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Genetic epilepsy syndromes

Gene: CYFIP2

Green List (high evidence)

CYFIP2 (cytoplasmic FMR1 interacting protein 2)
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh38): ENSG00000055163
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh37): ENSG00000055163
OMIM: 606323, Gene2Phenotype
CYFIP2 is in 3 panels

4 reviews

Rebecca Foulger (Genomics England curator)

I don't know

Review and rating collated by Tracy Lester (Oxford Medical Genetics Laboratories Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 2019_02_06) on behalf of Wessex and West Midlands GLH for GMS Neurology specialist test group, for Clinical Indication R59 'Early onset or syndromic epilepsy'. Review contributors: John Taylor and Helen Lord. Suggested gene rating: Green.
Created: 6 Aug 2019, 8:38 p.m. | Last Modified: 6 Aug 2019, 8:38 p.m.
Panel Version: 1.189

Tracy Lester (Genetics laboratory, Oxford UK)

Green List (high evidence)

de novo gain-of-function mutations (codon 87). PMID:29534297. AD EIEE65 - onset of intractable seizures of various types within 6 months of birth and severe to profound dev delay and mild facial dysmorphism. Nakashima et al, 2018 - 4 unrelated boys aged between 3 and 11 - 2 patients Japanese, 1 Israeli and 1 Malaysian. In first 6 months of life all had onset of freq and intrctable seizures. 3 did fe novo het missense variants were detected and all aff the same AA Arg 87. Molecular modeling predict may disrupt key hydrogen bonds and lead to structural instability. conclude that they led to GOF.
Created: 6 Aug 2019, 8:31 p.m. | Last Modified: 6 Aug 2019, 8:31 p.m.
Panel Version: 1.188

Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted

Phenotypes
Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 65,618008

Publications

Mode of pathogenicity
Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype -please provide details in the comments

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

Green List (high evidence)

Heterozygous pathogenic variants in CYFIP2 cause Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 65 (MIM 618008)
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[Apologies for any eventual mistakes esp.as for the functional evidence]:

Nakashima et al. (2018 - PMID: 29534297) report on 4 unrelated individuals with early-onset epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo missense CYFIP2 variants.

The phenotype consisted of early-onset intractable seizures (diagnosis of West syndrome in 2, Ohtahara syndrome in further individuals) with hypotonia (3/4), DD/ID (4/4) and microcephaly (3/4).

All variants affected Arg87 residue (NM_001037333.2:c.259C>T or p.Arg87Cys in 2 individuals, the 2 other subjects harbored Arg87Leu and Arg87Pro respectively).

CYFIP2 encodes the cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2. CYFIP2 (similar to CYFIP1) is a component of the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC) which has been shown to play a role in actin remodeling, axon elongation, dendritic morphogenesis and synaptic plasticity (several PMIDs cited).

In the inactive state of the WRC complex, CYFIP2 binds to the VCA domain of WAVE. GTP-bound Rac1 (GTPase) leads to release of the VCA domain from CYFIP2 which allows binding of this domain to the Arp2/3 complex (active WRC state) and in turn stimulates actin polymerization and lamellipodia formation.

Using lymphoblastoid cell lines from affected individuals and healthy controls and CYFIP2 expression was evaluated by Western Blot and was found to be similar between the 2 groups.

Additional studies suggested weaker binding of the WAVE1 VCA domain to mutant CYFIP2 compared to WT CYFIP2 (upon transfection of HEK293T cells). This could possibly favor activation of WRC (/the WAVE signalling pathway).

As a result a gain-of-function effect on the WAVE signalling pathway is suggested as a possible mechanism.

Using B16F1 mouse melanoma cells lamellipodia formation (process in which CYFIP2 has previously been implicated) was not shown to be impaired in the case of mutant CYFIP2. However aberrant accumulation of F-actin (and co-localization with mutant CYFIP2) was observed in the present study.

Only large 5q deletions spanning CYFIP2 (and several other genes) have been described to date.

Cyfip2 heterozygous knockout in mice results in abnormal behavior and memory loss. WAVE activity was enhanced (despite reduced WAVE protein production). Homozygous Cyfip2 loss is lethal (PMIDs cited by the authors: 25432536, 27524794). Impaired axonal growth, guidance and branching is noted in Drosophila mutants (CYFIP1/2 ortholog) (PMID cited: 12818175). The authors comment that Cyfip2 (nev) mutant zebrafish show a similar phenotype to mutant flies (PMID cited: 20537992).
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Peng et al. (2018 - PMID: 29667327) in a study of 56 Chinese families with West Syndrome (epileptic/infantile spasms, hypsarrhytmia and ID) identified 1 individual with the Arg87Cys CYFIP2 variant as a de novo occurrence.
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Zweier et al. (2019 - DDD study among the co-authors - PMID: 30664714) report on 12 unrelated subjects with heterozygous pathogenic de novo CYFIP2 variants.

The common phenotype consisted of tone abnormalities (12/12), DD/ID (12/12) and seizures (12/12 though a single individual had experienced a single episode of febrile seizure). Absolute or relative microcephaly and/or additional features were also noted in several individuals.

7 missense variants (4 occurrences of the Arg87Cys variant) as well as splice variant (shown to lead to exon skipping) are reported, as de novo events in these individuals. The splice variant was expected to escape NMD producing a truncating protein.

Although the variants are distantly located in the primary structure, spatial clustering (in the tertiary structure) is suggested by in silico modelling (all in proximity at the CYFIP2-WAVE1 interface).

CYFIP2 appears to be intolerant to both missense and LoF variants (Z-score of 6.15 and pLI of 1 respectively in ExAC).

The authors comment that haploinsufficiency as a mechanism is rather unlikely given the absence of small CNVs or variants predicted to lead to NMD. Again, a gain-of-function effect of these variants on WAVE activation (partial-loss-of function in terms of WRC stabilization and/or conformation of the VCA region in the inactive state) is proposed.
Created: 25 Jan 2019, 8:07 p.m.

Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown

Phenotypes
Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile 65, 618008

Publications

Ellen McDonagh (Genomics England Curator)

Comment on list classification: Promoted this gene to Green from Amber, after feedback from Richard Scott (North Thames GMC/UCL and Genomics England Rare Disease Clinical Lead) to confirm that this should be Green; de novo variants within this gene have been reported in >3 unrelated cases.
Created: 14 Mar 2018, 12:24 p.m.
Comment on list classification: Promoted from red to amber to await clinical review.
Created: 14 Mar 2018, 11:50 a.m.
PMID: 29534297 - de novo variants reported in four unrelated individuals with Epileptic encephalopathy from families of different ethnicities (two families reported as Japanese, one Israeli, one Malaysian). Three variants reported - c.260G>T, c.259C>T and c.260G>C, all of which result in a missense variant at Arg position 87 > Leu/Cys/Pro. Functional assays suggest that the variants result in gain-of-function effects on the WAVE signaling pathway. WAVE family proteins play central roles in actin remodeling, axon elongation, dendritic spine morphogenesis, and synaptic plasticity in mammals.
Created: 14 Mar 2018, 11:30 a.m.

Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown

Publications

Details

Mode of Inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Sources
  • Wessex and West Midlands GLH
  • NHS GMS
  • Expert Review Green
  • Literature
  • Expert Review Green
  • Literature
Phenotypes
  • Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 65, 618008
OMIM
606323
Clinvar variants
Variants in CYFIP2
Penetrance
None
Publications
Mode of Pathogenicity
Other
Panels with this gene

History Filter Activity

28 Nov 2019, Gel status: 3

Set mode of pathogenicity

Rebecca Foulger (Genomics England curator)

Mode of pathogenicity for gene: CYFIP2 was changed from None to Other

28 Nov 2019, Gel status: 3

Set publications

Rebecca Foulger (Genomics England curator)

Publications for gene: CYFIP2 were set to 29534297

28 Nov 2019, Gel status: 3

Set Phenotypes

Rebecca Foulger (Genomics England curator)

Phenotypes for gene: CYFIP2 were changed from to Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 65, 618008

6 Aug 2019, Gel status: 3

Added New Source

Rebecca Foulger (Genomics England curator)

Source Wessex and West Midlands GLH was added to CYFIP2.

6 Aug 2019, Gel status: 3

Added New Source

Rebecca Foulger (Genomics England curator)

Source NHS GMS was added to CYFIP2.

11 Dec 2018, Gel status: 4

Panel promoted to version 1.0

Sarah Leigh (Genomics England Curator)

Ellen McDonagh: PMID: 29534297 - de novo varia

4 Apr 2018, Gel status: 4

Added New Source

Sarah Leigh (Genomics England Curator)

CYFIP2 was added to Genetic Epilepsy Syndromes panel. Sources: Literature,Expert Review Green

4 Apr 2018, Gel status: 4

Created

Sarah Leigh (Genomics England Curator)

CYFIP2 was created by Sarah Leigh