|Intellectual disability v2.588||PPP2CA||
Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: PPP2CA was added
gene: PPP2CA was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: PPP2CA was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: PPP2CA were set to 29274472; 30030003
Phenotypes for gene: PPP2CA were set to Feeding difficulties; Muscular hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Language impairment; Seizures; Abnormality of nervous system morphology
Penetrance for gene: PPP2CA were set to unknown
Review for gene: PPP2CA was set to GREEN
Added comment: Reynhout et al. (doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.12.002 - PMID not available) report on 16 individuals with heterozygous pathogenic PPP2CA variants.
Frequent features included feeding difficulties, hypotonia, developmental delay (16/16) with intellectual disability (probably 15/16 - a single individual developped cognitive dysfunction following a psychotic episode), language impairment, behavioral problems, seizures (10/16), brain abnormalities and variable other features.
The variants reported included 3 nonsense mutations, 1 frameshift, 1 duplication of one amino acid, 9 missense variants (of which one was observed twice and 2 affected Asp223) as well as a partial gene deletion (spanning also CDKL3).
Various mechanisms seemed to explain the effect of the different variants - among others - haploinsufficiency for some or a dominant negative effect for others, etc.
Type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2As) comprise 3 subunits, a catalytic C-type subunit (PPP2CA encodes the Cα subunit), a scaffolding A-type subunit as well as a regulatory B-type subunit important for their function. Impairment of PP2A-B56δ (encoded by PPP2R5D) binding/functionality was suggested for most of the variants. Similar dysfunction has been observed - among others - upon loss of one functional allele of PPP2R1A.
The effect of 2 variants affecting Asp223 (Asp223Val and Asp233His) was unclear as they largely behaved similar to wild-type in various functional assays. The authors argue that contribution of mutations in other genes could not be ruled out for the individuals harboring these variants, as could also be the case for the subject with disruption of (also) CDKL3.
The authors note overlapping phenotype with PPP2R1A and PPP2R5D-related ID (MIM 616362 and 616355 respectively - genes rated green in this panel).
Brain-specific Ppp2ca knockout in mice (PMID: 29274472) resulted in morphological and behavioral abnormalities partly overlapping with features observed in individuals with PPP2CA mutations. However mice heterozygous for null mutations have not been phenotypically examined (PMID: 30030003).
PPP2CA is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM, nor in G2P.
This gene is not commonly included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories.
As a result, PPP2CA can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green.
|Intellectual disability||PPP2R1A||BRIDGE consortium edited their review of PPP2R1A|
|Intellectual disability||PPP2R1A||BRIDGE consortium commented on PPP2R1A|
|Intellectual disability||PPP2R1A||BRIDGE consortium reviewed PPP2R1A|