Fetal anomaliesGene: PAX6 Green List (high evidence)
Green List (high evidence)
This gene was re-reviewed in a consistency check by Anna de Burca (Genomics England Clinical Team), and at a Fetal Working Group call on July 19th 2019 by Lyn Chitty, Anna de Burca, Richard Scott, Rhiannon Mellis, Rebecca Foulger and Ellen McDonagh. Outcome of review: Although we wouldn't include Peters anomaly alone on the panel, you can get cataracts with Peters anomaly and therefore include PAX6 and CYP1B1 on this basis.
Created: 25 Jul 2019, 8:04 a.m. | Last Modified: 25 Jul 2019, 8:04 a.m.
Panel Version: 0.311
This gene and phenotype were reviewed during meetings at Great Ormond Street hospital in March and April 2019. Clinical review and curation was performed by Lyn Chitty, Anna de Burca, Rhiannon Mellis, Richard Scott, Ellen McDonagh and Rebecca Foulger. Outcome of review: Phenotype is not fetally-relevant. Action taken: Demoted PAX6 gene rating from Green to Red.
Created: 30 Apr 2019, 8:24 a.m.
DDG2P rating in original PAGE list: Confirmed for KERATITIS HEREDITARY, Confirmed for COLOBOMA OF OPTIC NERVE, Confirmed for PETERS ANOMALY, Confirmed for FOVEAL HYPOPLASIA, Confirmed for BILATERAL OPTIC NERVE HYPOPLASIA, Confirmed for ANIRIDIA and Confirmed for ANIRIDIA CEREBELLAR ATAXIA AND MENTAL DEFICIENCY.
Created: 11 Dec 2018, 9:05 a.m.
In the original PAGE file, MOP listed as LOF for KERATITIS HEREDITARYX, COLOBOMA OF OPTIC NERVE, FOVEAL HYPOPLASIA, BILATERAL OPTIC NERVE HYPOPLASIA, ANIRIDIA and ANIRIDIA CEREBELLAR ATAXIA AND MENTAL DEFICIENCY. MOP listed as Uncertain for PETERS ANOMALY.
Created: 8 Nov 2018, 4:45 p.m.
Source Expert Review Green was added to PAX6. Rating Changed from Red List (low evidence) to Green List (high evidence)
Source Expert Review Red was added to PAX6. Rating Changed from Green List (high evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Added phenotypes ANIRIDIA CEREBELLAR ATAXIA AND MENTAL DEFICIENCY for gene: PAX6
Added phenotypes ANIRIDIA for gene: PAX6
Added phenotypes BILATERAL OPTIC NERVE HYPOPLASIA for gene: PAX6
Added phenotypes FOVEAL HYPOPLASIA for gene: PAX6
Added phenotypes PETERS ANOMALY for gene: PAX6
Added phenotypes COLOBOMA OF OPTIC NERVE for gene: PAX6
gene: PAX6 was added gene: PAX6 was added to Fetal anomalies. Sources: Expert Review Green,PAGE DD-Gene2Phenotype Mode of inheritance for gene: PAX6 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Phenotypes for gene: PAX6 were set to KERATITIS HEREDITARY
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.