional individuals with NUS1 missense variants.

Phenotypes of all 27 individuals are provided in Dataset_S04.

NUS1 has been found to be differentially expressed in PD mouse models.

RNAi-mediated knockdown of Tango14 (the Drosophila NUS1) resulted in impaired climbing activity, reduction in brain dopamine levels and abnormal apoptotic signals in brain.
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Intellectual disability v2.595 STAG2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: STAG2 was added
gene: STAG2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: STAG2 was set to X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, monoallelic mutations in females may cause disease (may be less severe, later onset than males)
Publications for gene: STAG2 were set to 29263825; 28296084; 30158690; 30447054; 19449417; 26443594; 25677961; 23637084; 25450604
Phenotypes for gene: STAG2 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of head or neck; Microcephaly; Growth delay; Hearing impairment; Abnormal heart morphology
Penetrance for gene: STAG2 were set to unknown
Review for gene: STAG2 was set to GREEN
gene: STAG2 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Several affected individuals (from at least 8 unrelated) families have been reported in the literature. The phenotype consists - among others - of DD/ID. STAG2 is located on long arm of chromosome X (Xq25). Based on these reports, both males and females can be affected.

Soardi et al. (2017 - PMID: 29263825) report an affected male belonging to a large pedigree with 4 other similarly affected males. The disorder in this pedigree followed a typical X-linked inheritance pattern. All affected males were hemizygous for a missense variant (NM_001042749.1:c.980G>A or p.Ser327Asn). Common phenotype consisted of moderate ID, short stature, sensory hearing loss and some similar facial features. Unaffected males did not harbor the variant. Heterozygous females were not affected. Co-segragation of the variant with the affected status under an X-linked model, appeared unlikely to have occurred by chance (probability of 1/131,072 - logarithm of odds score of 5.12).

Mullegama et al. (2017 - PMID: 28296084) report on an 8-year-old girl harboring a de novo nonsense variant in STAG2 (NM_001042749.1:c.205C>T or p.Arg69Ter). This individual presented - among others with - DD, microcephaly, growth delay, digit anomalies, particular facial features, and anomalies of other systems (eg. hearing loss, cardiac defect, etc). The authors summarize the features of 2 subjects from the DDD study as available in DECIPHER, without additional details. [Variants of these individuals NM_001042749.1:c.1913_1922del10 or p.(A638Vfs*10) / NM_001042749.1:c.1811G>A p.(R604Q)].

Yuan et al. (2018 - PMID: 30158690) report on 4 females with de novo LoF STAG2 variants as well as 1 male subject with a de novo missense one. DD (5/5) and ID (4/4) were features in all individuals for whom this information was available. One additional female had an intragenic STAG2 deletion, although this subject was not reported to have DD or ID (table S6 : microcephaly, seizures and facial phenotype). It is not known whether the deletion was inherited or had occurred as a de novo event. All variants from this study have been submitted in ClinVar (phenotype : STAG2-related disorder).

Mullegama et al. (2018 - PMID: 30447054) report on a 4-year-old male with DD, microcephaly, growth delay, digit anomalies due to a de novo missense STAG2 variant (c.3027A>T or p.Lys1009Asn). As discussed by the authors at the time of the study 33 males with Xq25 duplications and ID had been reported (PMIDs cited: 19449417, 26443594, 25677961, 23637084, 25450604).

Discussed in these articles :

STAG2 (or STAG1) is one of the 4 core proteins of the cohesin complex, the other 3 being SMC1A, SMC3 and RAD21. Mutations in genes encoding these proteins or their interactors (eg. NIBPL, HDAC8, ESCO2, etc) have been associated cohesinopathies, a group of multisystem developmental disorders (eg. Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Roberts/SC phocomelia, etc).

It has been commented that the phenotype of STAG2-related disorder presents overlap with other cohesinopathies (eg. DD, microcephaly and growth retardation, craniofacial features, anomalies of the digits, etc).

Decreased proportion of nuclei with premature sister chromatid separation compared to controls was found on one occasion (suggestive of tighter sister chromatid cohesion) [Mullegama-A]. Sister chromatid cohesion was not affected in another report [Soardi et al.].

Western blot demonstrated significant reduction of STAG2 levels for a nonsense variant [Mullegama-A]. Levels were not perturbed for a missense variant [Soardi et al.].

Upon immunofluorescence STAG2 presented normal (nuclear) localization for a missense variant for which this was studied [Soardi et al.].

Perturbation of the cell cycle profile (higher percentage of G2/M cells) was demonstrated for patient fibroblasts compared to controls on one occasion where this was studied. [Soardi et al.].

Microarray expression studies in patient fibroblasts demonstrated altered transcription (upregulation) of genes implicated in cell division, mitosis and DNA replication upon comparison with normal fibroblasts [Soardi et al.].

The effect of a missense variant on STAG2 binding to other cohesin subunits (SCC1, SMC1 and SMC3) and regulators was studied. Binding was found to be reduced in vivo (in HeLa cells) for SCC1 (its direct binding partner) as well as SMC1, SMC3 (possibly indirectly). Reduced STAG2 binding to cohesin regulators was also shown in vivo. However, in vitro studies were not suggestive of impaired binding of STAG2 to SCC1 (a finding difficult to explain) [Soardi et al.].

STAG2 appears to be intolerant to LoF variants (pLI of 1 in ExAC). Z-Score for missense variants is 5.11.

Mullegama et al. (B) comment that Xq25 duplications in males may be associated with milder phenotypes compared to intragenic variants. They further hypothesize that males are able to survive less damaging variants while females are able to survive more deleterious (eg. LoF) ones though with more severe phenotypes (similarity to the MECP2 model is discussed).
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STAG2 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM.
In G2P this gene is associated with STAG2-related developmental delay with microcephaly and congenital anomalies (disease confidence : confirmed / Both DD and ID among the phenotypes assigned to this entry).
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STAG2 is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories.
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As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.595 ZMIZ1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: ZMIZ1 was added
gene: ZMIZ1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: ZMIZ1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: ZMIZ1 were set to 29754769; 18053775; 17967885; 26163108; 27479843
Phenotypes for gene: ZMIZ1 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Feeding difficulties; Growth abnormality; Microcephaly; Abnormality of the skeletal system; Abnormality of the urinary system; Abnormality of the cardiovascular system; Abnormality of head or neck
Penetrance for gene: ZMIZ1 were set to unknown
Review for gene: ZMIZ1 was set to GREEN
gene: ZMIZ1 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Carapito et al. (doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.12.007 - PMID to add) report on 19 individuals with variants affecting ZMIZ1 (alternative symbols RAI17/KIAA1224/ZIMP10).

Features included DD/ID (19/19), feeding difficulties, growth failure, microcephaly and variable congenital malformations. Seizures were noted in 3 unrelated individuals (with different variants).

Variants included 6 missense SNVs, 5 frameshift variants, 1 splice site variant, 1 synonymous variant with probable impact on splicing (not studied) and 2 translocations.

In all individuals for whom parental studies were possible (n=16), the variants had occurred as de novo events while for 3 sibs harboring a frameshift variant parental samples were unavailable. These subjects however harbored the same variant as a DDD study participant included in the current report.

One translocation disrupted only ZMIZ1 while a second [t(X;10)] did not disrupt the coding sequence of any gene but only a distal enhancer 276 kb upstream of ZMIZ1. A previous study had found recurrent SNVs of the same region in ASD subjects and suggested possible interaction with the ZMIZ1 promoter (Liu et al. - PMID: 29754769).

The deleterious effect of both translocations was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. For 4 missense SNVs as well as a splice variant mRNA levels were similar to controls. The splice site (-2) variant was shown to produce 2 new splicing isoforms from utilization of alternative splice site acceptors.

ZMIZ1 belongs to the PIAS-like family of transcriptional coregulators.

Five missense variants were located in an alanine rich domain (aa 280-305). Seven other variants were predicted to shorten or remove the C-terminal transactivation domain.

This gene enhances - among others - the transcriptional activity of androgen receptor (AR). In vitro studies using HEK293T cell lines supported impaired coactivation of the AR for 3 variants studied. In utero electroporation of pathogenic variants in mouse embryos (E14.5) led to impaired neuronal positioning of the electroporated neurons and disruption of the morphology/polarization.

As the authors note previous studies have shown expression of Zimp10 in the developing mouse brain, craniofacial tissue as well as the interdigital region of limbs (PMIDs cited : 18053775 and 17967885) in line with ID, facial phenotype and syndactyly observed in some patients.

Finally the authors cite a previous report on an individual with ID due to a translocation [t(10;19)] disrupting both ZMIZ1 and PRR12 (Córdova-Fletes al. - PMID: 26163108). Although disruption of ZMIZ1 is discussed as a cause, PRR12 has recently been proposed as (also) an ID gene (Leduc et al. - PMID: 29556724). [For details see PRR12 in the current panel].
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One of the variants found in 2 unrelated individuals in the aforementioned study [NM_020338.3:c.899C>T or p.(T300M)] has been reported in a further individual investigated for ID in the context of a bigger cohort (Lelieveld et al. - PMID: 27479843).
[ Details in the denovo-db : http://denovo-db.gs.washington.edu/denovo-db/QueryVariantServlet?searchBy=Gene&target=ZMIZ1 ]
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ZMIZ1 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM, nor in G2P.
This gene has been included in gene panels for intellectual disability offered by some diagnostic laboratories.
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As a result, ZMIZ1 can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel as green.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.588 LINS1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: LINS1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 21937992, 23773660, 28181389, 30090841; Phenotypes: Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 27 (MIM 614340); Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.588 MAPK8IP3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: MAPK8IP3: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 25363768, 28213671, 28135719; Phenotypes: Abnormal muscle tone, Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.588 MAPK8IP3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: MAPK8IP3 was added
gene: MAPK8IP3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: MAPK8IP3 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Phenotypes for gene: MAPK8IP3 were set to 25363768; 28213671; 28135719
Penetrance for gene: MAPK8IP3 were set to unknown
Review for gene: MAPK8IP3 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Platzer et al. (doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.12.008) report on 13 unrelated individuals with de novo pathogenic variants in MAPK8IP3.

The phenotype consisted - among others - of DD with ID (13/13) as well as variable brain anomalies (incl. cerebral or cerebellar atrophy, corpus callosum anomalies, perisylvian polymicrogyria, etc). Microcephaly, seizures, ataxia, ASD were features seen in fewer individuals.

The variants reported included 2 nonsense, 1 frameshift as well as 6 missense mutations (3 missense variants were found - each - in 2 or more individuals).

All three LoF variants were located in the first exon. (mRNA levels were not studied for these variants although NMD is presumed). The brain anomalies were more consistent for missense variants.

MAPK8IP3 appears intolerant to LoF variants (pLI of 1) with constraint also for missense variants (Z-score of 4.06).

In silico structural modeling was possible for 4 missense variants based on available crystal structures and different mechanisms were presumed (disruption of contacts between Leu444 of adjacent subunits, altered interaction between proximal residues at positions 461 and 466, or disruption of protein protein interactions).

The C.elegans MAPK8IP3 ortholog is encoded by the unc-16 gene. Impaired clearance and accumulation of organelles (incl. lysosomes) in axons is observed in unc-16 mutants (recessive phenotype).

For 6 variants, also conserved in C.elegans, mutants were engineered using CRISPR genome editing. The observed mutant phenotypes (increased axonal lysosomal density compared to controls for 2 variants, sluggish locomotion with lower swimming cycle rate for 1 nonsense and 4 missense variants) were rescued upon CRISPR reverse engineering of each mutant allele back to its wild-type sequence.

The authors cite 3 previous studies, in which individuals investigated for neurodevelopmental disorders where found to harbor de novo MAPK8IP3 variants, namely:
- PMID 25363768 (Iossifov et al.) : p.Tyr94Cys [ASD without ID]
- PMID 28213671 (Berger et al.) : p.Glu461Gly [Smith-Magenis-like phenotype)
- PMID 28135719 (DDD study) p.Arg1146Cys [This variant was found in 3 individuals in the study by Platzer et al.]
------------
A few additional individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders appear in the denovo-db after filtering for coding variants:
http://denovo-db.gs.washington.edu/denovo-db/QueryVariantServlet?searchBy=Gene&target=MAPK8IP3
------------
NM_015133.4:c.111C>G (p.Tyr37Ter) has been submitted in ClinVar by the Undiagnosed Diseases Network (NIH) as likely pathogenic, associated with MAPK8IP3-related disorder (hypotonia, DD, EEG anomalies among the phenotypes). It is not clear whether this subject corresponds to individual #3 reported by the previous study (possibly not the case).
------------
MAPK8IP3 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM, nor in G2P.
This gene is not commonly included in gene panels for ID.
------------
As a result, MAPK8IP3 can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green (rather than amber).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.588 ZNF462 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: ZNF462 was added
gene: ZNF462 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Mode of inheritance for gene: ZNF462 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: ZNF462 were set to 28513610; 29427787; 14564155; 12825074
Phenotypes for gene: ZNF462 were set to Ptosis; Prominent metopic ridge; Craniosynostosis; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autistic behavior
Penetrance for gene: ZNF462 were set to unknown
Review for gene: ZNF462 was set to AMBER
gene: ZNF462 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Weiss et al. (PMID: 28513610) report on 8 individuals (from 6 unrelated families) with heterozygous pathogenic variants affecting ZNF462.

Frequent features included ptosis metopic ridging, craniosynostosis, dysgenesis of corpus callosum. DD (with or without ASD) was a feature in 4 (4/8), one of whom was reported to present mild ID.

4 LoF mutations as well as 2 9q31.2 deletions spanning also other genes are reported [NM_021224.4]:
Fam. 1 - c.3787C>T p.(Arg1263*) (familial) - Normal development in all 3 family members
Fam. 2 - c.2979_2980delinsA p.(Val994Trpfs*147) (de novo) - DD
Fam. 3 - c.4263delA p.(Glu1422Serfs*6) (de novo) - DD
Fam. 4 - Chr9:g.(108940763-110561397)del (hg19) (de novo) - Normal development
Fam. 5- Chr9:g(108464368-110362345)del (hg19) (de novo) - DD with mild ID
Fam. 6 - c.5145delC p.(Tyr1716Thrfs*28) (de novo) - DD

There were no expression/functional studies performed although haploinsufficiency can be presumed based on these variants (ZNF462 has a pLI of 1 in ExAC).
-----------
Cosemans et al. (PMID: 29427787) report on an individual investigated - among others - for mild ID and ASD. This individual harbored a de novo (complex) translocation disrupting ZNF462 and KLF12.

As this subject presented similar features to those reported by Weiss et al. (eg. craniofacial anomalies, abn. development, ASD) and given that KLF12 is not associated with any disorder, the phenotype of this individual was thought to be secondary to disruption of ZNF462.

Details on this patient - before delineation of the translocation breakpoints - were provided previously by Fryns and Hendrickx ( PMID:9297446).
-----------
Cited by the previous article, a further case of ZNF462 disruption due to translocation was previously published in the literature (same individual - Talisetti et al. PMID: 14564155 / Ramocki et al. PMID: 12825074). Profound ID was among the features of this individual although the translocation disrupted also a further ID gene (ASXL2).
-----------
In ClinVar 8 variants have been submitted as pathogenic/likely pathogenic although a phenotype is provided only for 3 variants published by Weiss et al.(submitting lab participating in PMID: 28513610 / SCV000494060.1 corresp. to Fam.1 / SCV000494061.1 - Fam.2 / SCV000494062.1 - Fam. 3).
-----------
Several individuals with de novo coding variants in ZNF462 have been reported in the context of larger cohorts (some with ID as a principal feature).
http://denovo-db.gs.washington.edu/denovo-db/QueryVariantServlet?searchBy=Gene&target=ZNF462
-----------
In Decipher apart from the DDD study participants DDD4K.03663 and DDD4K.03792 (appearing in the denovo-db) with LoF and abnormality of the nervous system, several further individuals have been submitted.

2 of these subjects, harbored a de novo LoF (submitted as pathogenic) and had ID as a feature.
----------
ZNF462 is included in the DD panel of G2P, associated with Craniofacial anomalies, corpus callosum dysgenesis, ptosis, and developmental delay [Disease confidence: probable / Global DD (but not ID) among the phenotypes assigned to this entry].

This gene is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM.
----------
ZNF462 is included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc).
----------
As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as amber (or green if the current evidence is thought to be sufficient).
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Intellectual disability v2.588 CWF19L1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: CWF19L1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 25361784, 15981765, 26197978, 27016154; Phenotypes: Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 17 (MIM 616127); Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.588 RNF13 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: RNF13 was added
gene: RNF13 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: RNF13 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Phenotypes for gene: RNF13 were set to Congenital microcephaly; Feeding difficulties; Failure to thrive; Abnormal muscle tone; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Cortical visual impairment; Sensorineural hearing impairment
Penetrance for gene: RNF13 were set to unknown
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: RNF13 was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Review for gene: RNF13 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Edvardson et al. (doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.11.018) report on 3 unrelated individuals with heterozygous de novo missense RNF13 variants.

Features included (rather borderline) congenital microcephaly, feeding difficulties, tone abnormalities, DD/ID (3/3), seizures (3/3), hearing loss and cortical visual impairment.

One individual harbored the p.Leu311Ser variant while 2 others the p.Leu312Pro.

RNF13 encodes a protein known to interact and activate IRE1a, an endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress sensor.

The 2 variants are predicted in silico not to affect the tertiary structure of the protein. Further to this, RNF13 is tolerant to LoF variants (pLI of 0 in ExAC). Therefore a gain-of-function mechanism was hypothesized for the 2 missense variants and demonstrated for the Leu311Ser:
- Protein levels were similar to controls upon Western blotting in patient fibroblasts.
- Enhanced IRE1a activation was demonstrated in patient cells when compared to controls, confirming gain-of-function.
- Increased activation (/ER stress), in turn, resulted in abnormally increased apoptosis similarly to what is observed in other neurological disorders.

Fibroblast/lymphoblast cells were not available from individuals with the Leu312Pro variant although a similar mechanism is presumed.

Although neurodegeneration is suggested by the above pathophysiologic mechanism, this is manifested by failure to achieve milestones (rather than eg. regression after a normal period of postnatal development / loss of milestones).
---------
RNF13 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM, nor in G2P.
This gene is not commonly included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories.
---------
As a result, RNF13 can be considered for inclusion in this panel possibly as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.588 RAB11A Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: RAB11A was added
gene: RAB11A was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: RAB11A was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: RAB11A were set to 29100083
Phenotypes for gene: RAB11A were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability
Penetrance for gene: RAB11A were set to unknown
Review for gene: RAB11A was set to AMBER
gene: RAB11A was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: PMID: 29100083 (by Hamdan et al.) is a study on de novo mutations in individuals with developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE).

One subject from this study was found to harbor a de novo missense RAB11A variant [NM_004663.4:c.244C>T or p.(Arg82Cys)]. This individual presented with epilepsy, developmental regression and severe ID.

In their cohort the authors also identified an additional individual with a de novo missense variant [(c.71A>G or p.(Lys24Arg)] who had moderate ID and abnormal EEG albeit without seizures.

De novo variants in RAB11A had previously been identified in 3 DDD study participants with ID.

The authors obtained clinical details on the 2 individuals with the p.(Ser154Leu) variant [NM_004663.4:c.461C>T]. One of them had moderate ID without seizures while the other had moderate global DD at the age of 4 years, also without seizures.

A third DDD study participant harbored another missense variant p.(Lys13Asn) [NM_004663.4:c.39A>C] as a de novo occurence. The authors did not manage to obtain clinical details although this patient was reported to have abnormalities of the nervous system in Decipher.

The features of all 4 individuals for whom clinical details were available are summarized in table 7.

Previous studies suggest that RAB11A has a role in NTRK2 and AMPA receptor recycling at the post-synaptic membrane of neurons and - as a result - in regulation of synaptic plasticity.
-----------
RAB11A is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM.

This gene is included in the DD panel of G2P, associated with epilepsy and intellectual disability (disease confidence: probable).

It is also included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories.
-----------
As a result, it can be considered for inclusion in this panel as amber or possibly green (3 unrelated individuals with ID, 1 further with DD at a young age).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.588 SLC35A1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: SLC35A1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30115659, 23873973, 28856833; Phenotypes: Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIf (MIM 603585); Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.588 KARS Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: KARS: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28887846, 25330800, 29615062, 30252186, 28496994; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.588 FAH Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: FAH: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28377889; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.588 HEPACAM Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: HEPACAM: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 21419380; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic (but BIALLELIC mutations cause a more SEVERE disease form), autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.588 ABAT Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: ABAT: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28411234; Phenotypes: GABA-transaminase deficiency (MIM 613163); Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.588 ABAT Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: ABAT: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28411234; Phenotypes: GABA-transaminase deficiency (MIM 613163); Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.588 SMARCC2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: SMARCC2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 27392482; Phenotypes: Hypotonia, Feeding difficulties, Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Behavioral abnormality, Abnormality of head or neck; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.587 CDK10 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: CDK10: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28886341; Phenotypes: Al Kaissi syndrome (MIM 617694); Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.587 COLEC10 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: COLEC10: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28301481; Phenotypes: 3MC syndrome 3 (MIM 248340); Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.587 SETD1B Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: SETD1B: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.587 EPB41L1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: EPB41L1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 21376300, 19503082, 11050113, 26539891, 25961944; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.587 GTF3C3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: GTF3C3: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30552426, 28940097, 28097321; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Seizures; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.587 KCNQ3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: KCNQ3: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 24851285, 24375629, 25524373, 23934111, 28135719; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.587 STAT1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: STAT1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 27114460; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.587 TCF20 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: TCF20: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 27436265, 25228304, 28135719, 27479843, 28333917, 28554332; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.587 MED23 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: MED23: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 21868677, 25845469, 27311965; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.587 MED23 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: MED23: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 21868677, 25845469, 27311965; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.584 ATP8B1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: ATP8B1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 20301474, 30266155, 20422494, 26382629; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.584 ACAN Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: ACAN: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 27353333, 29464738, 27870580, 19110214, 11389160; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.584 ZBTB11 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: ZBTB11 was added
gene: ZBTB11 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: ZBTB11 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: ZBTB11 were set to 29893856; 28382966
Phenotypes for gene: ZBTB11 were set to Intellectual disability
Penetrance for gene: ZBTB11 were set to Complete
Review for gene: ZBTB11 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Fattahi et al. (PMID: 29893856) report on 9 individuals from 2 broader consanguineous pedigrees with biallelic ZBTB11 mutations.

Features in the first family (from Iran) consisted of moderate ID, microcephaly, ataxic gait, and spasticity with MRI findings of cerebellar atrophy and ventriculomegaly.

Individuals from the second family (from Pakistan) presented with moderate ID and variable features.

Homozygosity for missense ZBTB11 variants, private to each family was shown (NM_014415.3:c.2185C>T / p.H729Y and c.2640T>G / p.H880Q for the first and second family respectively).

As the authors note, ZBTB11 is predicted to be a zinc finger transcriptional regulator and one of the hypotheses emitted suggests possible disruption of DNA binding.

Functional studies performed demonstrated that the mutant proteins were excluded from the nucleolus where the (wt) protein localizes.

Previous zebrafish models (PMID: 28382966) suggested CNS degeneration among other phenotypes in Zbtb11 mutants.

Knockdown of the drosophila ZBTB11-ortholog (CkIIα-i1) resulted in recognizable shrinking of the mushroom body with significant reduction in the number of neurons compared to controls.

Other Zinc Finger and BTB Domain-Containing proteins cause disorders with ID as a prominent feature (eg. ZBTB16, ZBTB20, etc.).

ZBTB11 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM nor in G2P.

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel probably as amber (2 pedigrees only) or green (given the supportive functional studies).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.584 ELN Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: ELN: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 20301427, 14556246, 11701637; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.584 ELN Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: ELN: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: 20301427, 14556246, 11701637; Mode of inheritance: None; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.584 TRPS1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: TRPS1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28426188, 25792522, 28256045, 11112658, 17689056, 22127049, 14560312, 17854380; Phenotypes: Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I (MIM 190350), Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type III (MIM 190351); Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.584 GUCY2C Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: GUCY2C: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 22436048; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.584 RASA1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: RASA1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29891884, 21348050, 21626678; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.584 VPS11 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: VPS11 was added
gene: VPS11 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Mode of inheritance for gene: VPS11 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: VPS11 were set to 27120463; 26307567; 27473128
Phenotypes for gene: VPS11 were set to Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 12 (MIM 616683)
Penetrance for gene: VPS11 were set to Complete
Review for gene: VPS11 was set to GREEN
gene: VPS11 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Biallelic mutations in VPS11 cause Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 12 (MIM 616683).

PMIDs: 27120463, 26307567, 27473128 all report on this disorder.

The phenotype consists of global DD, ID, (variable) acquired microcephaly with hypomyelination upon brain MRI. Seizures appear to be a feature in several individuals.

Almost all individuals appear to be of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, homozygous for a founder mutation (NM_021729.5:c.2536T>G or p.Cys846Gly). PMIDs: 27120463 and 26307567 report on 13 individuals from 7 Ashkenazi families.

A second variant (p.Leu387_Gly395del) was however found in the homozygous state in 2 sibs born to consanguineous parents.

Pathogenicity is supported by extensive functional studies in all relevant articles.

VPS11 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.

The gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc).

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green.

[Please consider inclusion in the lysosomal disorders panel as well as in the undiagnosed metabolic disorders panel].
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Intellectual disability v2.584 PITRM1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: PITRM1 was added
gene: PITRM1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: PITRM1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: PITRM1 were set to 26697887; 29764912; 29383861
Phenotypes for gene: PITRM1 were set to Intellectual disability; Ataxia
Penetrance for gene: PITRM1 were set to Complete
Review for gene: PITRM1 was set to GREEN
gene: PITRM1 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Biallelic pathogenic variants in PITRM1 seem to be associated with a phenotype of DD/ID and spinocerebellar ataxia.

6 individuals from 3 unrelated families have been reported.

PMID: 26697887 reports on 2 individuals from a consanguineous Norwegian family homozygous for a missense variant (NM_014889.2:c.548G> or p.Arg183Gln).

PMID: 29764912 reports on 2 consanguineous Palestinian families each with 2 affected boys. All affected individuals for both families were homozygous for a further missense variant (p.Thr931Met).

The boys from one Palestinian family appeared to be more severely affected - compared to the sibs from the other family with the same variant - due to a concurrent X-chromosome rearrangement.

Pathogenicity is supported by extensive functional studies performed in both articles as well as an additional one (PMID: 29383861) on Arg183Gln.

PITRM1 is included in gene panels for ID offered by (few) diagnostic laboratories.

The gene is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM nor in G2P.

As a result, PITRM1 can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.584 SLC1A2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: SLC1A2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 27476654, 28777935; Phenotypes: Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 41 (MIM 617105); Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.584 ABCC6 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: ABCC6: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 20301292, 25392903, 22209248; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.584 ABCB11 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: ABCB11: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30236549, 20232290; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.584 PAK1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: PAK1 was added
gene: PAK1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: PAK1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: PAK1 were set to 30290153
Phenotypes for gene: PAK1 were set to Intellectual developmental disorder with macrocephaly, seizures, and speech delay (MIM 618158)
Penetrance for gene: PAK1 were set to unknown
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: PAK1 was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Review for gene: PAK1 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Heterozygous pathogenic PAK1 variants cause Intellectual developmental disorder with macrocephaly, seizures, and speech delay (MIM 618158).

Harms et al. (PMID: 30290153) report on two unrelated individuals with de novo missense mutations in PAK1. Common features included developmental delay with associated intellectual disability, seizures, ataxic gait. Postnatal-onset microcephaly as well as some facial features were also common to both subjects.

Each patient was found to harbour a (private) de novo missense variant [NM_001128620.1:c.392A>G or p.(Tyr131Cys) - c.1286A>G or p.(Tyr429Cys)]. Expression studies demonstrated similar levels for the mutant and wt transcript and Western blot confirmed similar amounts of protein in patient fibroblasts when compared to controls. Functional studies suggest that gain-of-function is the underlying mechanism for both variants.

PAK1 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel as amber.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.584 PTRHD1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: PTRHD1 was added
gene: PTRHD1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Mode of inheritance for gene: PTRHD1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: PTRHD1 were set to 30398675; 27134041; 29143421; 27753167
Phenotypes for gene: PTRHD1 were set to Parkinsonism; Intellectual disability
Penetrance for gene: PTRHD1 were set to Complete
Review for gene: PTRHD1 was set to AMBER
gene: PTRHD1 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: 7 individuals with biallelic PTRHD1 mutations from 3 pedigrees have been reported. The phenotype in all consisted of early-onset Parkinsonism with intellectual disability (overview in Table 1 - PMID: 30398675).

Jaberi et al. (PMID: 27134041) first reported on 2 sibs born to consanguineous Iranian parents. Both presented with parkinsonism with ID. After homozygosity mapping and exome sequencing, one variant in PTRHD1 (NM_001013663.1:c.155G>A or p.Cys52Tyr) as well as another variant in ADORA1 were the only candidates for the patients phenotype. At the time, the authors favored ADORA1 as the causative gene for their patients' phenotype but could not exclude pathogenicity of PTRHD1.

Khodadadi et al. (PMID: 27753167) published on 2 additional sibs from Iran with a similar phenotype. These individuals - born to consanguineous parents - were homozygous for a further PTRHD1 missense variant (p.His53Tyr) which is proximal to the variant reported by Jaberi et al.

This led the authors of the first publication to acknowledge that PTRHD1 was probably responsible for their patients' phenotype (PMID: 29143421). [A recent study of exome sequencing data of a Parkinson disease 1214-patient cohort failed to find any case explained by biallelic ADORA1 mutations - PMID: 27987235].

The variants reported in these 2 publications are classified as VUS in OMIM (last update : 02/23/2017).

Kuipers et al. (PMID: 30398675) report on 3 additional individuals of African origin with identical phenotype. These individuals, whose parents originated from an isolated african community, were homozygous for a frameshift PTRHD1 deletion (c.169_196del or p.Ala57Argfs*26). This variant is rare in gnomAD (MAF of 0.018% overall or 0.15% in the African subpopulation). Alternative causes of PD / parkinsonism were previously excluded.

The phenotype of all reported individuals is summarized in Table 1 of this article.

PTRHD1 is not assocated with any phenotype in OMIM nor in G2P.

This gene is included in the gene panel for ID, offered by Radboudumc.

Therefore, this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel as amber or green.

[Please consider inclusion of this gene in the Parkinson Disease and Complex Parkinsonism gene panel].
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Intellectual disability v2.579 TMEM94 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: TMEM94 was added
gene: TMEM94 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: TMEM94 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Phenotypes for gene: TMEM94 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormal heart morphology; Abnormality of head or neck
Penetrance for gene: TMEM94 were set to Complete
Review for gene: TMEM94 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Stephen et al. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.11.001) report on 10 individuals from 6 unrelated families with bi-allelic truncating TMEM94 variants. The common phenotype consisted of global DD/ID, similar facial features as well as the presence of congenital heart defects (in all but one).

Speech as well as motor delay and learning difficulties were universal features. ID is mentioned in the abstract, explicitly specified for one individual and implied for some of the rest.

Overall 6 different LoF variants are reported. Reduced expression was demonstrated while gene expression microarray and RNA sequencing expression studies demonstrated dysregulation of several essential genes. Using a CRISPR/Cas9 mouse model loss of Tmem94 was shown to be embryonically lethal with craniofacial, cardiac anomalies as well as abnormal neuronal migration pattern observed in homozygous mutant mice embryos.

TMEM94 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P nor in OMIM.

As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel probably as amber (or green).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.579 PUS3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: PUS3: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 27055666, 30308082; Phenotypes: ?Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 55 (MIM 617051); Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.579 PUS3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: PUS3 was added
gene: PUS3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Mode of inheritance for gene: PUS3 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: PUS3 were set to 27055666; 30308082
Phenotypes for gene: PUS3 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Microcephaly
Penetrance for gene: PUS3 were set to Complete
Review for gene: PUS3 was set to AMBER
gene: PUS3 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: PUS3 (Pseudouridylate synthase 3) is proposed as a gene related to ID in a recent publication on PUS7.

Biallelic mutations in this gene are associated in OMIM with ?Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 55 (MIM 617051).

PMID: 27055666 reports on 3 sisters from a consanguineous Saudi Arabian family with failure to thrive, DD/ID, microcephaly and some common (coarse) facial features. These individuals were homozygous for a stopgain mutation in the last exon of the gene. Pseudouridylation appeared to be defective (as has also been the case with other genes related to ID, eg. PUS7).

PMID: 30308082 describes 1 individual born to consanguineous Palestinian parents, homozygous for a further LoF variant. Despite the localisation of this variant (again in the last exon of the gene) qPCR analyses were suggestive of degradation of the abnormal transcript possibly by NMD. The phenotype consisted of DD/ID and microcephaly.

In a further publication (http://dx.doi.org/10.7124/bc.0008D6) Gulkovskyi et al. report on 2 siblings with ID, born to non-consanguineous Ukranian parents. Pathogenicity of the variant is disputed. [NM_031307.4:c.212A>G or p.(Tyr71Cys) is found in an apparent homozygous state in the sibs but was only found in their father. De novo occurence in the maternal allele is proposed although the possibility of microdeletion missed by aCGH or other plausible mechanisms are not considered. This variant has maximum pathogenicity scores in silico (not discussed) and has an allele frequency of 0.00006717 in gnomAD. The authors did not perform studies of pseudouridylation but examined for the presence of hypoproteinemia, observed in some disorders affecting this process).

PUS3 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P but is associated with disease in OMIM.

The gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by various diagnostic laboratories (including Radboudumc). PUS1 is included in the current panel as green and PUS7 has been suggested for inclusion.

As a result, these gene can be considered for inclusion as amber (2 families) or green (given the supportive functional studies and/or the proposed role for the gene).
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Intellectual disability v2.579 PBX1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: PBX1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28270404, 28566479, 29036646; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.579 PBX1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: PBX1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28270404, 28566479, 29036646; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.579 PPP1R21 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: PPP1R21: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30520571, 29808498, 2894097; Phenotypes: severe intellectual disability, hypotonia; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.579 PUS7 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: PUS7: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, Microcephaly, Short stature, Behavioral abnormality; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.576 PPP1R21 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: PPP1R21 was added
gene: PPP1R21 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: PPP1R21 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: PPP1R21 were set to 29808498; 28940097
Phenotypes for gene: PPP1R21 were set to Generalized hypotonia; Feeding difficulties; Profound global developmental delay; Abnormality of the face; Abnormality of vision; Abnormal heart morphology; Abnormality of the respiratory system; Hepatosplenomegaly
Penetrance for gene: PPP1R21 were set to Complete
Review for gene: PPP1R21 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Biallelic pathogenic variants in PPP1R21 have been reported so far in 9 individuals from 7 unrelated families. All (7 different) variants reported to date are truncating.

PMID: 29808498 is the first detailed clinical description on the related phenotype. 3 individuals from 3 families are reported. One of these individuals was previously included in a larger patient cohort (in PMID: 28940097).

In a subsequent further publication, Rehman et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/humu.23694) describe 6 additional patients from 4 unrelated consanguineous families. Again, these individuals were homozygous for truncating mutations. The authors summarize the findings in their patients as well as the previously reported ones.

Common features included feeding difficulties, hypotonia with severe global DD and mildly coarsened facial features (all were observed in 9/9), visual anomalies (8/9), respiratory problems (7/9), cardiac anomalies (4/9) and hepato-/splenomegaly (3/7). Brain MRI anomalies were observed in the majority. DD was severe in all and ID (which is not explicitly mentioned) was evident from the clinical description of several individuals (eg. in PMID: 29808498).

In total 7 loss-of-function variants have been reported. The authors in the first article, underscore the possibility of less severe phenotypes associated to biallelic missense variants (although none has been reported so far).

Functional studies have shown great reduction (but not complete absence) of PPP1R21 mRNA levels in patient fibroblasts compared to controls. A role of PPP1R21 in the endosomal-lysosomal function is demonstrated in line with the presence of myelin figures in patient fibroblasts as well as some phenotypic similarities to neurometabolic/lysosomal storage disorders.

Most variants reported in the most recent publication except one (NM_001135629.2:c.1607dupT) seem to affect all 3 PPP1R21 isoforms (which also seems to be the case for previously published variants). c.1607dupT appears to be the single truncating variant affecting 2 (of 3) isoforms. This variant was however shown to have severely reduced expression in fibroblasts upon qPCR, absent protein staining, and increase in myelin figures.

The protein is expressed in embryonic mouse cortex.

Overall, this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.576 GRIN2D Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: GRIN2D was added
gene: GRIN2D was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: GRIN2D was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: GRIN2D were set to 27616483; 30280376
Phenotypes for gene: GRIN2D were set to Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 46 (MIM 617162)
Penetrance for gene: GRIN2D were set to unknown
Review for gene: GRIN2D was set to GREEN
gene: GRIN2D was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Heterozygous pathogenic variants in GRIN2D cause Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 46 (MIM 617162).

As commented in the previous review, PMID: 27616483 is the first report on 2 unrelated individuals with severe epileptic encephalopathy (onset of seizures at the age of 2 and 4 months). Severe DD with ID was noted in both.

Each of these individuals were heterozygous for the same missense variant (NM_000836.2:c.1999G>A p.Val667Ile) as a de novo event. Functional studies demonstrated a gain-of-function effect.

GRIN2D encodes for an NMDA receptor subunit, and the gain-of-function effect shown for this variant suggests that NMDAR antagonists might be useful as adjuvant therapy (some improvement noted in both individuals).

[The mode of pathogenicity selected here may be modified as more evidence on further variants becomes available. GRIN2D appears to be intolerant also to LoF mutations with a pLI of 1. Both LoF and GoF mutations have been described for genes encoding other NMDAR subunits].

PMID: 30280376 reports on 3 additional unrelated patients with developmental and epileptic encephalopathy and pathogenic or likely pathogenic missense variants in GRIN2D.

Three additional missense variants are reported (Met681Ile, Ser694Arg, Asp449Asn). Parental studies were possible only for the patient with Met681Ile (de novo) as well as for the individual with Ser694Arg (only one parent available though).

Significant developmental delay was evident in all prior to the onset of seizures (1m/2y/3y respectively) and subsequent developmental stagnation/regression with ID.

The phenotype of these 3 individuals as well as of the 2 previously described is summarized in table 1 of the latter article.

GRIN2D is a probable DD gene in G2P and is included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories.

Several other genes for NMDA receptor subunits (eg. GRIN2A, GRIN2B, GRIN1) and relevant/similar phenotypes are included in this panel as green.

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.574 SET Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: SET: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29688601, 25356899, 28135719; Phenotypes: Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 58 (MIM 618106); Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.564 TRMT1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: TRMT1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30289604, 21937992, 26308914, 28784718; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Seizures, Microcephaly; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.564 PRR12 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: PRR12: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29556724, 26163108, 28135719; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Abnormality of the iris, Abnormality of vision, Behavioral abnormality; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.564 PRR12 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: PRR12 was added
gene: PRR12 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: PRR12 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: PRR12 were set to 29556724; 26163108
Phenotypes for gene: PRR12 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of the iris; Abnormality of vision; Behavioral abnormality
Penetrance for gene: PRR12 were set to unknown
Review for gene: PRR12 was set to GREEN
gene: PRR12 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: PMID: 29556724 (Leduc et al. 2018) reports on 3 unrelated individuals with de novo pathogenic variants in PRR12. The common phenotype consisted of DD/ID (3/3), iris anomalies (colobomas in 2/3 with stellate iris patern in all) as well as additional vision problems and behavioral anomalies.

3 different loss-of-function variants are reported. These variants affected the longer transcript (Ensembl ENST00000418929.6 or NM_020719 - short : ENST00000615927.1) with a single one affecting both.

PRR12 appears to be intolerant to loss-of-function muatations (pLI of 1). Some LoF variants exist in ExAC/gnomAD although the majority appear to be low-quality variants.

As commented by the authors 2 individuals with de novo variants exist in Decipher (1 in-frame deletion and a missense SNV - both variants appear in fig.2 of the article) [a few more DDD study participants in the denovo-db all from PMID: 28135719 : http://denovo-db.gs.washington.edu/denovo-db/QueryVariantServlet?searchBy=Gene&target=PRR12].

Alternative explanations for the phenotype (eg. CHARGE syndrome, etc) were ruled out in many individuals in the article.

Functional studies have not been performed. //

PMID: 26163108 (Córdova-Fletes al. 2015) is a previous report cited by Leduc et al. One individual with balanced translocation [t(10;19)] with disruption of PRR12 is described. This individual presented with ID and behavioral anomalies (without details on eventual coloboma or other iris anomalies).

The translocation was balanced and led to fusion of PRR12 with LMIZ1. The breakpoint was located within intron 11 (PRR12 is a 14-exon gene) with fusion of PRR12 exon 11 with ZMIZ1 exon 8 upon RT-PCR. Both PRR12/ZMIZ1 products were predicted to be truncated due to frameshift and introduction of premature stop codon.

[Surprisingly qPCR and Western blot in patient LCLs were suggestive of increased PRR12 expression compared to controls suggesting either a compensation mechanism or longer half-life/accumulation of the aberrant PRR12].

Expression of wt PRR12 was highest during embryonic development in mouse/rat brain cells suggesting a role in early CNS development. The transcript studied (corresponding to the longest human transcript) was exclusively located in the nucleus compared to a shorter one located primary in the nucleus but also outside suggesting that PRR12 might be involved in regulation of transcription.

In line with this several genes linked to neurodevelopmental processes/neuronal communication appeared be dysregulated in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from the translocation patient.

A role for ZMIZ1 is similarly discussed. //

PRR12 is included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories. //

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.562 CAD Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: CAD was added
gene: CAD was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: CAD was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: CAD were set to 25678555; 28007989
Phenotypes for gene: CAD were set to Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 50 - MIM 616457
Penetrance for gene: CAD were set to Complete
Review for gene: CAD was set to AMBER
gene: CAD was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Biallelic pathogenic variants in CAD cause Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 50 - MIM 616457.

Overall 5 individuals from 4 unrelated families have been reported in detail in PMIDs 25678555 and 28007989 (table 1 in this article provides a summary).

The phenotype consisted of developmental delay which preceded the onset of seizures (6 months to 2 years) and hematologic anomalies (anemia and anisopoikilocytosis). The patients presented developmental stagnation/regression, which in most cases occurred several months following the seizure onset.

CAD is a tri-functional protein catalyzing the first 3 steps of the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis.

In total, 5 variants have been reported (2 missense, 1 nonsense and 2 splice-site SNVs) with functional studies (cDNA, metabolites) supporting pathogenicity and disruption of this pathway.

CAD mutations have previously been studied in other model organisms.

Mutations in enzymes catalyzing downstream steps of the same pathway are associated with other syndromes.

The disorder appears to be amenable to dietary intervention (uridine supplementation).

CAD is included in gene panels for intellectual disability offered by different diagnostic laboratories.

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel as amber or green.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.562 PHF21A Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: PHF21A: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 22770980, 30487643; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.562 RALA Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: RALA was added
gene: RALA was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: RALA was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Phenotypes for gene: RALA were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Abnormality of nervous system morphology
Penetrance for gene: RALA were set to unknown
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: RALA was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Review for gene: RALA was set to GREEN
Added comment: Hiatt et al. (doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1007671) report on 11 individuals (incl. a pair of monozygotic twins) from 10 unrelated families, most (10/11) with de novo mutations in RALA.

DD/ID was a prominent feature (the authors note that ID was specifically noted in 8 but could not be excluded in 3 further individuals who appear to be very young in the table). Structural brain anomalies (9/11), seizures (6/11) and common facial features were also noted.

RALA belongs to the RAS superfamily of small GTPases.

5 different de novo missense variants and 1 in-frame deletion, all within a GTP/GDP binding region of RALA (although appart in the protein primary structure) were observed. 7 occurrences of missense variants concerned Val25 and Lys128 (V25M, V25L, K128R), one Asp130 (D130G) and a further one Ser157 (S157A). The in-frame deletion concerned Ala158.

Missense variants in corresponding positions of RAS proteins (HRAS/KRAS/NRAS) have been reported in RASopathies, while the authors observed some phenotypic overlap with the latter group of disorders (DD/ID, growth delay, macrocephaly, high forehead and position of ears).

Functional studies demonstrated reduction in GTPase activity (for all variants) and altered RALA effector binding (for most reduction - in the case of S157A, increase).

Several lines of evidence are provided to show that alteration of the GTP/GTP-binding rather than a dosage effect is considered the likely mechanism. RALA is depleted in missense mutations in its GTP/GDP binding domain.

For these reasons and others (segregation studies not possible, variant observed 2x in Bravo database, phenotypic differences compared to the rest of the cohort, ROH suggesting parental consanguinity in the specific individual) the single nonsense variant (R176X) reported in the study is considered a VUS.

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.558 DOCK6 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: DOCK6: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 25824905, 27077170; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.558 KMT2B Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: KMT2B: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29697234; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.556 DPH1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: DPH1 was added
gene: DPH1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review
Mode of inheritance for gene: DPH1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: DPH1 were set to 25558065; 26220823; 29362492; 29410513
Phenotypes for gene: DPH1 were set to Developmental delay with short stature, dysmorphic features, and sparse hair, 616901
Penetrance for gene: DPH1 were set to Complete
Review for gene: DPH1 was set to GREEN
gene: DPH1 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Biallelic mutations in DPH1 cause Developmental delay with short stature, dysmorphic features, and sparse hair, MIM 616901.

Overall 11 patients from 6 different families have probably been reported in detail. DD/ID is a universal feature.

In PMID 25558065, Alazami et al. identified 1 patient from the same consanguineous Saudi Arabian family (of 8 total similarly affected individuals) homozygous for the Leu234Pro (NM_001383.3:c.701T>C) variant. This individual was part of a large cohort of patients with neurogenetic disorders from consanguineous families. The phenotype is not described in detail.

In PMID 26220823 Louks et al. report on 4 patients from 3 families belonging to the same genetic isolate from North America and provide details on 4 of the individuals identified by Alazami et al.

The individuals identified in this study were homozygous for Met6Lys which was however predicted to be benign and tolerated (by PolyPhen2 and SIFT respectively) in silico.

DD/ID, unusual skull shape, ectodermal anomalies were universal (8/8) with additional features including short stature (7/8), renal (4/6) or cardiac anomalies (3/8). Some facial features appeared to be common, too.

Functional studies were not performed. However Dph1 pathogenic variants in mice result in restricted growth, craniofacial and developmental defects similar to the human phenotypes (PMIDs 14744934 and 24895408 are cited).

PMIDs 29362492 and 29410513 report on 3 further patients with similar (as well as some additional) features including DD/ID. The individual in the first article was compound heterozygous for a missense (Leu164Pro) and a frameshift variant (c.289delG) while 2 sibs born to consanguineous parents in the second article were homozygous for a frameshift variant (c.1227delG).

The phenotype appears to be consistent among all the published patients.

DPH1 is included in gene panels for intellectual disability offered by different diagnostic laboratories.

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green.
Sources: Literature, Expert Review
Intellectual disability v2.555 TELO2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: TELO2 was added
gene: TELO2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review
Mode of inheritance for gene: TELO2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: TELO2 were set to 27132593; 28944240
Phenotypes for gene: TELO2 were set to You-Hoover-Fong syndrome, MIM 616954
Penetrance for gene: TELO2 were set to Complete
Review for gene: TELO2 was set to GREEN
gene: TELO2 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Biallelic mutations in TELO2 cause You-Hoover-Fong syndrome (MIM 616954). //

PMID: 27132593 reports on 6 patients (from 4 non-consanguineous families) with biallelic TELO2 variants and a similar phenotype.

Intellectual disability and microcephaly were universal features (6/6). Abnormal hearing (3/6), cortical visual impairment (3/6), abnormality of the cardiovascular system (3/6), behavioral problems (laughter outbursts in 3/6) and abnormal balance and movement disorder (6/6) were part of the phenotype. One individual had seizures.

5 missense variants and a complex allele with a stopgain variant localized in cis with a splice-site variant (NM_016111.3:c.514C>T or p.Gln172* in cis with c.2034+1G>A) are reported.

As a result heterozygosity for the complex variant may be confounded with compound heterozygous state until segregation studies are performed.

Functional studies support pathogenicity of the missense variants (reduced protein steady-state levels of TELO2 as well as TTI1 and TTI2 - the 2 other members of the TTT complex) suggesting loss of function.

PMID: 28944240 reports on 2 sisters born to non-consanguineous parents. Both were compound heterozygous for 2 novel variants, a missense and a frameshift one. Severe microcephaly (-8.5 SD and -10.7 SD) and seizures were noted in both. The first sister passed away at the age of 2 months due to a respiratory infection. The other sister demonstrated a compatible, though much more severe phenotype (of ID, dwarfism, retinitis pigmentosa, etc) compared to previously reported patients. //

Biallelic mutations in TTI2 (of the same complex) lead to similar phenotypes (gene rated green in the ID panel). //

TELO2 is included in gene panels for intellectual disability offered by different diagnostic laboratories. //

As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green.
Sources: Literature, Expert Review
Intellectual disability v2.555 TTI2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: TTI2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 23956177; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.555 ATP8A2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: ATP8A2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 22892528, 27679995, 30012219, 29531481; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.555 MACF1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: MACF1 was added
gene: MACF1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review
Mode of inheritance for gene: MACF1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Phenotypes for gene: MACF1 were set to Intellectual disability; Seizures; Lissencephaly; Brainstem dysplasia
Penetrance for gene: MACF1 were set to unknown
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: MACF1 was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Review for gene: MACF1 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Dobyns et al. (doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.10.019) report on 9 individuals (all unrelated appart from a pair of monozygotic twins) with de novo variants in MACF1.

All patients presented lissencephaly and brainstem hypoplasia with associated intellectual disability (9/9) and seizures (9/9).

Seven of these individuals had de novo missense variants within the GAR domain and an eighth had a deletion of several exons also spanning this domain and leading to an in-frame deletion. A further ninth patient had a de novo missense variant in the spectrin repeat domain and was found to have similar features although the brainstem dysplasia was rather subtle.

5 missense variants (4 of which in the GAR domain) and an intragenic deletion are reported in total.

The variants in the GAR domain were predicted to have important effect in the zinc-binding pocket. The spectrin repeat (SR4) is thought to have an important role for the function of MACF1 and further to neuronal migration.

Knockdown of Macf1 in mice has been shown to result in developmental defects similar to the human malformation.

The authors note that several high-confidence loss-of-function mutations are listed in ExAC and as a result this type of variants could be non-pathogenic (or lead to neurodevelopmental disorders with reduced penetrance). Still MACF1 has a pLI of 1.0.

As for the missense variants, the authors suggest either a gain-of-function or dominant negative mechanism.

Caution should be taken when interpreting variants as the ENST00000372915.7 (or MACF1-204) transcript is used for the predicted protein changes, although ENST00000361689.6 or MACF1-203 (corresponding to NM_012090.5) has also been used in some tables or figures.

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel probably as green.
Sources: Literature, Expert Review
Intellectual disability v2.554 PHACTR1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: PHACTR1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30256902, 23033978, 28135719; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Seizures; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v2.550 UFM1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: UFM1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 28931644, 29868776; Phenotypes: Leukodystrophy hypomyelinating 14, 617899; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.545 UFC1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: UFC1 was added
gene: UFC1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review
Mode of inheritance for gene: UFC1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: UFC1 were set to 29868776
Phenotypes for gene: UFC1 were set to Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth, 618076
Penetrance for gene: UFC1 were set to Complete
Review for gene: UFC1 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Biallelic UFC1 mutations cause Neurodevelopmental disorder with spasticity and poor growth, MIM 618076.

PMID: 29868776 describes 7 individuals (most) born to consanguineous Saudi families (in one case the parents were not consanguineous but originated from the same tribe) as well as a further individual born to distantly related Swiss parents. One of these patients was previously briefly published by the same authors (PMID: 27431290).

The phenotype consisted of developmental delay (8/8 - usually profound), failure to thrive (8/8), short stature and microcephaly (both observed in 7/8), seizures (4/8) and variable brain MRI anomalies in some of these subjects.

Overall, two UFC1 missense variants are reported [NM_016406.3:c.317C>T or p.(Thr106Ile) and c.68G>A or p.(Arg23Gln) the former in the Saudi individuals]. Functional studies demonstrated the hypomorphic nature of the variants.

UFC1 (as well as UFM1 also discussed in the same article) participate in ufmylation, with mutations in other enzymes of the same process (notably UBA5 - gene rated Green in the ID and epilepsy panels) having already been described in neurodevelopmental disorders.

As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature, Expert Review
Intellectual disability v2.545 CCDC88A Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: CCDC88A: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26917597, 30392057; Phenotypes: ?PEHO syndrome-like, 617507; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.537 GNB5 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: GNB5 was added
gene: GNB5 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review
Mode of inheritance for gene: GNB5 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: GNB5 were set to 27523599; 27677260; 28697420; 29368331
Phenotypes for gene: GNB5 were set to Intellectual developmental disorder with cardiac arrhythmia, 617173; Language delay and ADHD/cognitive impairment with or without cardiac arrhythmia, 617182
Penetrance for gene: GNB5 were set to Complete
Review for gene: GNB5 was set to GREEN
gene: GNB5 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Biallelic GNB5 pathogenic variants cause Intellectual developmental disorder with cardiac arrhythmia (MIM 617173) or language delay and ADHD/cognitive impairment with or without cardiac arrhythmia (MIM 617182).

PMID: 27523599 is the first report on the associated phenotype. A total of 9 individuals from 6 different families (from various ethnic backgrounds) are described.

The common features included hypotonia (noted in 6 out of 9 patients), intellectual disability (9/9 - in 3 cases mild, in 6 severe), heart rate disturbance (9/9 - in most cases sick sinus syndrome), seizures (4/9), ophthalmological problems (nystagmus in 6 out of 7 for whom this information was available) as well as gastric problems (5/8 with G-E reflux).

The 6 variants (summarized in table S1) included : 2 nonsense mutations, 1 synonymous (demonstrated to affect splicing and leading to retention of 25 intronic bp), 2 further splice variants (positions +1 and +3) and a missense one (S81L).

Nonsense mediated decay was the case for the product of the synonymous/splice variant as well as for a stopgain one.

As noted by the authors, individuals homozygous for the S81L variant had a less severe phenotype - among others - with mild degree of intellectual disability.

Functional studies included knockout of gnb5 in zebrafish, which was able to reproduce the human neurological, cardiac and ophthalmological phenotypes.

Alternative causes for these phenotypes (incl. chromosomal or metabolic disorders) were ruled out.

Affected individuals might benefit interventions for their heart rate disturbance as appears to be the case in the article as well as subsequent studies.

PMID: 27677260 describes an extended consanguineous Saudi family with 5 individuals homozygous for the S81L variant. Common features included severe language delay, ADHD, but normal cognition in those available for evaluation. Seizures were not reported. Pathogenicity of the S81L variant is further supported by functional studies.

PMID: 28697420 describes in detail 2 individuals from a large consanguineous pedigree confirmed to be homozygous for a single nucleotide deletion in GNB5. The phenotype included severe DD/ID, seizures, sinus bradycardia with frequent sinus pauses and ophthalmological problems. Sinus arrhythmia and or seizures were documented in several other relatives deceased and unavailable for testing.

PMID: 28327206 reports on 2 subjects previously included in PMID: 27523599.

PMID: 29368331 describes a child with severe developmental delay, nystagmus and sinus arrhythmia necessitating a pacemaker. EEG was abnormal although no frank seizures were observed. The child was compound heterozygous for a novel missense variant (R246Q) as well a 5 basepair deletion.

GNB5 is included in diagnostic gene panels for intellectual disability offered by different laboratories.

As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green.
Sources: Literature, Expert Review
Intellectual disability v2.535 KDM5B Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: KDM5B: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29276005, 30409806; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.535 EIF3F Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: EIF3F was added
gene: EIF3F was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review
Mode of inheritance for gene: EIF3F was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: EIF3F were set to 30409806
Phenotypes for gene: EIF3F were set to Intellectual disability; Seizures; Behavioral abnormality; Sensorineural hearing impairment
Penetrance for gene: EIF3F were set to Complete
Review for gene: EIF3F was set to GREEN
Added comment: EIF3F was identified in a recent DDD publication (PMID: 30409806) as a cause of autosomal recessive intellectual disability.

All 9 individuals reported were homozygous for a missense variant (Phe232Val - rs141976414) which has a frequency of 0.12% in non-Finnish Europeans.

Features included intellectual disability (9/9), seizures (6/9), behavioral problems (3/9) and sensorineural hearing loss (3/9). Facial features were not specific.

Extensive functional studies were performed and support pathogenicity of the variant in the homozygous state (reduced protein levels, reduced translation rate in line with the role of EIF3F encoding a subunit for eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3, as well as reduced proliferation rates).

As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green.
Sources: Literature, Expert Review
Intellectual disability v2.535 ATP6V1A Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: ATP6V1A was added
gene: ATP6V1A was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review
Mode of inheritance for gene: ATP6V1A was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: ATP6V1A were set to 29668857; 28065471
Phenotypes for gene: ATP6V1A were set to # 618012 EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY, INFANTILE OR EARLY CHILDHOOD, 3; IECEE3
Penetrance for gene: ATP6V1A were set to unknown
Review for gene: ATP6V1A was set to GREEN
Added comment: Heterozygous mutations in ATP6V1A cause Epileptic encephalopathy, infantile or early childhood, type 3 (MIM 618012).

PMID: 29668857 reports 4 individuals from 4 families with de novo pathogenic variants in ATP6V1A. The phenotype was consistent with a developmental encephalopathy with epilepsy.

All patients were found to harbor missense variants. The variants resulted in altered lysosomal homeostasis, abnormal neuritogenesis and synaptic density. However in one of the variants tested (p.Asp100Tyr) pathogenicity was mediated by loss-of-function mechanism while for another (p.Asp349Asn) by gain-of-function mechanism.

Differences in severity were noted, with two variants (incl. Asp100Tyr) being associated with a more severe phenotype and the two other (incl. Asp349Asn) with milder degrees of ID and epilepsy.

Biallelic ATP6V1A mutations cause Cutis laxa type IID (MIM 617403). PMID: 28065471 is the first report on 3 individuals from 3 different families (2 of which were consanguineous). All patients were homozygous for ATP6V1A pathogenic variants. All three presented with hypotonia, one (or possibly two) with developmental delay and two with seizures although the developmental phenotype is not further commented on. (Additional patients described in the article harbored mutations in other genes and were not considered).

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature, Expert Review
Intellectual disability v2.532 TBR1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: TBR1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30268909, 25356899, 23160955, 22495311, 30250039; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, Autism, Abnormal cortical gyration; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.530 DCPS Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: DCPS was added
gene: DCPS was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Expert Review,Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: DCPS was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: DCPS were set to 25712129; 25701870; 30289615
Phenotypes for gene: DCPS were set to Al-Raqad syndrome (OMIM 616459)
Penetrance for gene: DCPS were set to Complete
Review for gene: DCPS was set to GREEN
gene: DCPS was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Biallelic pathogenic DCPS variants cause Al-Raqad syndrome (OMIM 616459).

7 patients from 3 families have been reported to date, all summarized in PMID 30289615 (first reports on the disorder - PMIDs : 25712129, 25701870).

Most individuals belong to consanguineous families although a compound heterozygous patient belonging to a broader consanguineous family (in PMID 25701870) and a further individual was born to unrelated parents originating from the same region (in PMID 30289615) have been described.

Overall, 2 splice site and 2 missense variants have been reported. Functional studies were carried out and support pathogenicity of the variants in the first 2 studies.

Developmental delay and intellectual disability are universal features.

DCPS is included in gene panels for intellectual disability offered by different diagnostic labs.

As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green.
Sources: Expert Review, Literature
Intellectual disability v2.530 RHOBTB2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: RHOBTB2 was added
gene: RHOBTB2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Expert Review,Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: RHOBTB2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: RHOBTB2 were set to 29276004; 29768694; 26740508
Phenotypes for gene: RHOBTB2 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Postnatal microcephaly
Penetrance for gene: RHOBTB2 were set to unknown
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: RHOBTB2 was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Review for gene: RHOBTB2 was set to GREEN
gene: RHOBTB2 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: PMID: 29276004 reports on 10 unrelated patients with de novo pathogenic missense variants in RHOBTB2. The phenotype in all individuals was compatible with a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy including early-onset seizures, severe intellectual disability, postnatal onset microcephaly (6/10) and movement disorders (8/10).

The variants occured as de novo events and clustered within the BTB-domain encoding region (within and between the 2 BTB domains). Three missense variants were recurrent and/or concerned the same residue (p.Arg483His in 4 individuals, Arg511Gln was reported in 2, and Arg511Trp was was found in another 2 individuals).

Functional studies in HEK293 cells suggested increased abundance of the mutant protein secondary to decreased proteasome degradation. Using Drosophila as a model organism, altered expression of RhoBTB (the single ortholog of the 3 vertebrate paralogs, closest to RHOBTB2) was shown to result in neurological phenotypes. RhoBTB overexpression in particular was associated with increased bang sensitivity (which was not the case or milder in the case if knockdown of this gene) and impaired performance upon the negative geotaxis assay, similar to the human neurological phenotypes. Altered RhoBTB dosage was shown to be associated with impaired dendrite development.

As commented by the authors, these results as well as the clustering of missense variants and the pLI score of 0.51 reported for RHOBTB2 are consistent with altered protein function (due to the missense variants) rather than haploinsufficiency or loss-of-function.

PMID: 29768694 describes 3 additional individuals, all found to harbor de novo missense variants again within the BTB-domain encoding region. Two of the variants had been reported in the previous study (Arg511Gln and Arg483His) while the third was a private one (Arg507Cys). The phenotype was similar to the previous descriptions. Functional studies were suggestive of impaired degradation of the mutant protein by the CUL3 complex although this was not secondary to decreased binding with CUL3.

PMID: 26740508 (cited by the two aforementioned publications) reports briefly on an individual with de novo missense variant in the same region of RHOBTB2 (Asn510Asp) and Rett-like phenotype.

RHOBTB2 is included in gene panels for intellectual disability offered by different diagnostic laboratories.

As a result the gene can be considered for inclusion in the intellectual disability and epilepsy panels as green.
Sources: Expert Review, Literature
Intellectual disability v2.530 TUBA8 Rebecca Foulger Added comment: Comment on list classification: Demoted from Green to Amber based on re-review of evidence. Demotion agreed by Clinical Fellow Helen Brittain.

TUBA8 was originally rated Green on the panel because TUBA8 is a confirmed DD-G2P gene for 'POLYMICROGYRIA WITH OPTIC NERVE HYPOPLASIA' (the former name for Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 8, 613180) and TUBA8 is on the UKGTN 43 gene panel for brain malformations:
https://ukgtn.nhs.uk/find-a-test/search-by-disorder-gene/brain-malformation-disorders-cortical-43-gene-panel-886/.

However, the reported evidence comes from one 2009 paper (PMID:19896110) with 4 literature cases coming from 2 consaguineous families (1 variant); at least PMID:25008804 questions whether the families are related. A 2017 paper identifies an additional VUS (compound heterozygous) in a chinese EE patient (PMID:29588952).

Anna de Burca confirmed that there are lots of cases with CNVs involving TUBA8 in DECIPHER but there are only two cases with SNVs in the gene. One of them is classified as unknown pathogenicity, the other likely benign.

I contacted Usha Kini at Oxford, and also the Leeds and Cardiff genetic testing groups (as recommended by Usha) since they all offer cortical malformation panels. All three confirmed (pers. comm. via email) that they have no further cases for TUBA8.

The literature evidence and communications from Oxford, Leeds and Cardiff all support demotion of TUBA8 to Amber rating: The phenotype is still appropriate for the panel but insufficient cases for diagnostic rating.

Added 'watchlist' tag to look out for further cases.
Intellectual disability v2.515 PCGF2 Louise Daugherty Mode of pathogenicity for gene: PCGF2 was changed from to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Intellectual disability v2.510 CACNA1E Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: CACNA1E was added
gene: CACNA1E was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Expert Review,Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: CACNA1E was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: CACNA1E were set to 29942082
Phenotypes for gene: CACNA1E were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Dystonia; Congenital contracture; Macrocephaly
Penetrance for gene: CACNA1E were set to Incomplete
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: CACNA1E was set to Other
Review for gene: CACNA1E was set to GREEN
Added comment: Helbig et al. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.09.006) report on 30 individuals with pathogenic variants in CACNA1E.

The phenotype was consistent with a developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, with hypotonia, early-onset and refractory seizures, severe to profound developmental delay and intellectual disability. Additional relatively common features included hyperkinetic movement disorder (severe dystonia which was observed in 40%, other dyskinesias in another 20%), congenital joint contractures of variable degree and joint involvement (approx. 40% of individuals) and macrocephaly (approx. 40%). There were no common facial dysmorphic features observed.

Of note, epilepsy was not a feature in 4 cases (age 1 to 4 years) so few of these individuals may be investigated for their developmental delay/intellectual disability or other features.

Missense variants:
All the 30 subjects described harbored a missense variant in CACNA1E which in all cases where parental studies were possible (29/30) occurred as a de novo event. There were 4 recurrent variants, explaining the phenotype in 20 patients in total while the rest of the individuals had private mutations. Functional studies were performed and suggested a gain-of-function effect for these variants (increased calcium inward currents).

Loss-of-function (LoF) variants:
Apart from the main cohort of patients, the authors note the presence of 3 individuals with such variants incl.:
- one individual with a nonsense variant present in the mosaic state (6/22 reads) in peripheral blood.
- one individual with a frameshift variant inherited from his unaffected parent.
- one individual with a nonsense variant for whom parental studies were not possible.

The authors comment that these indivdiduals presented with milder phenotype compared to those with missense variants. More information on these subjects is provided in the supplement as the article focuses on missense SNVs.

As the authors also note, several LoF variants exist in gnomAD, although the gene appears to be LoF intolerant (pLI=1).

Penetrance:
Seems to be complete for missense SNVs and possibly incomplete for LoF ones.

---

A previous study by Heyne et al. (PMID: 29942082) implicated de novo variants (DNVs) in CACNA1E with neurodevelopmental disorders for the first time. This study however does not provide clinical details on the phenotype of the affected individuals, while it seems to present overlap as to the individuals reported (eg. includes subjects from the DDD study and others).

---

Details as to a few - possibly further - de novo coding variants reported to date can be found at the denovo-db:
http://denovo-db.gs.washington.edu/denovo-db/QueryVariantServlet?searchBy=Gene&target=CACNA1E

---

As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green.
Sources: Expert Review, Literature
Intellectual disability v2.510 DLG4 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: DLG4: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29460436, 27479843, 28135719, 23020937; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, Marfanoid habitus; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.510 PCGF2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: PCGF2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Abnormality of the cardiovascular system, Abnormality of the cerebrum, Abnormality of the skeletal system; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.510 ZNF81 Eleanor Williams reviewed gene: ZNF81: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 12345; Phenotypes: test phenotype; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v2.510 KARS Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: KARS: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29615062, 30252186, 28496994; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Seizures, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, recessive intermediate, B - 613641, Deafness, autosomal recessive 89 - 613916; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.510 ARL13B Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: ARL13B: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 18674751, 25138100, 29255182, 16541367; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.510 ARL13B Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: ARL13B: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.510 PIGW Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: PIGW: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30078644; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.510 NBEA Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: NBEA: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30269351, 28554332, 12746398, 12826745, 11450821, 3377648, 23277425, 22109531, 23153818; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Seizures; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.510 MEIS2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: MEIS2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30291340, 30055086; Phenotypes: Oral cleft, Abnormal heart morphology, Intellectual disability; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.510 MAP1B Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: MAP1B was added
gene: MAP1B was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review
Mode of inheritance for gene: MAP1B was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: MAP1B were set to 30150678; 29738522
Phenotypes for gene: MAP1B were set to Intellectual disability
Penetrance for gene: MAP1B were set to unknown
Review for gene: MAP1B was set to AMBER
Added comment: In PMID 30150678 the authors report on a family with 5 individuals diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID, IQ <= 70 and associated impairments in adaptive function) and 3 further relatives with IQ below 70, not fulfilling the criteria for a clinical diagnosis of ID. A frameshift variant in MAP1B segregated with the ID/low IQ phenotype. This variant was not found in 31463 Icelanders for whom whole genome sequencing data were available.

The authors confirmed association of MAP1B loss-of-function (LoF) variants by demonstrating the presence of 2 other stopgain mutations in 2 further families. Among the 6 mutation carriers in these families, the average IQ was 81 with 2 of these subjects fulfilling the criteria for intellectual disability. 3 of the 6 mutation carriers had a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Carriers demonstrated 24% less white matter volume (-2.1 SD) and 47% less corpus callosum volume (-2.4 SD) compared to controls.

Mean full-scale IQ, performance IQ and verbal IQ were 68.3 (with a SD of 10.5), 66.4 (SD of 9.3) and 74.5 (SD of 14.8) in MAP1B LoF carriers.

All 3 LoF variants reported result in a truncated but stable MAP1B protein as demonstrated by western blot analysis.

MAP1B undergoes post-translational modification and is cleaved (at position 2206) into a heavy chain and a light chain. The authors note that all LoF variants lead to truncation prior to the cleavage site.

As commented by the authors, LoF variants are found in publicly available databases at a frequency of approx. 1 in 10000.

One individual with de novo frameshift variant in Decipher ( https://decipher.sanger.ac.uk/search?q=gene%3AMAP1B#research-variants/results ).

De novo and inherited MAP1B variants have previously been described in individuals with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PMID: 29738522). This was also a feature in 9 individuals in the previous ID study.

Although PMID 30150678 is entitled "MAP1B mutations cause intellectual disability and extensive white matter deficit", intellectual disability was not a feature in all individuals or was rather mild when present.
Sources: Literature, Expert Review
Intellectual disability v2.510 CAMK2G Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: CAMK2G: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments; Publications: 30184290; Phenotypes: Generalized hypotonia, Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.510 AGO1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: AGO1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30213762, 22495306, 23020937, 25363768, 25356899, 27620904, 29346770; Phenotypes: Generalized hypotonia, Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Autism; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v2.510 AGO1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: AGO1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30213762, 22495306, 23020937, 25363768, 25356899, 27620904, 29346770; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v2.510 KCNK4 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: KCNK4 was added
gene: KCNK4 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review
Mode of inheritance for gene: KCNK4 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: KCNK4 were set to 30290154
Phenotypes for gene: KCNK4 were set to Neurodevelopmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Gingival overgrowth; Hypertrichosis
Penetrance for gene: KCNK4 were set to unknown
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: KCNK4 was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Review for gene: KCNK4 was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 30290154 reports on 3 unrelated individuals with de novo missense KCNK4 variants. All three individuals presented with developmental delay and epilepsy. Severe intellectual disability was a feature in two of these individuals while the third displayed low average intellectual functioning (IQ of 85). Other features common in all included facial dysmorphism (bushy eyebrows, long eyelashes, thin everted upper lip, micrognathia), generalized hypertrichosis and gingival overgrowth.

The two missense variants reported [(p.Ala172Glu) and (p.Ala244Pro)] occurred as de novo events in all subjects, while the first SNV was observed in 2 (of the 3) patients with severe intellectual disability.

Functional studies were suggestive of a gain-of-function effect. In line with this mechanism, Kcnk4 knockout mice did not seem to exhibit seizures, deficits in cognition or other neurodevelopmental phenotypes in a study conducted earlier and cited by the authors (PMID: 15175651).

As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in the panel as amber (or green).
Sources: Literature, Expert Review
Intellectual disability v2.509 RAC3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: RAC3 was added
gene: RAC3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: RAC3 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: RAC3 were set to 30293988; 29276006
Phenotypes for gene: RAC3 were set to Abnormality of brain morphology; Abnormal muscle tone; Neurodevelopmental delay; Intellectual disability
Penetrance for gene: RAC3 were set to unknown
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: RAC3 was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Review for gene: RAC3 was set to GREEN
Added comment: PMID: 30293988 reports on 5 individuals (from 4 different families) with de novo missense variants in RAC3. All individuals demonstrated structural anomalies on brain MRI (notably agenesis/dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, variable degrees of polymicrogyria and ventricular anomalies) as well as shared non-specific neurological features including abnormal muscular tone, global developmental delay and severe to profound intellectual disability. Feeding difficulties were observed in 4/5 patients.

All variants reported are missense and are presumed to result in constitutive protein activation, as suggested by previous observations either in RAC3 [eg. the p.(Gln61Leu) mutation] or the highly homologous RAC1 and RAC2. According to the authors this is further supported by the fact that Rac3 -/- mice do not show a severe phenotype while missense variants are underrepresented in the ExAC database (z=1.97) as opposed to loss-of-function variants (pLI=0.04 / probability of loss-of-function intolerance).

Of the 3 SNVs reported, 2 variants were in adjacent amino-acid positions [p.(Gln61Leu) and p.(Glu62Lys)]. The latter variant was found in 2 half-sibs born to different fathers, due to suspected maternal gonadal mosaicism (variant absent in all sequencing reads in the maternal DNA sample). The specific variant was also found in a further affected individual from an unrelated family.

Finally, as the authors point out a further individual with de novo RAC3 missense variant [p.(Ala59Gly)] was reported previously in an individual with thin corpus callosum and global developmental delay, although the phenotype was felt to be more reminiscent of Robinow syndrome (PMID: 29276006).

As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v2.509 MSL3 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: MSL3: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30224647; Phenotypes: Muscular hypotonia, Feeding difficulties, Neurodevelopmental delay, Intellectual disability; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, monoallelic mutations in females may cause disease (may be less severe, later onset than males)
Intellectual disability v2.439 C12orf4 Louise Daugherty Phenotypes for gene: C12orf4 were changed from Autosomal recessive intellectual disability; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Muscular hypotonia to Autosomal recessive intellectual disability, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Muscular hypotonia
Intellectual disability v2.439 C12orf4 Louise Daugherty Phenotypes for gene: C12orf4 were changed from Autosomal recessive intellectual disability to Autosomal recessive intellectual disability; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Muscular hypotonia
Intellectual disability v2.409 CISD2 Louise Daugherty reviewed gene: CISD2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.408 FGFR1 Louise Daugherty reviewed gene: FGFR1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v2.402 ISCA-37433-Gain Louise Daugherty 22q11.2 recurrent (DGS/VCFS) region (proximal region, LCR22-A to -B) Gain was changed to 22q11.2 recurrent (DGS/VCFS) region (proximal, A-B) (includes TBX1) Gain
Added phenotypes 608363; Chromosome 22q11.2 microduplication syndrome; dysmorphic facial features, cognitive deficits, velopharyngeal insufficiency, congenital heart defects and immunologic derangement; delayed psychomotor development, growth retardation, and/or hypotonia for Region: ISCA-37433-Gain
Intellectual disability v2.402 ISCA-37446-Loss Louise Daugherty 22q11.2 recurrent (DGS/VCFS) region (proximal region, LCR22-A to -D) Loss was changed to 22q11.2 recurrent (DGS/VCFS) region (proximal, A-D) (includes TBX1) Loss
Added phenotypes neonatal hypocalcemia, which may present as tetany or seizures, due to hypoplasia of the parathyroid glands, and susceptibility to infection due to a deficit of T cells; micrognathia; clefting; Hearing deficits; Velocardiofacial syndrome; cardiac malformations; DiGeorge syndrome for Region: ISCA-37446-Loss
Intellectual disability v2.398 ISCA-37418-Gain Louise Daugherty Region: ISCA-37418-Gain was added
Region: ISCA-37418-Gain was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: ClinGen,Expert Review Green
Mode of inheritance for Region: ISCA-37418-Gain was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Phenotypes for Region: ISCA-37418-Gain were set to infantile hypotonia, failure to thrive, mental retardation, autistic features, sleep apnea, and structural cardiovascular anomalies; 610883; characterized by hypotonia, poor feeding, failure to thrive, developmental delay, mild-moderate intellectual deficit, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Structural cardiovascular anomalies (dilated aortic root, bicommissural aortic valve, atrial/ventricular and septal defects) and sleep disturbance (obstructive and central sleep apnea) are also frequently associated
Intellectual disability v2.398 ISCA-37418-Loss Louise Daugherty Region: ISCA-37418-Loss was added
Region: ISCA-37418-Loss was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: ClinGen,Expert Review Green
Mode of inheritance for Region: ISCA-37418-Loss was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Phenotypes for Region: ISCA-37418-Loss were set to Potocki-Lupski syndrome; hypotonia, poor feeding, failure to thrive, developmental delay particularly cognitive and language deficity, mild-moderate intellectual deficit, and neuropsychiatric disorders; Smith-Magenis syndrome; Structural cardiovascular anomalies (dilated aortic root, bicommissural aortic valve, atrial/ventricular and septal defects) and sleep disturbance; 182290; moderate intellectual disability, delayed speech and language skills, distinctive facial features, sleep disturbances, and behavioral problems; hypotonia, failure to thrive, mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorders, congenital anomalies; Dental abnormalities
Intellectual disability v2.398 ISCA-37421-Gain Louise Daugherty Region: ISCA-37421-Gain was added
Region: ISCA-37421-Gain was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: ClinGen,Expert Review Green
Mode of inheritance for Region: ISCA-37421-Gain was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for Region: ISCA-37421-Gain were set to 3298277; 3817079
Phenotypes for Region: ISCA-37421-Gain were set to Chromosome 1q21.1 duplication syndrome; ncomplete penetrance and variable expression characterized by macrocephaly, developmental delay, intellectual disability, psychiatric disturbances (autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, mood disorders) and mild facial dysmorphism (high forehead, hypertelorism). Other associated features include congenital heart defects, hypotonia, short stature, scoliosis; 612475; 1q21.1 microduplication syndrome
Intellectual disability v2.398 ISCA-37423-Gain Louise Daugherty Region: ISCA-37423-Gain was added
Region: ISCA-37423-Gain was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: ClinGen,Expert Review Green
Mode of inheritance for Region: ISCA-37423-Gain was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for Region: ISCA-37423-Gain were set to 21933911; 23345203
Phenotypes for Region: ISCA-37423-Gain were set to Behavioral problems, cleft lip and/or palate, macrocephaly, and seizures were confirmed as additional features among the new patients, and novel features included neonatal respiratory distress, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ocular anomalies, balance problems, hypotonia, and hydrocele.; mild to moderate developmental delay, intellectual disability, mild facial dysmorphism (incl. prominent forehead, arched eyebrows, broad nasal bridge, upturned nares, cleft lip and/or palate) and congenital cardiac anomalies (e.g., atrioventricular septal defect). Other reported features include macrocephaly, behavioral abnormalities (e.g., attention deficit disorder), seizures, hypotonia and ocular and digital anomalies (poly/syndactyly); congenital heart disease; 8p23.1 duplication syndrome
Intellectual disability v2.398 ISCA-37423-Loss Louise Daugherty Region: ISCA-37423-Loss was added
Region: ISCA-37423-Loss was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: ClinGen,Expert Review Green
Mode of inheritance for Region: ISCA-37423-Loss was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for Region: ISCA-37423-Loss were set to 23239632; 20969981
Phenotypes for Region: ISCA-37423-Loss were set to prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, low birth weight, mild to moderate intellectual deficit, psychomotor retardation, poor speech, seizures, behavioral problems such as hyperactivity and impulsiveness. Frequent craniofacial abnormalities include microcephaly, high and narrow forehead, broad nasal bridge, epicanthic folds, high arched palate, short neck and low set unusually shaped ears. Furthermore congenital heart defects (atrioventricular, septal defects, pulmonary stenosis), congenital diaphragmatic hernia and in boys cryptorchidism and hypospadias have been frequently reported.; congenital heart defects, microcephaly, psychomotor delay and behavioural problems; hyperactivity, craniofacial abnormalities; 8p23.1 microdeletion syndrome; moderate intellectual disability
Intellectual disability v2.398 ISCA-37430-Loss Louise Daugherty Region: ISCA-37430-Loss was added
Region: ISCA-37430-Loss was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: ClinGen,Expert Review Green
Mode of inheritance for Region: ISCA-37430-Loss was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Phenotypes for Region: ISCA-37430-Loss were set to microcephaly, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, and cerebellar atrophy, as well as neurobehavioral disorders, including delayed development, mental retardation, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Patients with duplications of YWHAE tended to have macrosomia, facial dysmorphism, and mild developmental delay; growth restriction, craniofacial dysmorphisms, structural abnormalities of brain and cognitive impairment; Chromosome 17p13.3 duplication syndrome; prominent forehead, bitemporal hollowing, short nose with upturned nares, protuberant upper lip, thin vermilion border, and small jaw; Characteristic facies, pre- and post-natal growth retardation; 247200; classic lissencephaly (pachygyria, incomplete or absent gyration of the cerebrum), microcephaly, wrinkled skin over the glabella and frontal suture, prominent occiput, narrow forehead, downward slanting palpebral fissures, small nose and chin, cardiac malformations, hypoplastic male extrenal genitalia, growth retardation, and mental deficiency with seizures and EEG abnormalities; Miller-Dieker lissencephaly syndrome
Intellectual disability v2.398 ISCA-37433-Gain Louise Daugherty Region: ISCA-37433-Gain was added
Region: ISCA-37433-Gain was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: ClinGen,Expert Review Green
Mode of inheritance for Region: ISCA-37433-Gain was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for Region: ISCA-37433-Gain were set to 17250668; 20301749; 18414210
Phenotypes for Region: ISCA-37433-Gain were set to delayed psychomotor development, growth retardation, and/or hypotonia; dysmorphic facial features, cognitive deficits, velopharyngeal insufficiency, congenital heart defects and immunologic derangement; Chromosome 22q11.2 microduplication syndrome; 608363
Intellectual disability v2.398 ISCA-37446-Loss Louise Daugherty Region: ISCA-37446-Loss was added
Region: ISCA-37446-Loss was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: ClinGen,Expert Review Green
Mode of inheritance for Region: ISCA-37446-Loss was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Phenotypes for Region: ISCA-37446-Loss were set to cardiac malformations; clefting; neonatal hypocalcemia, which may present as tetany or seizures, due to hypoplasia of the parathyroid glands, and susceptibility to infection due to a deficit of T cells; Velocardiofacial syndrome; DiGeorge syndrome; micrognathia; Hearing deficits
Intellectual disability v2.398 ISCA-37500-Loss Louise Daugherty Region: ISCA-37500-Loss was added
Region: ISCA-37500-Loss was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: ClinGen,Expert Review Green
Mode of inheritance for Region: ISCA-37500-Loss was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for Region: ISCA-37500-Loss were set to 23166063; 17847001; 24352913
Phenotypes for Region: ISCA-37500-Loss were set to mild to moderate cognitive deficit; Diamond-Blackfan anemia; intellectual disability; 614294; anemia; congenital diaphragmatic hernia; cryptorchidism in males; severe speech and psychomotor delay; mental retardation; postnatal short stature; behavioral problem; mild dysmorphic feature; developmental delay
Intellectual disability v2.398 ISCA-37400-Gain Louise Daugherty Region: ISCA-37400-Gain was added
Region: ISCA-37400-Gain was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: ClinGen,Expert Review Green
Mode of inheritance for Region: ISCA-37400-Gain was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for Region: ISCA-37400-Gain were set to 21841781; 18184952; 21731881
Phenotypes for Region: ISCA-37400-Gain were set to 614671; intellectual disability; delayed development; autism; specific deficits in speech or language
Intellectual disability v2.398 ISCA-37408-Loss Louise Daugherty Region: ISCA-37408-Loss was added
Region: ISCA-37408-Loss was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: ClinGen,Expert Review Green
Mode of inheritance for Region: ISCA-37408-Loss was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for Region: ISCA-37408-Loss were set to 16963482; 22579565; 18245392
Phenotypes for Region: ISCA-37408-Loss were set to PMID: 16963482 idiopathic intellectual disability including moderate to severe intellectual disability, autism/autistic features, microcephaly, structural brain anomalies including cortical dysplasia/pachygyria, renal anomalies (multicystic kidney, hydronephrosis), digital camptodactyly, visual impairment, strabismus, neuromotor deficits, communication and attention impairments, and a distinctive pattern of craniofacial features. Dysmorphic craniofacial features include progressive microcephaly, flat occiput, widened inner canthal distance, small palpebral fissures, ptosis, long and straight eyelashes, broad and high nasal root extending to a widened, prominent nasal tip with elongated, smooth philtrum, rounding of the upper vermillion border and everted lower lips. PMID: 18245392 A 32-year-old, mentally retarded male was referred to our centre for further clinical genetic analysis. He was born to non-consanguineous parents after 42 weeks gestation with a birth weight of 3500 g. He had a healthy older brother. In the neonatal period he was hypotonic and at 8 weeks of age he underwent surgery because of an inguinal hernia with removal of an atrophic right testis. His motor development was severely delayed with sitting at 3.5 years and walking at 5 years of age. Speech was poorly developed, characterised by the usage of only a few words. During infancy an optic nerve hypoplasia was diagnosed, and during childhood he frequently suffered from luxations of the patellae, which required surgery. At the age of 32 years his height is 163 cm (_3 SDS) and head circumference 52.5 cm (_2.5 SDS). He has a narrow receding forehead, widened inner canthal distance of 3.5 cm (90th centile), normal outer canthal distance of 8.5 cm (25th centile), telecanthus, short and down slanting palpebral fissures, epicanthal folds, ptosis, long, straight eyelashes, high nasal bridge, low set large ears, flat philtrum, small mouth with high, narrow palate and retrognathia. The thorax is broad with increased internipple distance and slight gynaecomastia. A recent renal ultrasound revealed multiple cysts in the left, dystrophic kidney and two uncomplicated cysts in the enlarged, right kidney. The patient has a normally sized phallus with absent right testis and small left testis. His hands show a simian crease right and tapering fingers with broad proximal interphalangeal joints. He shows sandal gaps on both flat feet with clinodactyly of the fourth and fifth toes (and more); 612513; PMID: 22579565 severe developmental delay, congenital microcephaly, intractable epilepsy, and renal anomalies, as well as a congenital choledochal cyst which has not been previously reported in other patients with this cytogenetic defect
Intellectual disability v2.398 ISCA-37411-Loss Louise Daugherty Region: ISCA-37411-Loss was added
Region: ISCA-37411-Loss was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: ClinGen,Expert Review Green
Mode of inheritance for Region: ISCA-37411-Loss was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for Region: ISCA-37411-Loss were set to 19289393; 19136953; 18278044
Phenotypes for Region: ISCA-37411-Loss were set to PMID: 19289393 incomplete penetrance for developmental delay, mental retardation, or borderline IQ in most and autistic spectrum disorder (6/14), speech delay, aggressiveness, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other behavioural problems; 612001; PMID: 18278044 mental retardation, epilepsy and variable facial and digital dysmorphisms; PMID: 19136953 idiopathic generalized epilepsy without other features previously associated with 15q13.3 microdeletions, such as intellectual disability, autism or schizophrenia
Intellectual disability CIT Richard Scott marked CIT as ready
Intellectual disability CIT Richard Scott classified CIT as green
Intellectual disability CIT Richard Scott added CIT to panel
Intellectual disability CIT Richard Scott reviewed CIT