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Intellectual disability v2.978 DDX59 Catherine Snow Source Expert Review Green was added to DDX59.
Added phenotypes Orofaciodigital syndrome V, 174300 for gene: DDX59
Publications for gene DDX59 were changed from 23972372; 28711741; 29127725 to 28711741; 29127725; 23972372; 30914295
Rating Changed from No List (delete) to Green List (high evidence)
Intellectual disability v2.556 DDX59 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: DDX59 was added
gene: DDX59 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review
Mode of inheritance for gene: DDX59 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: DDX59 were set to 23972372; 28711741; 29127725
Phenotypes for gene: DDX59 were set to Orofaciodigital syndrome V, 174300
Penetrance for gene: DDX59 were set to Complete
Review for gene: DDX59 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Biallelic mutations in DDX59 cause Orofaciodigital syndrome V, 174300.

PMID: 23972372 reports on 6 individuals from 2 consanguineous Arab families. All 6 presented with palatal anomalies (cleft palate or bifid uvula), lobulated tongue, facial anomalies (frontal bossing and hypertelorism) as well as intellectual disability.

Individuals from the first family were homozygous for the Val367Gly (NM_001031725.4:c.1100T>G) variant while those from the second were homozygous for Gly534Arg (NM_001031725.4:c.1600G>A), both predicted to be pathogenic in silico. Immunoblot demonstrated reduced levels of the Val367Gly variant in patient fibroblasts (the other variant was probably not tested). Ddx59 was shown to be expressed in lips, palatal shelves and developing limb buds of mouse embryos.

PMID: 28711741 describes 3 further patients (from two consanguineous Pakistani families), presenting the cardinal features of orofaciodigital syndrome (though polydactyly was only reported in one of the three). Developmental delay was reported in all (in the first family one of the sibs had more severe delay with no speech at the age of 7 years, in the patient from the other family speech was limited to 2 words at school age). Affected individuals from both families were found to harbor a SNV leading to loss of a stop codon, thus extending the reading frame by 21 codons.

PMID: 29127725 reports on two sibs with a diagnosis of orofaciodigital syndrome born to non-consanguineous parents. ID was a feature in both. These individuals were homozygous for a frameshift variant. Reverse transcription PCR/semiquantitative PCR demonstrated reduction of the mutant transcript compared to the levels in wt controls (suggestive of incomplete NMD). Functional studies showed possible perturbation of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway. DDX59 expression in CNS from control post-mortem human brains was confirmed to be high (based on data generated in a previous study). Studies in Drosophila suggest reduced lifespan and neuronal defects secondary to mutations in mahe (the Drosophila homolog of DDX59).

As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel as green.
Sources: Literature, Expert Review