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Intellectual disability v3.1214 COG5 Ivone Leong Tag Q3_21_MOI tag was added to gene: COG5.
Intellectual disability v3.1214 COG5 Ivone Leong changed review comment from: MOI should be changed from "MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted" to "BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal".; to: MOI should be changed from "MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted" to "BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal".
Intellectual disability v3.1214 COG5 Ivone Leong reviewed gene: COG5: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1214 COG4 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: COG4 were set to 25529582
Intellectual disability v3.1213 COG4 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on mode of inheritance: Early developmental delay (speech and motor) can be a feature of Saul-Wilson syndrome (monoallelic inheritance), however cognition is normal. Therefore, the monoallelic form is not pertinent to this panel and the MOI should remain as biallelic only which is associated with CDG-IIj, including psychomotor retardation.
Intellectual disability v3.1213 COG4 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: COG4 was changed from BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1212 COG4 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review was removed from gene: COG4.
Intellectual disability v3.1212 MYCN Ivone Leong Publications for gene: MYCN were set to 21224895; 8470948
Intellectual disability v3.1211 MYCN Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: MYCN were changed from Feingold syndrome, 164280; FEINGOLD SYNDROME TYPE 1 to Feingold syndrome 1, OMIM:164280
Intellectual disability v3.1210 MYCN Ivone Leong Publications for gene: MYCN were set to
Intellectual disability v3.1209 PTPN4 Ivone Leong Classified gene: PTPN4 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1209 PTPN4 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is not associated with a phenotype in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype. Based on the expert review, there is enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene should be rated Green at the next review.
Intellectual disability v3.1209 PTPN4 Ivone Leong Gene: ptpn4 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1209 PTPN4 Ivone Leong Classified gene: PTPN4 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1209 PTPN4 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is not associated with a phenotype in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype. Based on the expert review, there is enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene should be rated Green at the next review.
Intellectual disability v3.1209 PTPN4 Ivone Leong Gene: ptpn4 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1208 PTPN4 Ivone Leong Tag Q3_21_rating tag was added to gene: PTPN4.
Intellectual disability v3.1208 BSCL2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: BSCL2 were changed from Encephalopathy, progressive, with or without lipodystrophy 615924; Lipodystrophy, congenital generalized, type 2 269700; Neuropathy, distal hereditary motor, type VA 600794; Silver spastic paraplegia syndrome 270685 to Encephalopathy, progressive, with or without lipodystrophy, OMIM:615924; Lipodystrophy, congenital generalized, type 2, OMIM:269700
Intellectual disability v3.1207 BSCL2 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q3_21_MOI tag was added to gene: BSCL2.
Intellectual disability v3.1207 BSCL2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on mode of inheritance: Monoallelic variants lead to a motor neuropathy (MIM# 619112) or spastic paraplegia (MIM# 270685) presentation, both characterised by motor symptoms, but neither are associated with any cognitive deficits. On the other hand, biallelic variants cause encephalopathy (MIM# 615924) or generalised lipodystrophy (MIM# 269700) which do include cognitive decline and intellectual impairment, respectively.

Therefore, the MOI should be changed from 'Both mono- and biallelic' to 'Biallelic' only at the next GMS panel review.
Intellectual disability v3.1207 BSCL2 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: BSCL2 was changed from BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1206 DLL1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: DLL1 were changed from Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Morphological abnormality of the central nervous system; Seizures; Behavioral abnormality; Autism; Scoliosis to Neurodevelopmental disorder with nonspecific brain abnormalities and with or without seizures, OMIM:618709
Intellectual disability v3.1205 BMPR1B Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: BMPR1B were changed from Brachydactyly, type A2, 112600; Chrondrodysplasia, acromesomelic, with genital anomalies, 609441 to Acromesomelic dysplasia, Demirhan type, OMIM:609441; Brachydactyly, type A1, D, OMIM:616849; Brachydactyly, type A2, OMIM:112600
Intellectual disability v3.1204 BMPR1B Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: BMPR1B was changed from BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1203 PTPN4 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: PTPN4 were changed from Intellectual disability to Intellectual disability, MONDO:0001071
Intellectual disability v3.1202 PTPN4 Ivone Leong Publications for gene: PTPN4 were set to 17953619; 25424712; 30238967; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xhgg.2021.100033
Intellectual disability v3.1201 SYNCRIP Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: SYNCRIP: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 34157790, 30504930, 27479843, 23020937; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Autism, Myoclonic atonic seizures, Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.1201 CAMK4 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: CAMK4 was added
gene: CAMK4 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Other
Mode of inheritance for gene: CAMK4 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: CAMK4 were set to 30262571; 33098801; 33211350
Phenotypes for gene: CAMK4 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autism; Behavioral abnormality; Abnormality of movement; Dystonia; Ataxia; Chorea; Myoclonus
Penetrance for gene: CAMK4 were set to Complete
Review for gene: CAMK4 was set to GREEN
Added comment: 3 publications by Zech et al (2018, 2020 - PMIDs : 30262571, 33098801, 33211350) provide clinical details on 3 individuals, each harboring a private de novo CAMK4 variant.

Overlapping features included DD, ID, behavoral issues, autism and abnormal hyperkinetic movements. Dystonia and chorea in all 3 appeared 3-20 years after initial symptoms.

CAMK4 encodes Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV, an important mediator of calcium-mediated activity and dynamics, particularly in the brain. It is involved in neuronal transmission, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal gene expression required for brain development and neuronal homeostasis (summary by OMIM based on Zech et al, 2018).

The 473 aa enzyme has a protein kinase domain (aa 46-300) and a C-terminal autoregulatory domain (aa 305-341) the latter comprising an autoinhibitory domain (AID / aa 305-321) and a calmodulin-binding domain (CBD / aa 322-341) [NP_001735.1 / NM_001744.4 - also used below].

Variants in all 3 subjects were identified following trio-WES and were in all cases protein-truncating, mapping to exon 10 or exon 10-intron 10 junction, expected to escape NMD and cause selective abrogation of the autoinhibitory domain (aa 305-321) leading overall to gain-of-function.

Variation databases include pLoF CAMK4 variants albeit in all cases usptream or downstream of this region (pLI of this gene in gnomAD: 0.51). Variants leading to selective abrogation of the autoregulatory domain have not been reported.

Extensive evidence for the GoF effect of the variant has been provided in the first publication. Several previous studies have demonstrated that abrogation of the AID domain leads to consitutive activation (details below).

Mouse models - though corresponding to homozygous loss of function - support a role for CAMKIV in cognitive and motor symptoms. Null mice display tremulous and ataxic movements, deficiencies in balance and sensorimotor performance associated with reduced number of Purkinje neurons (Ribar et al 2000, PMID: 11069976 - not reviewed). Wei et al (2002, PMID: 12006982 - not reviewed) provided evidence for alteration in hippocampal physiology and memory function.

Heterozygous mutations in other genes for calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMKs) e.g. CAMK2A/CAMK2B (encoding subunits of CAMKII) have been reported in individuals with ID.

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The proband in the first publication (PMID: 30262571) was a male with DD, ID, behavioral difficulties (ASD, autoaggression, stereotypies) and hyperkinetic movement disorder (myoclonus, chorea, ataxia) with severe generalized dystonia (onset at the age of 13y). Brain MRI demonstrated cerebellar atrophy.

Extensive work-up incl. karyotyping, CMA, DYT-TOR1A, THAP1, GCH1, SCA1/2/3/6/7/8/12/17, Friedreich's ataxia and FMR1 analysis was negative.F

Trio WES identified a dn splice site variant (c.981+1G>A) in the last exon-intron junction. RT-PCR followed by gel electrophoresis and Sanger in fibroblasts from an affected and control subject revealed that the proband had - as predicted by the type/location of the variant - in equal amount 2 cDNA products, a normal as well as a truncated one.

Sequencing of the shortest revealed utilization of a cryptic donor splice site upstream of the mutated donor leading to a 77bp out-of-frame deletion and introduction of a premature stop codon in the last codon (p.Lys303Serfs*28). Western blot in fibroblast cell lines revealed 2 bands corresponding to the normal protein product as well as to the p.Lys303Serfs*28 although expression of the latter was lower than that of the full length protein.

Several previous studies have shown that mutant CAMKIV species that lack the autoinhibitory domain are consitutively active (several Refs provided). Among others Chatila et al (1996, PMID: 8702940) studied an in vitro-engineered truncation mutant (Δ1-317 - truncation at position 317 of the protein) with functionally validated gain-of-function effect.

To prove enhanced activity of the splicing variant, Zech et al assessed phosphorylation of CREB (cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein), a downstream substrate of CAMKIV. Immunobloting revealed significant increase of CREB phosphorylation in patient fibroblasts compared to controls. Overactivation of CAMKIV signaling was reversed when cells were treated with STO-609 an inhibitor of CAMKK, the ustream activator of CAMKIV.

Overall the authors demonstrated that loss of CAMKIV autoregulatory domain due to this splice variant had a gain-of-function effect.

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Following trio-WES, Zech et al (2020 - PMID: 33098801) identified another relevant subject within cohort of 764 individuals with dystonia. This 12-y.o. male, harboring a different variant affecting the same donor site (c.981+1G>T), presented DD, ID, dystonia (onset at 3y) and additional movement disorders (myoclonus, ataxia) as well as similar behavior (ASD, autoaggression, stereotypies). [Details in suppl. p20].

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Finally Zech et al (2020 - PMID: 33211350) reported on a 24-y.o. woman with adolescence onset choreodystonia. Other features included DD, moderate ID, absence seizures in infancy, OCD with anxiety and later diagnosis of ASD. Trio WES revealed a dn stopgain variant (c.940C>T; p.Gln314*).

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There is no associated phenotype in OMIM, G2P, PanelApp AUS.

In SysID CAMK4 is listed among the current primary ID genes.

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Please consider inclusion in other relevant panels.
Sources: Literature, Other
Intellectual disability v3.1201 ATP9A Konstantinos Varvagiannis edited their review of gene: ATP9A: Changed publications to: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2021-107843
Intellectual disability v3.1201 ATP9A Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: ATP9A was added
gene: ATP9A was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Other
Mode of inheritance for gene: ATP9A was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Phenotypes for gene: ATP9A were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Postnatal microcephaly; Failure to thrive; Abnormality of the abdomen
Penetrance for gene: ATP9A were set to Complete
Review for gene: ATP9A was set to AMBER
Added comment: Vogt, Verheyen et al (2021 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2021-107843) report 3 affected individuals from 2 unrelated consanguineous families.

Features included DD, variable ID (Fam1: sib1-mild, sib2-possible, Fam2: severe), postnatal microcephaly (-2.33 to -3.58 SD), failure to thrive as well as gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, GE reflux).

These subjects were homozygous for pLoF ATP9A variants private to each family.

Previous investigations incl. karyotype, aCGH and transferrin electophoresis (CDGs) and were unremarkable.

Diagnosis was made by exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping. Affected sibs from the first family were homozygous for a stopgain variant [NM_006045.3:c.868C>Τ / p.(Arg290*)]. The subject from the second family was homozygous for a variant affecting the consensus (donor) splice site [c.642+1G>A - same RefSeq]. Both variants were absent from gnomAD. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm variants, carrier status of the parents and unaffected sibs in both families.

Sequencing of cDNA from the individual homozygous for the splicing variant demonstrated skipping of exon 7 with the variant likely leading to frameshift and introduction of a premature stop codon.

qPCR in dermal fibroblasts from affected individuals from both families revealed expression downregulation of ATP9A (14% and 4% respectively for the stopgain and splice variant). Study at the protein level was not possible due to absence of antibody against endogenous ATP9A.

ATP9A encodes ATPase phospholipid transporting 9A (similarly to ATP9B) belonging to the subclass 2 of the P4-ATPase family. As the authors comment, the protein is mainly expressed in the brain although the precise function or subcellular distribution of endogenous ATP9A are unknown.

A previous study showed that overexpressed ATP9A in HeLa cells localizes to early/recycling endosomes and the trans-Golgi network, being required for endocytic recycling of the transferrin receptor to the plasma membrane. ATP9A (in complex with DOP1B and MON2) functionally interacts with the SNX3-retromer. A previous ATP9A knockdown cell line suggested dysregulation of >100 genes with ARPC3 (actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 3) being strongly upregulated.

Overall ATP9A appears to have a role in endosome trafficking pathways as well as to inhibit secretion of exosomes at the plasma membrane likely due to alteration of the actin cytoskeleton.

In line with the role of APT9A in early/recycling endosomes and identified interactions, the authors demonstrated overexpression of ARPC3 and SNX3. Study of genes encoding other known interacting proteins was not possible due to poor expression in fibroblasts.

As the authors note, mutations in genes encoding proteins of the Golgi and endosomal trafficking are important for brain development and have been associated with postnatal microcephaly.

In OMIM, G2P, SysID there is no associated phenotype.

The gene is included in the ID panel of PanelApp AUS with amber rating.
Sources: Literature, Other
Intellectual disability v3.1201 ZDHHC9 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: ZDHHC9 were changed from Mental retardation, X-linked syndromic, Raymond type, 300799; MENTAL RETARDATION SYNDROMIC X-LINKED ZDHHC9-RELATED (MRXSZ) to Mental retardation, X-linked syndromic, Raymond type, OMIM:300799
Intellectual disability v3.1200 CEP85L Sarah Leigh Tag Q3_21_rating tag was added to gene: CEP85L.
Intellectual disability v3.1200 CEP85L Sarah Leigh edited their review of gene: CEP85L: Added comment: Associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM, but not associated with phenotype in Gen2Phen. At least nine variants reported in nine unrelated families. PMID 32097630 comments that - the CEP85L gene as a whole is tolerant to loss of function and to missense variation. However, the 4 missense variants that have been identified in patients affect a 15-aa region of the protein that is highly intolerant to missense variation, the splicing and start-loss variants are predicted to produce a shortened protein that excludes the same 15-aa region. It is speculated that variants in this constrained region, may act through a dominant-negative mechanism.
Intellectual disability was apparent in eight of the families studied, ranging from mild (three families) to moderate (five families).
Supportive studies were also presented (PMID 32097630, 32097629).; Changed rating: GREEN
Intellectual disability v3.1200 CEP85L Sarah Leigh Classified gene: CEP85L as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1200 CEP85L Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review.
Intellectual disability v3.1200 CEP85L Sarah Leigh Gene: cep85l has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1199 CEP85L Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: CEP85L were changed from Intellectual disability; epilepsy, lissencephaly to Lissencephaly 10, OMIM:618873; Lissencephaly 10, MONDO:0030031
Intellectual disability v3.1198 DPYSL5 Ivone Leong Tag Q3_21_rating tag was added to gene: DPYSL5.
Intellectual disability v3.1198 DPYSL5 Ivone Leong changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is associated with a phenotype in Gene2Phenotype (probable) but not in OMIM.

PMID: 33894126. 10 individuals (2 of whom are related). 7/7 had severe ID, 9/9 DD and hypotonia, 3/6 ataxia, 3/10 seizures, 6/7 cerebellar hypoplasia and 7/10 corpus callosum agenesis.

Based on literature and expert review, there is enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene should be rated Green at the next review.; to: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is associated with a phenotype in Gene2Phenotype (probable) but not in OMIM.

PMID: 33894126. 10 individuals (2 of whom are related). 7/7 had severe ID, 9/9 DD and hypotonia, 3/6 ataxia, 3/10 seizures, 6/7 cerebellar hypoplasia and 7/10 corpus callosum agenesis. Age range from 2.5 years to 33 years.

Based on literature and expert review, there is enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene should be rated Green at the next review.
Intellectual disability v3.1198 DPYSL5 Ivone Leong Classified gene: DPYSL5 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1198 DPYSL5 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is associated with a phenotype in Gene2Phenotype (probable) but not in OMIM.

PMID: 33894126. 10 individuals (2 of whom are related). 7/7 had severe ID, 9/9 DD and hypotonia, 3/6 ataxia, 3/10 seizures, 6/7 cerebellar hypoplasia and 7/10 corpus callosum agenesis.

Based on literature and expert review, there is enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene should be rated Green at the next review.
Intellectual disability v3.1198 DPYSL5 Ivone Leong Gene: dpysl5 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1197 CHD5 Ivone Leong Tag Q3_21_rating tag was added to gene: CHD5.
Intellectual disability v3.1197 CHD5 Ivone Leong Classified gene: CHD5 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1197 CHD5 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is associated with a phenotype in Gene2Phenotype (possible) but not in OMIM.

PMID: 33944996. Age ranged from 3 years - 22 years. 9/14 individuals had ID (only 6 of 9 patients were assessed for severity with 2 moderate ID and 4 severe cases). 10/16 individuals had epilepsy. 7/14 had hypotonia and 3/7 had craniosynostosis. 16 different variants were identified (11 missense, 1 frameshift, 2 nonsense and 2 splice site variants).

There are >3 unrelated cases, therefore there is enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene should be rated Green at the next review.
Intellectual disability v3.1197 CHD5 Ivone Leong Gene: chd5 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1196 CHD5 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: CHD5 were changed from Intellectual disability; Epilepsy to Intellectual disability, MONDO:0001071; Epilepsy, MONDO:0005027
Intellectual disability v3.1195 CEP85L Rachel Challis gene: CEP85L was added
gene: CEP85L was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: NHS GMS
Mode of inheritance for gene: CEP85L was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: CEP85L were set to 32097629; 32097630
Phenotypes for gene: CEP85L were set to Intellectual disability; epilepsy, lissencephaly
Penetrance for gene: CEP85L were set to unknown
Review for gene: CEP85L was set to GREEN
gene: CEP85L was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Recommend adding as Green gene to GMS - R29 Intellectual disability panel.

Monoallelic missense and loss of function variants in CEP85L are associated with Lissencephaly (OMIM 618873). Over 10 unrelated families have been described with de novo and inherited rare variants in CEP85L. Functional work in cell lines and knockdown of Cep85l in mice confirms the role of CEP85L in neuronal migration.
PMID: 32097629
PMID: 32097630
Sources: NHS GMS
Intellectual disability v3.1195 PCDHGC4 Sarah Leigh changed review comment from: Not associated with a phenotype in OMIM, Gen2Phen or MONDO. At least eight variants reported in 19 members of nine unreleted families with a neurodevelopmental syndrome. Severe or moderate intellectual disabilty was found in eight families and seizures were evident in four families. Four of the variants were terminating, in silico analysis of the remaining missense (n=3) and splice variants were predicted to be pathogenic.
Sources: Literature; to: Not associated with a phenotype in OMIM, Gen2Phen or MONDO (15/7/2021). At least eight variants reported in 19 members of nine unreleted families with a neurodevelopmental syndrome. Severe or moderate intellectual disabilty was found in eight families and seizures were evident in four families. Four of the variants were terminating, in silico analysis of the remaining missense (n=3) and splice variants were predicted to be pathogenic.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1195 PCDHGC4 Sarah Leigh Classified gene: PCDHGC4 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1195 PCDHGC4 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review.
Intellectual disability v3.1195 PCDHGC4 Sarah Leigh Gene: pcdhgc4 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1194 PCDHGC4 Sarah Leigh gene: PCDHGC4 was added
gene: PCDHGC4 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Q3_21_rating tags were added to gene: PCDHGC4.
Mode of inheritance for gene: PCDHGC4 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: PCDHGC4 were set to 34244665
Phenotypes for gene: PCDHGC4 were set to neurodevelopmental syndrome
Review for gene: PCDHGC4 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Not associated with a phenotype in OMIM, Gen2Phen or MONDO. At least eight variants reported in 19 members of nine unreleted families with a neurodevelopmental syndrome. Severe or moderate intellectual disabilty was found in eight families and seizures were evident in four families. Four of the variants were terminating, in silico analysis of the remaining missense (n=3) and splice variants were predicted to be pathogenic.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1193 ATXN2L Ivone Leong Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: ATXN2L.
Intellectual disability v3.1193 ATXN2L Ivone Leong Classified gene: ATXN2L as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1193 ATXN2L Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is not asssociated with a phenotype in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype. There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene has been given a Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.1193 ATXN2L Ivone Leong Gene: atxn2l has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1192 EPHA7 Ivone Leong Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: EPHA7.
Intellectual disability v3.1192 EPHA7 Ivone Leong Classified gene: EPHA7 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1192 EPHA7 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other). This gene is not associated with a phenotype in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype. This gene has been given an Amber rating based on expert review.
Intellectual disability v3.1192 EPHA7 Ivone Leong Gene: epha7 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1191 EPHA7 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: EPHA7 were changed from Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Delayed speech and language development; Behavioral abnormality to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability, MONDO:0001071; Delayed speech and language development; Behavioral abnormality
Intellectual disability v3.1190 ERGIC3 Ivone Leong Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: ERGIC3.
Intellectual disability v3.1190 ERGIC3 Ivone Leong Classified gene: ERGIC3 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1190 ERGIC3 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is not asssociated with a phenotype in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype. There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.1190 ERGIC3 Ivone Leong Gene: ergic3 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1189 ERGIC3 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: ERGIC3 were changed from Intellectual disability to Intellectual disability, MONDO:0001071
Intellectual disability v3.1188 HEATR5B Ivone Leong Classified gene: HEATR5B as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1188 HEATR5B Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is not associated with a phenotype in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype. There is currently not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.1188 HEATR5B Ivone Leong Gene: heatr5b has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1187 HEATR5B Ivone Leong Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: HEATR5B.
Intellectual disability v3.1187 HEATR5B Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: HEATR5B were changed from pontocerebellar hypoplasia; intellectual disability; seizures to pontocerebellar hypoplasia, MONDO:0020135; intellectual disability, MONDO:0001071; seizures
Intellectual disability v3.1186 JPH3 Ivone Leong Classified gene: JPH3 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1186 JPH3 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is asssociated with a phenotype in OMIM but not Gene2Phenotype. As there is only one case there is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene has been given a Red rating.
Intellectual disability v3.1186 JPH3 Ivone Leong Gene: jph3 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1185 KIF1B Ivone Leong Classified gene: KIF1B as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1185 KIF1B Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is asssociated with a phenotype in OMIM but not Gene2Phenotype. As there is only one case there is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene has been given a Red rating.
Intellectual disability v3.1185 KIF1B Ivone Leong Gene: kif1b has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1184 KIF1B Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: KIF1B were changed from Hypotonia; coloboma; hypoplasia of the corpus callosum; severe neurodevelopmental delay to Hypotonia; coloboma, MONDO:0001476; hypoplasia of the corpus callosum; severe neurodevelopmental delay
Intellectual disability v3.1183 SAMD9L Ivone Leong Classified gene: SAMD9L as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1183 SAMD9L Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is associated with a phenotype in OMIM and Gene2Phenotype, but nothing related to ID. There is currently not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene has been given a Red status.
Intellectual disability v3.1183 SAMD9L Ivone Leong Gene: samd9l has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1182 SAMD9L Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: SAMD9L were changed from Intellectual disability to Intellectual disability, MONDO:0001071
Intellectual disability v3.1181 SPTBN1 Sarah Leigh Classified gene: SPTBN1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1181 SPTBN1 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review.
Intellectual disability v3.1181 SPTBN1 Sarah Leigh Gene: sptbn1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1180 SPTBN1 Sarah Leigh gene: SPTBN1 was added
gene: SPTBN1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Q3_21_rating tags were added to gene: SPTBN1.
Mode of inheritance for gene: SPTBN1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: SPTBN1 were set to 34211179
Phenotypes for gene: SPTBN1 were set to autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental syndrome
Review for gene: SPTBN1 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Not associated with a phenotype in OMIM, Gen2Phen or MONDO (as of 13/07/2021). At least 27 monoallelic variants reported in 29 individuals with neurodevelopmental abnormalities. Developmental delay was reported in 28/28 tested cases. Intellectual disabilty was reported in 21/24 tested cases (including severe in 5 cases, moderate to severe in 2 cases and moderate in 4 cases) and epilepsy/seizures was reported in 9/24 tested cases (including febrile seizures in 2 cases). Extensive supportive functional evidence was also reported (PMID 34211179).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1179 CAMK2A Ivone Leong Tag watchlist_moi tag was added to gene: CAMK2A.
Intellectual disability v3.1179 NAA20 Sarah Leigh changed review comment from: Not associated with a phenotype in OMIM nor Gen2Phen. Two missense variants reported as homozygotes in one family each. In silico predictions and in vitro functional studies provide evidence that these variants will adversely affect their capacity to form a NatB complex with NAA25, and in vitro acetylation assays revealed reduced catalytic activities toward different NatB substrates (PMID 34230638). Children from these two families had developmental delay, intellectual disability (mild to moderate family 1, severe family 2).
The two children in family 1 in this study had a head circumcernces of -2.3 & -1.9 SD (which is not regarded as severe microcephaly).
The three children from family 2 this study had a head circumcernces of -3.5, -3.0 & -3.5 SD (which is regarded as severe microcephaly). Subtle dysmorphic features were also reported.
Sources: Literature; to: Not associated with a phenotype in OMIM nor Gen2Phen. Two missense variants reported as homozygotes in one family each. In silico predictions and in vitro functional studies provide evidence that these variants will adversely affect their capacity to form a NatB complex with NAA25, and in vitro acetylation assays revealed reduced catalytic activities toward different NatB substrates (PMID 34230638). Children from these two families had developmental delay, intellectual disability (mild to moderate family 1, severe family 2).
The two children in family 1 in this study had a head circumcernces of -2.3 & -1.9 SD (which is not regarded as severe microcephaly).
The three children from family 2 in this study had a head circumcernces of -3.5, -3.0 & -3.5 SD (which is regarded as severe microcephaly). Subtle dysmorphic features were also reported.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1179 NAA20 Sarah Leigh Classified gene: NAA20 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1179 NAA20 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be amber on this panel, based on two missense variants, which have supporting in silico and experimental evidence in cases with mild to severe intellectually disability (PMID 34230638).
Intellectual disability v3.1179 NAA20 Sarah Leigh Gene: naa20 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1178 NAA20 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on phenotypes: Currently there is no phenotype associated with this gene in OMIM, Gen2Phen or MONDO (13/07/2021).
Intellectual disability v3.1178 NAA20 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: NAA20 were changed from autosomal recessive developmental delay, intellectual disability, and microcephaly to autosomal recessive developmental delay, intellectual disability, and microcephaly
Intellectual disability v3.1177 NAA20 Sarah Leigh gene: NAA20 was added
gene: NAA20 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: NAA20 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: NAA20 were set to 34230638
Phenotypes for gene: NAA20 were set to autosomal recessive developmental delay, intellectual disability, and microcephaly
Review for gene: NAA20 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Not associated with a phenotype in OMIM nor Gen2Phen. Two missense variants reported as homozygotes in one family each. In silico predictions and in vitro functional studies provide evidence that these variants will adversely affect their capacity to form a NatB complex with NAA25, and in vitro acetylation assays revealed reduced catalytic activities toward different NatB substrates (PMID 34230638). Children from these two families had developmental delay, intellectual disability (mild to moderate family 1, severe family 2).
The two children in family 1 in this study had a head circumcernces of -2.3 & -1.9 SD (which is not regarded as severe microcephaly).
The three children from family 2 this study had a head circumcernces of -3.5, -3.0 & -3.5 SD (which is regarded as severe microcephaly). Subtle dysmorphic features were also reported.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1176 CAMK2A Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on phenotypes: Previously:
Intellectual disability
Intellectual disability v3.1176 CAMK2A Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: CAMK2A were changed from Intellectual disability to Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 53, OMIM:617798; ?Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 63, OMIM:618095
Intellectual disability v3.1175 CAMK2A Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on publications: PMID:29784083. 2 siblings born from consanguineous parents from Jordan with homozygous missense variant. Both had severe ID.
Intellectual disability v3.1175 CAMK2A Ivone Leong Publications for gene: CAMK2A were set to 26350204; 29100089
Intellectual disability v3.1174 MYT1 Ivone Leong Classified gene: MYT1 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1174 MYT1 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is associated with a phenotype in Gene2Phenotype but not in OMIM. There is currently not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene has been given a Red rating.
Intellectual disability v3.1174 MYT1 Ivone Leong Gene: myt1 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1173 MYT1 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on publications: PMID:18341605. A case with de novo subtelomeric deletion on chromosome 20 containing MYT1 and PCMTD2. Both genes affect myelination and neural differentiation.

PMID:33710394. Authors also discuss that variants in MYT1 have been identified in patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) who have normal intelligence.
Intellectual disability v3.1173 MYT1 Ivone Leong Publications for gene: MYT1 were set to 33710394
Intellectual disability v3.1172 MYT1 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: MYT1 were changed from Intellectual disability to Intellectual disability, MONDO:0001071
Intellectual disability v3.1171 SRCAP Ivone Leong Publications for gene: SRCAP were set to
Intellectual disability v3.1170 ASCC3 Ivone Leong Classified gene: ASCC3 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1170 ASCC3 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: Promoted from Red to Amber. New publication (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xhgg.2021.100024) describing 11 individuals from 7 unrelated families (1 family was originally described in PMID: 21937992 and had mild ID). Patients had phenotypes ranging from mild to severe developmental dealys. As ID is not the prominant phenotype, this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.1170 ASCC3 Ivone Leong Gene: ascc3 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1169 FLNA Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: FLNA were changed from Frontometaphyseal dysplasia, 305620Heterotopia, periventricular, ED variant, 300537FG syndrome 2, 300321Cardiac valvular dysplasia, X-linked, 314400Terminal osseous dysplasia, 300244Congenital short bowel syndrome, 300048; EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY to Heterotopia, periventricular, 1, OMIM:300049; Otopalatodigital syndrome, type II, OMIM:304120; ?FG syndrome 2, OMIM:300321
Intellectual disability v3.1168 ASCC3 Ivone Leong Publications for gene: ASCC3 were set to 21937992; 26350204
Intellectual disability v3.1167 ACSL4 Ivone Leong reviewed gene: ACSL4: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 12525535, 11889465; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.1167 ACSL4 Ivone Leong Deleted their review
Intellectual disability v3.1167 ACSL4 Ivone Leong changed review comment from: ACSL4 is said to be X-linked dominant in OMIM.

PMID: 12525535 - a family with 4 affected males, 1 unaffected male, 2 carrier females and 1 non-carrier female. All affected males full scale IQ (FSIQ) ranged from 43-71, unaffected male FSIQ is 116, carrier females ranged from 74-83 and non-carrier female is 133. All carrier females showed 100% skewed inactivation.

PMID: 11889465 - Family MRX63, all carrier females showed complete skewed X-inactivation. All affected males showed non-specific, non-progressive mental deficiency (moderate - severe). Carrier females showed highly variable cognitive capacities (normal to moderate).

Based on the available evidence the MOI should be changed from "X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females" to "X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, monoallelic mutations in females may cause disease (may be less severe, later onset than males)".; to: ACSL4 is said to be X-linked dominant in OMIM.

PMID: 12525535 - a family with 4 affected males, 1 unaffected male, 2 carrier females and 1 non-carrier female. All affected males full scale IQ (FSIQ) ranged from 43-71, unaffected male FSIQ is 116, carrier females ranged from 74-83 and non-carrier female is 133. All carrier females showed 100% skewed inactivation.

PMID: 11889465 - Family MRX63, all carrier females showed complete skewed X-inactivation. All affected males showed non-specific, non-progressive mental deficiency (moderate - severe). Carrier females showed highly variable cognitive capacities (normal to moderate).

As there are only 2 cases where carrier females have a phenotype, the MOI should be kept as "X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females".
Intellectual disability v3.1167 HID1 Zornitza Stark gene: HID1 was added
gene: HID1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: HID1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: HID1 were set to 33999436
Phenotypes for gene: HID1 were set to Syndromic infantile encephalopathy; Hypopituitarism
Review for gene: HID1 was set to GREEN
Added comment: 7 individuals from 6 unrelated families reported. Clinical features included: hypopituitarism in combination with brain atrophy, thin corpus callosum, severe developmental delay, visual impairment, and epilepsy.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1167 KIF1B Zornitza Stark gene: KIF1B was added
gene: KIF1B was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: KIF1B was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: KIF1B were set to 33710394
Phenotypes for gene: KIF1B were set to Hypotonia; coloboma; hypoplasia of the corpus callosum; severe neurodevelopmental delay
Review for gene: KIF1B was set to RED
Added comment: Compound heterozygous missense variants reported in a woman with severe hypotonia, hypsarrhythmia, coloboma, hypoplasia of corpus callosum, severe neurodevelopmental delay.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1167 JPH3 Zornitza Stark gene: JPH3 was added
gene: JPH3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: JPH3 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: JPH3 were set to 33824468
Phenotypes for gene: JPH3 were set to Intellectual disability; dystonia
Review for gene: JPH3 was set to RED
Added comment: One homozygous truncating variant (NM_020655.4: c.1740dup; p.(Val581Argfs*137)) found in a female individual affected with neurodevelopmental anomalies (including delayed motor milestones, abnormal social communication, language difficulties and borderline cognitive impairment) and paroxysmal attacks of dystonia since her early infancy. No functional work.

STRs in this gene are associated with HD-like disorder.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1167 ERGIC3 Zornitza Stark gene: ERGIC3 was added
gene: ERGIC3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: ERGIC3 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: ERGIC3 were set to 33710394; 31585110
Phenotypes for gene: ERGIC3 were set to Intellectual disability
Review for gene: ERGIC3 was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 33710394 - two homozygous sibs with mild ID, a novel canonical splice (c.717+1G>A). Absent in gnomAD, no splice studies. Classed as a VUS.

PMID: 31585110 - 1 hom (p.Gln233Argfs*10) in a male 8yo with Growth retardation, Microcephaly, Learning disability, Facial dysmorphism, Abnormal pigmentation.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1167 ZC3H14 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ZC3H14: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 21734151, 33710394, 28666327; Phenotypes: Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 56 MIM#617125; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1167 MYT1 Zornitza Stark gene: MYT1 was added
gene: MYT1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: MYT1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: MYT1 were set to 33710394
Phenotypes for gene: MYT1 were set to Intellectual disability
Review for gene: MYT1 was set to RED
Added comment: Missense variant reported de novo in a patient with mild ID reported in a cohort study. Patient also had a COL9A2 variant and skeletal features. Authors referred to it as an extended phenotype and dual diagnosis.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1167 ATP1A2 Zornitza Stark changed review comment from: Although some of the symptoms of this condition are episodic, intellectual disability is a recognised feature.; to: Alternating hemiplegia: Although some of the symptoms of this condition are episodic, intellectual disability is a recognised feature.
Intellectual disability v3.1167 ATP1A2 Zornitza Stark edited their review of gene: ATP1A2: Added comment: PMID 33880529: six individuals with de novo missense variants reported and DD/EE/PMG.; Changed publications to: 33880529; Changed phenotypes to: Alternating hemiplegia of childhood 1, MIM# 104290, Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy
Intellectual disability v3.1167 HEATR5B Zornitza Stark gene: HEATR5B was added
gene: HEATR5B was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: HEATR5B was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: HEATR5B were set to 33824466
Phenotypes for gene: HEATR5B were set to pontocerebellar hypoplasia; intellectual disability; seizures
Review for gene: HEATR5B was set to AMBER
Added comment: Four affected children from two families presenting with pontocerebellar hypoplasiawith neonatal seizures, severe ID and motor delay. Two homozygous splice variants were reported (c.5051–1G>A and c.5050+4A>G) in intron 31 of HEATR5B gene. Aberrant splicing was found in patient fibroblasts, which correlated with reduced levels of HEATR5B protein. Homozygous knockout mice were not viable
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1167 RING1 Eleanor Williams gene: RING1 was added
gene: RING1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: RING1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: RING1 were set to 29386386
Phenotypes for gene: RING1 were set to microcephaly; intellectual disability
Review for gene: RING1 was set to RED
Added comment: Not associated with any phenotype in OMIM.

PMID: 29386386 - Pierce et al 2018 - report a 13 yo female with a de novo RING1 p.R95Q variant and syndromic neurodevelopmental disabilities. Early motor and language development were normal but were delayed after the first year of life. Cognitive testing showed a verbal IQ of 55 and a visual performance IQ of 63. Head circumference at birth was -4.9 SD, and -4.2 SD at age 13 which falls into the severe microcephaly category. C. elegans with either the missense mutation or complete knockout of spat-3 (the suggested RING1 ortholog) were defective in monoubiquitylation of histone H2A and had defects in neuronal migration and axon guidance.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1166 PPP1R21 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on phenotypes: Previously:
Hepatosplenomegaly;Abnormality of the respiratory system;Generalized hypotonia, Feeding difficulties, Profound global developmental delay, Abnormality of the face, Abnormality of vision, Abnormal heart morphology
Intellectual disability v3.1166 PPP1R21 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: PPP1R21 were changed from Hepatosplenomegaly; Abnormality of the respiratory system; Generalized hypotonia, Feeding difficulties, Profound global developmental delay, Abnormality of the face, Abnormality of vision, Abnormal heart morphology to Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, facial dysmorphism, and brain abnormalities, OMIM:619383
Intellectual disability v3.1165 NTNG2 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: NTNG2 were changed from Central hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Behavioral abnormality; Microcephaly; Seizures to Neurodevelopmental disorder with behavioral abnormalities, absent speech, and hypotonia, OMIM:618718
Intellectual disability v3.1164 CUX2 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q3_21_NHS_review tag was added to gene: CUX2.
Intellectual disability v3.1164 CUX2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on mode of inheritance: Changed MOI from 'Monoallelic... paternally imprinted (maternal allele expressed)' to 'Monoallelic... NOT imprinted', in line with Tracy Lester's recent review highlighting there is no evidence of imprinting in this gene.
Intellectual disability v3.1164 CUX2 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: CUX2 was changed from MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, paternally imprinted (maternal allele expressed) to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.1163 ATP1A3 Zornitza Stark edited their review of gene: ATP1A3: Changed phenotypes to: Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy
Intellectual disability v3.1163 ATP1A3 Zornitza Stark edited their review of gene: ATP1A3: Added comment: Sixteen individuals reported with DD/EE.; Changed publications to: 33880529; Changed phenotypes to: Alternating hemiplegia of childhood 2, MIM#614820, Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy
Intellectual disability v3.1163 SAMD9L Zornitza Stark gene: SAMD9L was added
gene: SAMD9L was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: SAMD9L was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: SAMD9L were set to 33710394
Phenotypes for gene: SAMD9L were set to Intellectual disability
Review for gene: SAMD9L was set to RED
Added comment: Missense variant reported de novo in a patient with moderate ID, in a large cohort study. Authors described it as a phenotype expansion as ataxia-pancytopenia not found in that patient.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1163 RFX4 Zornitza Stark gene: RFX4 was added
gene: RFX4 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: RFX4 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: RFX4 were set to 33658631
Phenotypes for gene: RFX4 were set to ID, ASD, ADHD
Review for gene: RFX4 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Report of 38 individuals (from 33 unrelated families) with de novo or inherited loss of function variants in RFX3 (15 families), RFX4 (4 families), and RFX7 (14 families), identified through WES. Individuals share neurobehavioural features including ASD, intellectual disability, and/or ADHD; other frequent features include hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli and sleep problems. RFX3, RFX4, and RFX7 are strongly expressed in developing and adult human brain, and X-box binding motifs as well as RFX ChIP-seq peaks are enriched in the cis-regulatory regions of known ASD risk genes. These genes are potentially critical transcriptional regulators of neurobiological pathways associated with neurodevelopmental disease pathogenesis.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1163 RFX3 Zornitza Stark gene: RFX3 was added
gene: RFX3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: RFX3 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: RFX3 were set to 33658631
Phenotypes for gene: RFX3 were set to ID, ASD, ADHD
Review for gene: RFX3 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Report of 38 individuals (from 33 unrelated families) with de novo or inherited loss of function variants in RFX3 (15 families), RFX4 (4 families), and RFX7 (14 families), identified through WES. Individuals share neurobehavioural features including ASD, intellectual disability, and/or ADHD; other frequent features include hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli and sleep problems. RFX3, RFX4, and RFX7 are strongly expressed in developing and adult human brain, and X-box binding motifs as well as RFX ChIP-seq peaks are enriched in the cis-regulatory regions of known ASD risk genes. These genes are potentially critical transcriptional regulators of neurobiological pathways associated with neurodevelopmental disease pathogenesis.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1163 RFX7 Zornitza Stark gene: RFX7 was added
gene: RFX7 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: RFX7 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: RFX7 were set to 33658631
Phenotypes for gene: RFX7 were set to ID, ASD, ADHD
Review for gene: RFX7 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Report of 38 individuals (from 33 unrelated families) with de novo or inherited loss of function variants in RFX3 (15 families), RFX4 (4 families), and RFX7 (14 families), identified through WES. Individuals share neurobehavioural features including ASD, intellectual disability, and/or ADHD; other frequent features include hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli and sleep problems. RFX3, RFX4, and RFX7 are strongly expressed in developing and adult human brain, and X-box binding motifs as well as RFX ChIP-seq peaks are enriched in the cis-regulatory regions of known ASD risk genes. These genes are potentially critical transcriptional regulators of neurobiological pathways associated with neurodevelopmental disease pathogenesis.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1163 GNB2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: GNB2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1163 GNB2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is sufficient evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next GMS panel update.
Intellectual disability v3.1163 GNB2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: gnb2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1162 GNB2 Arina Puzriakova gene: GNB2 was added
gene: GNB2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Q3_21_rating tags were added to gene: GNB2.
Mode of inheritance for gene: GNB2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: GNB2 were set to 31698099; 33971351; 34183358
Phenotypes for gene: GNB2 were set to Intellectual disability
Review for gene: GNB2 was set to GREEN
Added comment: GNB2 is not yet associated with any phenotype in OMIM, but has a 'confirmed' disease confidence rating for 'GNB2-related developmental disorder (monoallelic)' in G2P.

At least 14 unrelated individuals with de novo monoallelic variants, including 5 recurrent variants in 13 individuals (PMIDs: 31698099; 33971351; 34183358). All patients (except one fetus owing to termination of pregnancy) have DD/ID of variable severity (mild to severe) which appeared to correlate with the variant each individual harboured. Other variable features include non-specific facial dysmorphism, hypotonia, and autistic behaviour.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1161 DNM1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: DNM1 were changed from EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY to Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 31, OMIM:616346
Intellectual disability v3.1160 ATP6V1A Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: ATP6V1A were changed from Epileptic encephalopathy, infantile or early childhood, 3 618012; Cutis laxa, autosomal recessive, type IID 617403 to Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 93, OMIM:618012
Intellectual disability v3.1159 ATM Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: ATM were changed from ATAXIA-TELANGIECTASIA; AT to Ataxia-telangiectasia, OMIM:208900
Intellectual disability v3.1158 ATP2C2 Eleanor Williams gene: ATP2C2 was added
gene: ATP2C2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: ATP2C2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: ATP2C2 were set to 33864365; 28440294
Phenotypes for gene: ATP2C2 were set to language impairment, HP:0002463
Review for gene: ATP2C2 was set to RED
Added comment: PMID: 33864365 - Martinelli et al 2021 - report a family with a missense variant NM_001286527.2:c.304G>A, p.(Val102Met) in ATP2C2 in a father and two siblings with specific language impairment. However two other affected siblings did not have this variant. This variant was also reported by Chen et al. They found that the variant had a higher frequency in language cases (1.8%, N = 360) compared with cohorts selected for dyslexia (0.8%, N = 520) and ADHD (0.7%, N = 150), which presented frequencies comparable to reference databases (0.9%, N = 24 046 gnomAD controls). They postulate that variant is not sufficient on its own to cause a disorder but is a susceptibility factor which increases the risk for language impairment.

PMID: 28440294 - Chen et al 2017 - report 2 probands with severe learning impairment, and missense variants in ATP2C2 (NM_001286527: c.G304A:p.V102M and NM_001291454:exon21: c.C1936T:p.R646W).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1157 ACSL4 Ivone Leong Publications for gene: ACSL4 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.1156 ACSL4 Ivone Leong reviewed gene: ACSL4: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 12525535, 11889465; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, monoallelic mutations in females may cause disease (may be less severe, later onset than males)
Intellectual disability v3.1156 ACSL4 Ivone Leong Tag Skewed X-inactivation tag was added to gene: ACSL4.
Intellectual disability v3.1156 ACSL4 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: ACSL4 were changed from Mental retardation, X-linked 63, OMIM:300387; ALPORT SYNDROME WITH MENTAL RETARDATION MIDFACE HYPOPLASIA AND ELLIPTOCYTOSIS (ATS-MR) to Mental retardation, X-linked 63, OMIM:300387; Alport syndrome-intellectual disability-midface hypoplasia-elliptocytosis syndrome, MONDO:0010263
Intellectual disability v3.1155 ACSL4 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: ACSL4 were changed from Mental retardation, X-linked 63, 300387; ALPORT SYNDROME WITH MENTAL RETARDATION MIDFACE HYPOPLASIA AND ELLIPTOCYTOSIS (ATS-MR) to Mental retardation, X-linked 63, OMIM:300387; ALPORT SYNDROME WITH MENTAL RETARDATION MIDFACE HYPOPLASIA AND ELLIPTOCYTOSIS (ATS-MR)
Intellectual disability v3.1154 EPHA7 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: EPHA7 was added
gene: EPHA7 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: EPHA7 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: EPHA7 were set to 34176129; 19664229
Phenotypes for gene: EPHA7 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Delayed speech and language development; Behavioral abnormality
Penetrance for gene: EPHA7 were set to Incomplete
Review for gene: EPHA7 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Lévy et al (2021 - PMID: 34176129) provide evidence that haploinssuficiency of EPHA7 results in a neurodevelopmental disorder.

The authors report on 12 individuals belonging to 9 unrelated families, all harboring with 6q microdeletions spanning EPHA7.

Overlapping features included DD (13/13), ID (10/10 - mild in most cases, individuals with larger CNVs/additional variants had more severe phenotype), speech delay and behavioral disorders. Variable other features incl. hypotonia (70%), non specific facial features, eye abnormalities (40%) and cardiac defects (25%).

The CNVs ranged from 152 kb to few Mb in size but in 4 subjects (P5-8) were only minimal, involving only EPHA7.

The 6q microdeletion included additional ID-related genes in at least one case (eg. ZNF292 in P12) while one subject (P4) harbored also a 7q11.23 Williams syndrome deletion.

Confirmation (e.g. with FISH or qPCR) and segregation analyses were performed. 9 out of 12 individuals had inherited the deletion (5 subjects paternal, 4 maternal), in 1 subject (P12) this occured de novo, while for 2 others inheritance was not specified. Most deletions were inherited from an unaffected parent (in 6/7 families), with unclear contribution in a further one.

Sequencing of an ID gene panel was performed for 5 subjects (P1-4 (sibs) and P9) and exome for 4 ones (P1,2,10,11). CNVs in all these subjects were not limited to EPHA7. These investigations did not reveal other variants responsible for the phenotype of these subjects.

EPHA7 encodes ephrin receptor A7. As the authors comment, ephrin receptors are the largest family of transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases. These receptors interact with membrane bound ephrins and binding activates the tyrosine kinase activity of the receptor.

The authors discuss on previous studies suggesting an important role for EphA7 in brain development (modulation of cell-cell adhesion and repulsion, regulation of dendrite morphogenesis in early corticogenesis, role in dendritic spine formation later in development. EphA7 has also been proposed to drive neuronal maturation and synaptic function).

Haploinsufficiency for other ephrins or ephrin receptors has been implicated in other NDDs.

Finally the authors comment on a previous report of a de novo 2.16 Mb microdeletion spanning EPHA7 and another gene (TSG1). This deletion, reported by Traylor et al (2009 - PMID: 19664229) was identified in a 15-month old male with DD, microcephaly and dysmorphic features.

Overall Lévy et al promote incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity with haploinsufficiency of this gene being a risk factor for NDD. [The gene has also an %HI of 2.76% and a pLI of 1].

In DECIPHER there are 2 indivuals (DDD participants) with de novo missense variants and abnormality of the nervous system.

As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel with amber rating pending further evidence.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1154 ARHGEF9 Arina Puzriakova edited their review of gene: ARHGEF9: Changed mode of inheritance: X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, monoallelic mutations in females may cause disease (may be less severe, later onset than males)
Intellectual disability v3.1154 ARHGEF9 Arina Puzriakova edited their review of gene: ARHGEF9: Changed publications to: 17893116, 18615734, 28589176, 27238888, 30048823, 33600053, 32939676
Intellectual disability v3.1154 ARHGEF9 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q3_21_MOI tag was added to gene: ARHGEF9.
Intellectual disability v3.1154 ARHGEF9 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on mode of inheritance: Currently, the MOI in OMIM is set to XLR. Heterozygous mothers of affected males have been reported as unaffected, which combined with the fact that the first few affected females presented a skewed XCI pattern (PMIDs: 17893116; 18615734; 28589176), led to consider this defect as an XLR disorder affecting females when XCI is skewed.

However, review of the literature revealed that the chromosomal aberrations identified in these all of cases occurred de novo with one allele remaining as normal and cases with random XCI have since been reported (PMID: 27238888; 30048823). More recently, at least 4 unrelated affected females have also been identified with heterozygous SNVs and a random XCI pattern (PMIDs: 33600053; 32939676).

Overall this indicates that monoallelic variants in ARHGEF9 can cause disease in females and so the MOI should be changed from XLR to XLD (tagged)
Intellectual disability v3.1154 ARHGEF9 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: ARHGEF9 was changed from X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females to X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females
Intellectual disability v3.1153 ARHGEF9 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: ARHGEF9 were changed from Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 8, 300607; EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY, EARLY INFANTILE, 8 to Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 8, OMIM:300607
Intellectual disability v3.1152 AR Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: AR were changed from SPINAL AND BULBAR MUSCULAR ATROPHY to Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy of Kennedy, OMIM:313200
Intellectual disability v3.1151 DPM1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: DPM1 were changed from Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Ie, 608799; CONGENITAL DISORDERS OF GLYCOSYLATION to Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Ie, OMIM:608799
Intellectual disability v3.1150 FBXO31 Ivone Leong commented on gene: FBXO31: There is enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene should be rated Green at the next review.
Intellectual disability v3.1150 FBXO31 Ivone Leong Tag watchlist was removed from gene: FBXO31.
Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: FBXO31.
Intellectual disability v3.1150 FBXO31 Ivone Leong Publications for gene: FBXO31 were set to 24623383; 32989326
Intellectual disability v3.1149 UFSP2 Sarah Leigh Tag Q2_21_expert_review tag was added to gene: UFSP2.
Intellectual disability v3.1149 UFSP2 Sarah Leigh changed review comment from: The founder variant rs142500730 appears to the be causal for pediatric neurodevelopmental anomalies and epilepsy feautres in over seven Asian families form different locations.; to: The Q2_21_expert_review tag has been added to consider the evidence for the founder variant rs142500730, which appears to the be causal for pediatric neurodevelopmental anomalies and epilepsy feautres in over seven Asian families form different locations.
Intellectual disability v3.1149 CUX2 Tracy Lester reviewed gene: CUX2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Other; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.1149 JMJD1C Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with Helen Brittain (Genomics England Clinical Team) it was agreed that there is currently not enough evidence to support this gene-disease association. Rating Amber until further evidence emerges.; to: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with Helen Brittain (Genomics England Clinical Team) it was agreed that there is currently not enough evidence to support this gene-disease association. Rating Amber until further evidence emerges (added watchlist tag).
Intellectual disability v3.1149 JMJD1C Arina Puzriakova Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: JMJD1C.
Intellectual disability v3.1149 JMJD1C Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: JMJD1C as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1149 JMJD1C Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with Helen Brittain (Genomics England Clinical Team) it was agreed that there is currently not enough evidence to support this gene-disease association. Rating Amber until further evidence emerges.
Intellectual disability v3.1149 JMJD1C Arina Puzriakova Gene: jmjd1c has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1148 JMJD1C Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: JMJD1C were changed from Intellectual disability to Intellectual disability; Autism
Intellectual disability v3.1147 JMJD1C Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: JMJD1C were set to 26181491; 32996679
Intellectual disability v3.1146 JMJD1C Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: JMJD1C: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26181491, 31954878, 32996679, 28378413, 22495311, 25363768, 17290275, 33591602; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, Autism; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.1146 KDM3B Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on publications: PMID: 30929739. 8/16 patients had short stature (< -2.5 SD) and 9/15 had neonatal feeding difficulties. 5/16 had joint hypermobility, 4/17 had hearing loss.
Intellectual disability v3.1146 KDM3B Ivone Leong Publications for gene: KDM3B were set to 30929739
Intellectual disability v3.1145 KDM3B Ivone Leong Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: KDM3B.
Intellectual disability v3.1145 KDM3B Ivone Leong commented on gene: KDM3B: After consulting with the Genomics England Clinical Team it was decided that this gene should be promoted to Green status at the next review.
Intellectual disability v3.1145 GEMIN5 Arina Puzriakova edited their review of gene: GEMIN5: Changed rating: GREEN
Intellectual disability v3.1145 GEMIN5 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: GEMIN5.
Intellectual disability v3.1145 GEMIN5 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: GEMIN5 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1145 GEMIN5 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is sufficient evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next GMS panel update (see details below).
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Kour et al. 2021 (PMID: 33963192) report 30 individuals from 22 unrelated families with biallelic variants in the GEMIN5 gene. All affected individuals displayed predominantly motor DD, although cognitive and speech delays were also seen in most patients (18/19). 23/30 had central hypotonia, and variable appendicular spasticity was observed in 13/30 cases. 8 individuals were nonambulatory, while all ambulatory patients (19) had a gait ataxia. Brain MRI in all cases showed cerebellar atrophy.

Variants perturbed the subcellular distribution, stability, and expression of GEMIN5 protein and its interacting partners, and disrupted snRNP complex assembly formation in patient iPSC-derived neurons, suggesting a LoF mechanism. Knockdown in Drosophila lead to developmental defects, motor dysfunction, and a reduced lifespan

GEMIN5 is associated with a relevant phenotype in OMIM (Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebellar atrophy and motor dysfunction, MIM# 619333) but is not yet listed in G2P.
Intellectual disability v3.1145 GEMIN5 Arina Puzriakova Gene: gemin5 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1144 GEMIN5 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: GEMIN5 were changed from Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebellar atrophy and motor dysfunction, MIM# 619333 to Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebellar atrophy and motor dysfunction, OMIM:619333
Intellectual disability v3.1143 BCAS3 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: BCAS3.
Intellectual disability v3.1143 BCAS3 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: BCAS3 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1143 BCAS3 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is sufficient evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next GMS panel update (see details below).
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Hengel et al. 2021 (PMID: 34022130) report 8 unrelated families, all with different biallelic variants in the BCAS3 gene. All affected individuals (15 total, +1 additional proband but with unphased variants but consistent phenotype) had severe GDD and ID, with 10 subjects having minimal vocabulary and 4 never learning to speak. All probands had a severe motor disorder with pyramidal tract involvement resulting in hyperreflexia and spasticity of the lower limbs (15/15). Other variable features observed in the cohort include microcephaly, short stature, seizures, and dysmorphic facial features.
Intellectual disability v3.1143 BCAS3 Arina Puzriakova Gene: bcas3 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1142 CPE Arina Puzriakova Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: CPE.
Intellectual disability v3.1142 CPE Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Two consanguineous families in literature with different homozygous variants in the CPE gene. Affected individuals presented with obesity, intellectual disability and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Rating Amber, awaiting further cases (added watchlist tag); to: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Two consanguineous families in literature to date with different homozygous variants in the CPE gene (PMIDs: 26120850; 32936766). Affected individuals presented with obesity, intellectual disability and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Rating Amber, awaiting further cases (added watchlist tag)
Intellectual disability v3.1142 CPE Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: CPE as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1142 CPE Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Two consanguineous families in literature with different homozygous variants in the CPE gene. Affected individuals presented with obesity, intellectual disability and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Rating Amber, awaiting further cases (added watchlist tag)
Intellectual disability v3.1142 CPE Arina Puzriakova Gene: cpe has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1141 CPE Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: CPE were changed from Intellectual developmental disorder and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, MIM# 619326 to Intellectual developmental disorder and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, OMIM:619326
Intellectual disability v3.1140 PIGB Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: PIGB were changed from Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 80, 618580; Generalized hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Hearing abnormality; Abnormality of vision; Elevated alkaline phosphatase; Abnormality of the head; Abnormality of the hand; Abnormality of the foot to Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 80, OMIM:618580
Intellectual disability v3.1139 ALKBH8 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: ALKBH8 were changed from Global developmental delay; Seizures; Intellectual disability to Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 71, OMIM:618504
Intellectual disability v3.1138 SLC17A5 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SLC17A5 were changed from Salla disease, 604369Sialic acid storage disorder, infantile, 269920; SALLA DISEASE (SD) to Salla disease, OMIM:604369; Sialic acid storage disorder, infantile, OMIM:269920
Intellectual disability v3.1137 SCN8A Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SCN8A were changed from ?Cognitive impairment with or without cerebellar ataxia,614306; Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile,614558; Seizures, benign familial infantile,617080 to Cognitive impairment with or without cerebellar ataxia, OMIM:614306; Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 13, OMIM:614558
Intellectual disability v3.1136 RUBCN Arina Puzriakova edited their review of gene: RUBCN: Changed mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1136 RUBCN Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: RUBCN: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 32450808; Phenotypes: Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 15, OMIM:615705; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.1136 RUBCN Arina Puzriakova Tag founder-effect tag was added to gene: RUBCN.
Intellectual disability v3.1136 RUBCN Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: RUBCN were set to 20826435
Intellectual disability v3.1135 RUBCN Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: RUBCN were changed from SYNDROMIC MR WITH ATAXIA, DYSARTHRIA AND EPILEPSY to Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 15, OMIM:615705
Intellectual disability v3.1134 POLR3B Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: POLR3B were set to
Intellectual disability v3.1133 POLR3B Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on mode of inheritance: Both biallelic and monoallelic variants have been linked to ID. There is enough evidence for a Green rating for both allelic requirements, so POLR3B has been tagged Q2_21_MOI to change the MOI from biallelic to both biallelic/monoallelic at the next GMS review.
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Biallelic variants in POLR3B are a well-established cause of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (OMIM:614381), associated with variable ID.

Recently, heterozygous variants were also linked to ID. Djordjevic et al. 2021 (PMID:33417887) identified different de novo POLR3B variants in 6 unrelated individuals. The majority had some degree of DD, with 5/6 participants being diagnosed with intellectual disability ranging from mild to moderate severity. Four individuals required assistance with basic activities of daily living, however none had developmental regression. Protein modelling and proteomic analysis shows variants caused aberrant association of individual enzyme subunits rather than affecting overall enzyme assembly or stability.
Intellectual disability v3.1133 POLR3B Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: POLR3B was changed from BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1132 POLR3B Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_MOI tag was added to gene: POLR3B.
Intellectual disability v3.1132 POLR3B Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: POLR3B were changed from Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 8, with or without oligodontia and/or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, OMIM:614381 to Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 8, with or without oligodontia and/or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, OMIM:614381; POLR3B-related neurodevelopmental disorder; Ataxia, spasticity, and demyelinating neuropathy
Intellectual disability v3.1131 POLR3B Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: POLR3B were changed from Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 8, with or without oligodontia and/or hypogonadotropichypogonadism, 614381; LEUKODYSTROPHY, HYPOMYELINATING, 8, WITH OR WITHOUT OLIGODONTIA AND/OR HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM to Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 8, with or without oligodontia and/or hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, OMIM:614381
Intellectual disability v3.1130 RORB Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: RORB were changed from generalized epilepsies with predominant absence seizures, intellectual disability to {Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 15}, OMIM:618357
Intellectual disability v3.1129 PHACTR1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: PHACTR1 were changed from Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures:Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 70 618298; PHACTR1-associated neurodevelopment disorder to Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 70, OMIM:618298
Intellectual disability v3.1128 EIF3F Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: EIF3F were changed from Intellectual disability; Seizures; Behavioral abnormality; Sensorineural hearing impairment to Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 67, OMIM:618295
Intellectual disability v3.1127 CUX2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: CUX2 were changed from Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 67, 618141; Seizures; Intellectual disability; Autistic behavior to Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 67, OMIM:618141; Seizures; Intellectual disability; Autistic behaviour
Intellectual disability v3.1126 CTC1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CTC1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts, MIM# 612199; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1126 VPS41 Arina Puzriakova Entity copied from Childhood onset dystonia or chorea or related movement disorder v1.130
Intellectual disability v3.1126 VPS41 Arina Puzriakova gene: VPS41 was added
gene: VPS41 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review Amber
Q2_21_rating tags were added to gene: VPS41.
Mode of inheritance for gene: VPS41 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: VPS41 were set to 32808683; 33764426; 33851776
Phenotypes for gene: VPS41 were set to Dystonia; Intellectual disability
Intellectual disability v3.1125 PGM2L1 Zornitza Stark gene: PGM2L1 was added
gene: PGM2L1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: PGM2L1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: PGM2L1 were set to 33979636
Phenotypes for gene: PGM2L1 were set to Neurodevelopmental disorder
Review for gene: PGM2L1 was set to GREEN
Added comment: PMID: 33979636:
- Bi-allelic PTVs in 4 unrelated individuals. All four affected individuals had severe developmental and speech delay, dysmorphic facial features, ear anomalies, high arched palate, strabismus, hypotonia, and keratosis pilaris. Early obesity and seizures were present in three individuals.
- Studies on patient fibroblasts and cell lines indicated that PGM2L1 deficiency causes a decrease, but not a disappearance, of the sugar bisphosphates needed for the formation of NDP-sugars and that there is no evidence that this leads to a glycosylation defect.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1125 ATXN2L Zornitza Stark gene: ATXN2L was added
gene: ATXN2L was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: ATXN2L was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: ATXN2L were set to 33283965; 33057194
Phenotypes for gene: ATXN2L were set to Intellectual disability; Macrocephaly
Review for gene: ATXN2L was set to AMBER
Added comment: Combined data from three large exome groups identified several de novo variants, including frameshift and missense, in ATXN2L in patients with developmental delay (Kaplanis et al., 2020). pLI=1.0 Limited other data available.
Single case report of a novel de novo missense variant in a child with macrocephaly and developmental delay. No functional work.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1125 SIN3B Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: SIN3B.
Intellectual disability v3.1125 SIN3B Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SIN3B as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1125 SIN3B Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added and reviewed by Zornitza Stark (Green) and Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Green/Amber). Overall there are sufficient unrelated cases (>3) of ID associated with SNVs in this gene to warrant a Green rating on this panel at the next GMS review. Deletions of the region containing SIN3B have also been linked to ID, lending further support to this gene-disease association.
Intellectual disability v3.1125 SIN3B Arina Puzriakova Gene: sin3b has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1124 EMC10 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: EMC10 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1124 EMC10 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is now enough evidence to warrant a Green rating at the next GMS panel update.
Intellectual disability v3.1124 EMC10 Arina Puzriakova Gene: emc10 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1123 EMC10 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: EMC10.
Intellectual disability v3.1123 EMC10 Arina Puzriakova edited their review of gene: EMC10: Added comment: There are now at least 15 individuals from 8 families reported with biallelic variants in the EMC10 gene associated with disease. One variant found in a single population is likely to be a founder variant; however, the identification of a different variant in a family presenting with a similar phenotype corroborates causality. Both variants were shown to significantly reduce EMC10 RNA expression. All affected individuals show a core phenotype of GDD/ID with variable severity. Seizures were noted in 7/15 individuals, typically during childhood or in the neonatal period, and included multifocal as well as generalized tonic–clonic seizures.; Changed rating: GREEN; Changed publications to: 32869858, 33531666; Changed phenotypes to: Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and variable seizures, OMIM:619264; Changed mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1123 BCAS3 Zornitza Stark gene: BCAS3 was added
gene: BCAS3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: BCAS3 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: BCAS3 were set to 34022130
Phenotypes for gene: BCAS3 were set to Syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder
Review for gene: BCAS3 was set to GREEN
Added comment: 15 individuals from eight unrelated families with germline bi-allelic loss-of-function variants in BCAS3. All probands share a global developmental delay accompanied by pyramidal tract involvement, microcephaly, short stature, strabismus, dysmorphic facial features, and seizures. Patient fibroblasts confirmed absence of BCAS3 protein.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1123 SRCAP Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SRCAP: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33909990; Phenotypes: Neurodevelopmental disorder, non-Floating Harbor; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.1123 EMC10 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: EMC10 were set to 32869858
Intellectual disability v3.1122 EMC10 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on phenotypes: EMC10 is now associated with a relevant phenotype in OMIM - 'Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and variable seizures, OMIM:619264' and is listed in G2P with a 'probable' disease confidence rating for 'EMC10-related neurodevelopmental disorder'
Intellectual disability v3.1122 EMC10 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: EMC10 were changed from Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and variable seizures, OMIM:619264 to Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and variable seizures, OMIM:619264
Intellectual disability v3.1121 EMC10 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: EMC10 were changed from Intellectual disability to Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and variable seizures, OMIM:619264
Intellectual disability v3.1120 GEMIN5 Zornitza Stark gene: GEMIN5 was added
gene: GEMIN5 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: GEMIN5 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: GEMIN5 were set to 33963192
Phenotypes for gene: GEMIN5 were set to Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebellar atrophy and motor dysfunction, MIM# 619333
Review for gene: GEMIN5 was set to GREEN
gene: GEMIN5 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebellar atrophy and motor dysfunction (NEDCAM) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with prominent motor abnormalities, mainly axial hypotonia, gait ataxia, and appendicular spasticity. Affected individuals have cognitive impairment and speech delay; brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy.

30 individuals from 22 unrelated families reported.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1120 PARP6 Zornitza Stark gene: PARP6 was added
gene: PARP6 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: PARP6 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: PARP6 were set to 34067418
Phenotypes for gene: PARP6 were set to Intellectual disability; Epilepsy; Microcephaly
Review for gene: PARP6 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Four unrelated individuals reported with de novo variants in this gene and a neurodevelopmental phenotype. Supportive functional data. One pair of siblings with a homozygous missense: limited evidence for bi-allelic variants causing disease.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1120 MYCN Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MYCN: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 21224895, 8470948; Phenotypes: Feingold syndrome 1, Megalencephaly, intellectual disability; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.1120 CPE Zornitza Stark gene: CPE was added
gene: CPE was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: CPE was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: CPE were set to 26120850; 32936766
Phenotypes for gene: CPE were set to Intellectual developmental disorder and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, MIM# 619326
Review for gene: CPE was set to AMBER
Added comment: Four affected individuals from two unrelated families reported, bi-allelic LoF variants.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1120 SMARCA5 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SMARCA5: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33980485; Phenotypes: Neurodevelopmental disorder, microcephaly, dysmorphic features; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.1120 CAPN15 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: CAPN15 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1120 CAPN15 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Sufficient number of cases presenting with DD/ID (5/7 individuals from 3 unrelated families - PMIDs: 33410501; 32885237) to warrant a Green rating on this panel.
Intellectual disability v3.1120 CAPN15 Arina Puzriakova Gene: capn15 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1119 CAPN15 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: CAPN15.
Intellectual disability v3.1119 CAPN15 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: CAPN15 were changed from Oculogastrointestinal neurodevelopmental syndrome, MIM# 619318 to Oculogastrointestinal neurodevelopmental syndrome, OMIM:619318
Intellectual disability v3.1118 ANKRD17 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: ANKRD17 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1118 ANKRD17 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. There is sufficient evidence to rate this gene Green at the next GMS panel update.

Chopra et al. 2021 (PMID: 33909992) report 34 individuals from 32 families with a heterozygous variant or microdeletion of ANKRD17. GDD/ID was the most common feature, affecting 31/33 individuals with variable severity - 7 severe, 12 moderate, 5 mild, 7 borderline. Deletions of the region containing ANKRD17 have also been associated with ID.
Intellectual disability v3.1118 ANKRD17 Arina Puzriakova Gene: ankrd17 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1117 ANKRD17 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: ANKRD17.
Intellectual disability v3.1117 SMARCA5 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: SMARCA5.
Tag Q2_21_NHS_review tag was added to gene: SMARCA5.
Intellectual disability v3.1117 SMARCA5 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SMARCA5 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1117 SMARCA5 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added and reviewed Green by Julia Baptista (RD&E NHS FT). SMARCA5 should be promoted to Green at the next GMS panel update.

Variants have been associated with a variable neurodevelopmental phenotype including predominantly mild DD, short stature, and microcephaly (PMID:33980485). Regarding cognition, four probands had mild ID and one had severe ID. Although relatively mild in most patients, the number of unrelated families presenting ID is sufficient for a Green rating and inclusion on this panel should increase the likelihood of detecting cases.
Intellectual disability v3.1117 SMARCA5 Arina Puzriakova Gene: smarca5 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1116 LRRC32 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: LRRC32 were changed from Intellectual disability; cleft palate; proliferative retinopathy to Cleft palate, proliferative retinopathy, and developmental delay, OMIM:619074
Intellectual disability v3.1115 CYP7B1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: CYP7B1 were changed from Spastic paraplegia 5A, autosomal recessive 270800 to Spastic paraplegia 5A, autosomal recessive , OMIM:270800
Intellectual disability v3.1114 CYP7B1 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: CYP7B1 was changed from to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1113 CYP7B1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: CYP7B1 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1113 CYP7B1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: cyp7b1 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1112 APOPT1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: APOPT1 were changed from MITOCHONDRIAL COMPLEX IV DEFICIENCY, 220110 to Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency, nuclear type 17, OMIM:619061
Intellectual disability v3.1111 LAMB1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: LAMB1 were changed from COBBLESTONE BRAIN MALFORMATION WITHOUT MUSCULAR OR OCULAR ABNORMALITIES to Lissencephaly 5, OMIM:615191
Intellectual disability v3.1110 PDCD6IP Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: Phenotype is relevant to this panel but additional cases required to validate pathogenicity of variants in this gene. Therefore Rating Amber, awaiting further publications.; to: Comment on list classification: Phenotype is relevant to this panel with a supportive animal model that recapitulates features such as microcephaly. However, additional cases required to validate pathogenicity prior to inclusion as diagnostic-grade. Therefore Rating Amber, awaiting further publications.
Intellectual disability v3.1110 PDCD6IP Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: Phenotype is relevant to this panel but additional cases required to validate pathogenicity of variants in this gene.; to: Comment on list classification: Phenotype is relevant to this panel but additional cases required to validate pathogenicity of variants in this gene. Therefore Rating Amber, awaiting further publications.
Intellectual disability v3.1110 POGZ Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: POGZ were changed from INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY to White-Sutton syndrome, OMIM:616364
Intellectual disability v3.1109 POGZ Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: POGZ were set to 25533962
Intellectual disability v3.1108 FOXG1 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: FOXG1 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.1107 FOXG1 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: FOXG1 were changed from Rett syndrome, congenital variant, 613454; CONGENITAL VARIANT OF RETT SYNDROME (RTTCV) to Rett Syndrome, congenital variant OMIM:613454; Rett syndrome, congenital variant MONDO:0013270
Intellectual disability v3.1106 SMARCE1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SMARCE1 were changed from COFFIN SIRIS to Coffin-Siris syndrome 5, OMIM:616938
Intellectual disability v3.1105 SMARCC1 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: SMARCC1 was changed from to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.1104 DPH1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: DPH1 were set to 29362492; 29410513; 26220823; 25558065
Intellectual disability v3.1103 DPH1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: DPH1 were changed from Developmental delay with short stature, dysmorphic features, and sparse hair, 616901 to Developmental delay with short stature, dysmorphic facial features, and sparse hair, OMIM:616901
Intellectual disability v3.1102 SLC6A1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: SLC6A1 were set to 25865495
Intellectual disability v3.1101 SLC6A1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SLC6A1 were changed from EPILEPSY WITH MYOCLONIC-ATONIC SEIZURES to Myoclonic-atonic epilepsy, OMIM:616421
Intellectual disability v3.1100 SMARCA5 Julia Baptista gene: SMARCA5 was added
gene: SMARCA5 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: SMARCA5 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: SMARCA5 were set to 33980485
Phenotypes for gene: SMARCA5 were set to intellectual disability; postnatal microcephaly; hypotonia; failure to thrive
Penetrance for gene: SMARCA5 were set to unknown
Review for gene: SMARCA5 was set to GREEN
Added comment: The authors identified seven missense variants, one splice-altering variant that led to exon skipping and in-frame deletion, and one recurrent in-frame deletion in 12 individuals from
10 unrelated families. The variant was de novo in nine individuals. They presented a broad range of clinical features from isolated autism to syndromic intellectual disability.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1100 UFSP2 Sarah Leigh changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: A founder variant (rs142500730) reported in four South Asian families (haplotype analysis available for two of the families proves relatedness). Functional studies suggest that although mRNA expression seems to be unaffected, protein stability maybe responsible for the reduced protein detected by immunoblotting in patients fibroblasts (PMID 33473208).
Homozygous rs142500730 has also been reported in individuals (2 Asian and 1 white) in the Genoimcs England 100K study, with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities.; to: Comment on list classification: A founder variant (rs142500730) reported in four South Asian families (haplotype analysis available for two of the families proves relatedness). Functional studies suggest that although mRNA expression seems to be unaffected, protein stability maybe responsible for the reduced protein detected by immunoblotting in patients fibroblasts (PMID 33473208).
Homozygous rs142500730 has also been reported in individuals (Asian and white) in the Genoimcs England 100K study, with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities.
Intellectual disability v3.1100 RPIA Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: RPIA were changed from ?Ribose 5-phosphate isomerase deficiency, 608611; Ribose 5-phosphate isomerase deficiency, MIM 608611. to Ribose 5-phosphate isomerase deficiency, OMIM:608611
Intellectual disability v3.1099 RAB11B Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: RAB11B were changed from Neurodevelopmental disorder with ataxic gait, absent speech, and decreased cortical white matter, 617807; Intellectual disability to Neurodevelopmental disorder with ataxic gait, absent speech, and decreased cortical white matter, OMIM:617807
Intellectual disability v3.1098 SCYL1 Sarah Leigh Tag watchlist was removed from gene: SCYL1.
Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: SCYL1.
Intellectual disability v3.1098 NFU1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: NFU1 were changed from MULTIPLE MITOCHONDRIAL DYSFUNCTIONS SYNDROME 1 to Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 1, OMIM:605711
Intellectual disability v3.1097 SCYL1 Sarah Leigh reviewed gene: SCYL1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.1097 SCYL1 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: SCYL1 were set to 26581903; 30914295
Intellectual disability v3.1096 SCYL1 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: SCYL1 were changed from Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 21, 616719 to Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 21 OMIM:616719; acute infantile liver failure-cerebellar ataxia-peripheral sensory motor neuropathy syndrome MONDO:0014744
Intellectual disability v3.1095 PRICKLE1 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: PRICKLE1 were changed from Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 1B, 612437 to Progressive myoclonic epilepsy 1B OMIM:612437; epilepsy, progressive myoclonic, 1B MONDO:0012904
Intellectual disability v3.1094 UFSP2 Sarah Leigh changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: A founder variant (rs142500730) reported in four South Asian families (haplotype analysis available for two of the families proves relatedness). Functional studies suggest that although mRNA expression seems to be unaffected, protein stability maybe responsible for the reduced protein detected by immunoblotting in patients fibroblasts (PMID 33473208).
rs142500730 has also been reported in individuals in the Genoimcs England 100K study, with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities.; to: Comment on list classification: A founder variant (rs142500730) reported in four South Asian families (haplotype analysis available for two of the families proves relatedness). Functional studies suggest that although mRNA expression seems to be unaffected, protein stability maybe responsible for the reduced protein detected by immunoblotting in patients fibroblasts (PMID 33473208).
Homozygous rs142500730 has also been reported in individuals (2 Asian and 1 white) in the Genoimcs England 100K study, with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities.
Intellectual disability v3.1094 UFSP2 Sarah Leigh edited their review of gene: UFSP2: Added comment: The founder variant rs142500730 appears to the be causal for pediatric neurodevelopmental anomalies and epilepsy feautres in over seven Asian families form different locations.; Changed rating: GREEN
Intellectual disability v3.1094 UFSP2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis changed review comment from: Ni et al (2021 - PMID: 33473208) describe the phenotype of 8 children (belonging to 4 families - 2 of which consanguineous) homozygous for a UFSP2 missense variant [NM_018359.5:c.344T>A; p.(Val115Glu)].

Members of a broader consanguineous pedigree from Pakistan with 3 affected children with epilepsy and DD and ID underwent exome sequencing. All affected individuals were homozygous for the specific SNV with their parents (2 parent pairs, in both cases first cousins) being heterozygous. An unaffected sib was homozygous for the wt allele. Through genematching platforms 3 additional families with similarly affected individuals and homozygosity for the same variant were recruited. These additional families were from Pakistan (1/3) and Afganistan (2/3).

Based on ROH analysis from the broader first pedigree and an additional family the authors concluded on a single shared region of homozygosity on chr 4q. Lack of ES data did not allow verification of whether 2/4 families shared the same haplotype with the other 2.

The authors calculated the probability of the genotype-phenotype cosegragation occurring by chance (0.009) and this was lower than the recommended criterion (0.06) for strong evidence of pathogenicity.

Shared features included abnormal tone in most (hypotonia 6/8, limb hypertonia 1/8), seizures (8/8 - onset 2d - 7m), severe DD with speech delay/absent speech (8/8), ID (8/8), strabismus (6/8).

UFSP2 encodes UFM1-specific protease 2 involved in UFmylation, a post-translational protein modification. As summarized by the authors the cysteine protease encoded by this gene (as is also the case for UFSP1) cleaves UFM1 in the initial step of UFMylation. Apart from producing mature UFM1, the 2 proteases have also the ability to release UFM1 from UFMylated proteins, in the process of de-UFMylation. [several refs. provided]

UFMylation is important in brain development with mutations in genes encoding other components of the pathway reported in other NDD disorders (incl. UFM1, UBA5, UFC1).

Additional studies were carried to provide evidence for pathogenicity of this variant.

Skin biopsies from 3 individuals were carried out to establish fibroblast cultures. Immunoblotting revealed reduced UFSP2 levels relative to controls. mRNA levels measured by qRT-PCR revealed no differences compared to controls altogether suggesting normal mRNA but reduced protein stability.

The authors demonstrated increased levels of UFM1-conjugated proteins (incl. DDRGK1, or TRIP4). Ectopic expression of wt UFSP2 normalized the levels of UFMylated proteins in the fibroblasts which was not the case for the V115E variant. Further the variant was difficult to detect by immunoblotting consistent with an effect on protein destabilization.

Although disruption of UFMylation induces ER stress, this was not shown to occur in patient fibroblast lines, when assessed for ER stress markers.

Evaluation of data from the GTEx project, concerning UFSP2 as well as well as DDRGK1 or TRIP4 - an UFMylation target - revealed relevant expression in multiple regions of the human brain.

Overall the authors provide evidence for defective de-UFMylation in patient fibroblasts (presence of increased UFMylation marks). The authors stress out that the effect of the variant in UFMylation in brain is unknown, as UFSP1 or other enzymes might compensate in the presence of hypomorphic UFSP2 mutants.

Biallelic UFSP2 variants have previously been reported in 2 skeletal dysplasias [# 142669. BEUKES HIP DYSPLASIA; BHD and # 617974. SPONDYLOEPIMETAPHYSEAL DYSPLASIA, DI ROCCO TYPE; SEMDDR]. These disorders are not characterized by neurological dysfunction or epilepsy. The authors underscore the fact that variants identified in these disorders (Y290H, D526A, H428R) localize within the C-terminal catalytic (peptidase) domain [aa 278 – 461] while the variant here identified lies in the N-terminal substrate binding domain affecting protein stability/abundance.

In OMIM, only the 2 aforementioned disorders are currently associated with biallelic UFSP2 mutations. There is no associated phenotype in G2P. SysID includes UFSP2 among the primary ID genes.

You may consider inclusion in the current panel with amber/green rating.
Sources: Literature; to: Ni et al (2021 - PMID: 33473208) describe the phenotype of 8 children (belonging to 4 families - 2 of which consanguineous) homozygous for a UFSP2 missense variant [NM_018359.5:c.344T>A; p.(Val115Glu)].

Members of a broader consanguineous pedigree from Pakistan with 3 affected children with epilepsy and DD and ID underwent exome sequencing. All affected individuals were homozygous for the specific SNV with their parents (2 parent pairs, in both cases first cousins) being heterozygous. An unaffected sib was homozygous for the wt allele. Through genematching platforms 3 additional families with similarly affected individuals and homozygosity for the same variant were recruited. These additional families were from Pakistan (1/3) and Afganistan (2/3).

Based on ROH analysis from the broader first pedigree and an additional family the authors concluded on a single shared region of homozygosity on chr 4q. Lack of ES data did not allow verification of whether 2/4 families shared the same haplotype with the other 2.

The authors calculated the probability of the genotype-phenotype cosegragation occurring by chance (0.009) and this was lower than the recommended criterion (0.06) for strong evidence of pathogenicity.

Shared features included abnormal tone in most (hypotonia 6/8, limb hypertonia 1/8), seizures (8/8 - onset 2d - 7m), severe DD with speech delay/absent speech (8/8), ID (8/8), strabismus (6/8).

UFSP2 encodes UFM1-specific protease 2 involved in UFmylation, a post-translational protein modification. As summarized by the authors the cysteine protease encoded by this gene (as is also the case for UFSP1) cleaves UFM1 in the initial step of UFMylation. Apart from producing mature UFM1, the 2 proteases have also the ability to release UFM1 from UFMylated proteins, in the process of de-UFMylation. [several refs. provided]

UFMylation is important in brain development with mutations in genes encoding other components of the pathway reported in other NDD disorders (incl. UFM1, UBA5, UFC1).

Additional studies were carried to provide evidence for pathogenicity of this variant.

Skin biopsies from 3 individuals were carried out to establish fibroblast cultures. Immunoblotting revealed reduced UFSP2 levels relative to controls. mRNA levels measured by qRT-PCR revealed no differences compared to controls altogether suggesting normal mRNA but reduced protein stability.

The authors demonstrated increased levels of UFM1-conjugated proteins (incl. DDRGK1, or TRIP4). Ectopic expression of wt UFSP2 normalized the levels of UFMylated proteins in the fibroblasts which was not the case for the V115E variant. Further the variant was difficult to detect by immunoblotting consistent with an effect on protein destabilization.

Although disruption of UFMylation induces ER stress, this was not shown to occur in patient fibroblast lines, when assessed for ER stress markers.

Evaluation of data from the GTEx project, concerning UFSP2 as well as well as DDRGK1 or TRIP4 - an UFMylation target - revealed relevant expression in multiple regions of the human brain.

Overall the authors provide evidence for defective de-UFMylation in patient fibroblasts (presence of increased UFMylation marks). The authors stress out that the effect of the variant in UFMylation in brain is unknown, as UFSP1 or other enzymes might compensate in the presence of hypomorphic UFSP2 mutants.

**Monoallelic** (correction to previous review) UFSP2 variants have previously been reported in 2 skeletal dysplasias [# 142669. BEUKES HIP DYSPLASIA; BHD and # 617974. SPONDYLOEPIMETAPHYSEAL DYSPLASIA, DI ROCCO TYPE; SEMDDR]. These disorders are not characterized by neurological dysfunction or epilepsy. The authors underscore the fact that variants identified in these disorders (Y290H, D526A, H428R) localize within the C-terminal catalytic (peptidase) domain [aa 278 – 461] while the variant here identified lies in the N-terminal substrate binding domain affecting protein stability/abundance.

In OMIM, only the 2 aforementioned disorders are currently associated with biallelic UFSP2 mutations. There is no associated phenotype in G2P. SysID includes UFSP2 among the primary ID genes.

You may consider inclusion in the current panel with amber/green rating.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1094 UFSP2 Sarah Leigh changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: A founder variant (rs142500730) reported in four South Asian families (haplotype analysis available for two of the families proves relatedness). Functional studies suggest that although expression seems to be unaffected, immunoblotting indicates that protein stability maybe affected (PMID 33473208).
rs142500730 has also been reported in individuals in the Genoimcs England 100K study, with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities.; to: Comment on list classification: A founder variant (rs142500730) reported in four South Asian families (haplotype analysis available for two of the families proves relatedness). Functional studies suggest that although mRNA expression seems to be unaffected, protein stability maybe responsible for the reduced protein detected by immunoblotting in patients fibroblasts (PMID 33473208).
rs142500730 has also been reported in individuals in the Genoimcs England 100K study, with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities.
Intellectual disability v3.1094 UFSP2 Sarah Leigh Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: UFSP2.
Intellectual disability v3.1094 UFSP2 Sarah Leigh Classified gene: UFSP2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1094 UFSP2 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on list classification: A founder variant (rs142500730) reported in four South Asian families (haplotype analysis available for two of the families proves relatedness). Functional studies suggest that although expression seems to be unaffected, immunoblotting indicates that protein stability maybe affected (PMID 33473208).
rs142500730 has also been reported in individuals in the Genoimcs England 100K study, with epilepsy and intellectual disabilities.
Intellectual disability v3.1094 UFSP2 Sarah Leigh Gene: ufsp2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1093 UFSP2 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on phenotypes: No OMIM reference for the pediatric neurodevelopmental anomalies and epilepsy feautres. Monoallelic variants have previously been associated with skeletal dysplasias (PMIDs 28892125;26428751;32755715), but there does not appear to be any phenotypic overlap between these and the phenotype seen for the biallelic rs142500730.
Intellectual disability v3.1093 UFSP2 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: UFSP2 were changed from Abnormal muscle tone; Seizures; Global developmental delay; Delayed speech and language development; Intellectual disability; Strabismus to Abnormal muscle tone; Seizures; Global developmental delay; Delayed speech and language development; Intellectual disability; Strabismus
Intellectual disability v3.1092 UFSP2 Sarah Leigh Tag founder-effect tag was added to gene: UFSP2.
Intellectual disability v3.1092 UFSP2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: UFSP2 was added
gene: UFSP2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: UFSP2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: UFSP2 were set to 33473208
Phenotypes for gene: UFSP2 were set to Abnormal muscle tone; Seizures; Global developmental delay; Delayed speech and language development; Intellectual disability; Strabismus
Penetrance for gene: UFSP2 were set to Complete
Added comment: Ni et al (2021 - PMID: 33473208) describe the phenotype of 8 children (belonging to 4 families - 2 of which consanguineous) homozygous for a UFSP2 missense variant [NM_018359.5:c.344T>A; p.(Val115Glu)].

Members of a broader consanguineous pedigree from Pakistan with 3 affected children with epilepsy and DD and ID underwent exome sequencing. All affected individuals were homozygous for the specific SNV with their parents (2 parent pairs, in both cases first cousins) being heterozygous. An unaffected sib was homozygous for the wt allele. Through genematching platforms 3 additional families with similarly affected individuals and homozygosity for the same variant were recruited. These additional families were from Pakistan (1/3) and Afganistan (2/3).

Based on ROH analysis from the broader first pedigree and an additional family the authors concluded on a single shared region of homozygosity on chr 4q. Lack of ES data did not allow verification of whether 2/4 families shared the same haplotype with the other 2.

The authors calculated the probability of the genotype-phenotype cosegragation occurring by chance (0.009) and this was lower than the recommended criterion (0.06) for strong evidence of pathogenicity.

Shared features included abnormal tone in most (hypotonia 6/8, limb hypertonia 1/8), seizures (8/8 - onset 2d - 7m), severe DD with speech delay/absent speech (8/8), ID (8/8), strabismus (6/8).

UFSP2 encodes UFM1-specific protease 2 involved in UFmylation, a post-translational protein modification. As summarized by the authors the cysteine protease encoded by this gene (as is also the case for UFSP1) cleaves UFM1 in the initial step of UFMylation. Apart from producing mature UFM1, the 2 proteases have also the ability to release UFM1 from UFMylated proteins, in the process of de-UFMylation. [several refs. provided]

UFMylation is important in brain development with mutations in genes encoding other components of the pathway reported in other NDD disorders (incl. UFM1, UBA5, UFC1).

Additional studies were carried to provide evidence for pathogenicity of this variant.

Skin biopsies from 3 individuals were carried out to establish fibroblast cultures. Immunoblotting revealed reduced UFSP2 levels relative to controls. mRNA levels measured by qRT-PCR revealed no differences compared to controls altogether suggesting normal mRNA but reduced protein stability.

The authors demonstrated increased levels of UFM1-conjugated proteins (incl. DDRGK1, or TRIP4). Ectopic expression of wt UFSP2 normalized the levels of UFMylated proteins in the fibroblasts which was not the case for the V115E variant. Further the variant was difficult to detect by immunoblotting consistent with an effect on protein destabilization.

Although disruption of UFMylation induces ER stress, this was not shown to occur in patient fibroblast lines, when assessed for ER stress markers.

Evaluation of data from the GTEx project, concerning UFSP2 as well as well as DDRGK1 or TRIP4 - an UFMylation target - revealed relevant expression in multiple regions of the human brain.

Overall the authors provide evidence for defective de-UFMylation in patient fibroblasts (presence of increased UFMylation marks). The authors stress out that the effect of the variant in UFMylation in brain is unknown, as UFSP1 or other enzymes might compensate in the presence of hypomorphic UFSP2 mutants.

Biallelic UFSP2 variants have previously been reported in 2 skeletal dysplasias [# 142669. BEUKES HIP DYSPLASIA; BHD and # 617974. SPONDYLOEPIMETAPHYSEAL DYSPLASIA, DI ROCCO TYPE; SEMDDR]. These disorders are not characterized by neurological dysfunction or epilepsy. The authors underscore the fact that variants identified in these disorders (Y290H, D526A, H428R) localize within the C-terminal catalytic (peptidase) domain [aa 278 – 461] while the variant here identified lies in the N-terminal substrate binding domain affecting protein stability/abundance.

In OMIM, only the 2 aforementioned disorders are currently associated with biallelic UFSP2 mutations. There is no associated phenotype in G2P. SysID includes UFSP2 among the primary ID genes.

You may consider inclusion in the current panel with amber/green rating.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1092 SIN3B Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: SIN3B: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33811806; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Behavioral abnormality; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.1092 CAMK2B Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: CAMK2B were set to
Intellectual disability v3.1091 CAMK2B Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: CAMK2B were changed from Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 54 617799 to Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 54, OMIM:617799
Intellectual disability v3.1090 YIPF5 Arina Puzriakova Entity copied from Severe microcephaly v2.170
Intellectual disability v3.1090 YIPF5 Arina Puzriakova gene: YIPF5 was added
gene: YIPF5 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review Amber
Q2_21_rating tags were added to gene: YIPF5.
Mode of inheritance for gene: YIPF5 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: YIPF5 were set to 33164986
Phenotypes for gene: YIPF5 were set to Microcephaly, epilepsy, and diabetes syndrome 2, OMIM:619278
Intellectual disability v3.1089 UNC80 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: UNC80 were set to 25529582; 2670875126708753
Intellectual disability v3.1088 UNC80 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: UNC80 were changed from Hypotonia, infantile, with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies 2 616801 to Hypotonia, infantile, with psychomotor retardation and characteristic facies 2, OMIM:616801
Intellectual disability v3.1087 UGP2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: UGP2 were changed from Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 83, 618744; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Feeding difficulties; Abnormality of vision; Abnormality of the face to Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 83, OMIM:618744
Intellectual disability v3.1086 TSEN54 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: TSEN54 were set to 0
Intellectual disability v3.1085 TSEN54 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: TSEN54 were changed from PONTOCEREBELLAR HYPOPLASIA TYPE 2 AND TYPE 4 to ?Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 5, OMIM:610204; Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 2A, OMIM:277470; Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 4, OMIM:225753
Intellectual disability v3.1084 AFG3L2 Sarah Leigh commented on gene: AFG3L2: Disease causing variants are both monoallelic and biallelic
Intellectual disability v3.1084 AFG3L2 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: AFG3L2 were changed from Spastic ataxia 5, autosomal recessive, 614487 to Spastic ataxia 5, autosomal recessive OMIM:614487; spastic ataxia 5 MONDO:0013776; Spinocerebellar ataxia 28 OMIM:610246; spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 MONDO:0012450
Intellectual disability v3.1083 AFG3L2 Sarah Leigh Tag Q2_21_MOI tag was added to gene: AFG3L2.
Intellectual disability v3.1083 AFG3L2 Sarah Leigh reviewed gene: AFG3L2: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Spastic ataxia 5, autosomal recessive OMIM:614487, spastic ataxia 5 MONDO:0013776, Spinocerebellar ataxia 28 OMIM:610246, spinocerebellar ataxia type 28 MONDO:0012450; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1083 TSEN15 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: TSEN15 were changed from delayed developmental milestones; Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 2F, 617026; Intellectual disability to Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 2F, OMIM:617026
Intellectual disability v3.1082 TRIO Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: TRIO were set to 0
Intellectual disability v3.1081 TRIO Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: TRIO were changed from INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY to Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 44, with microcephaly, OMIM:617061; Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 63, with macrocephaly, OMIM:618825
Intellectual disability v3.1080 TRAPPC9 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: TRAPPC9 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.1079 TRAPPC9 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: TRAPPC9 were changed from Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 13, 613192; Mental Retardation, Recessive; MENTAL RETARDATION AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE TYPE 13 (MRT13) to Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 13, OMIM:613192
Intellectual disability v3.1078 TRAPPC6B Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: TRAPPC6B were changed from Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, epilepsy, and brain atrophy, 617862 to Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, epilepsy, and brain atrophy, OMIM:617862
Intellectual disability v3.1077 TRAPPC6B Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: TRAPPC6B were set to 28626029; 28397838
Intellectual disability v3.1076 MINPP1 Arina Puzriakova Entity copied from Ataxia and cerebellar anomalies - narrow panel v2.174
Intellectual disability v3.1076 MINPP1 Arina Puzriakova gene: MINPP1 was added
gene: MINPP1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review Amber
Q2_21_rating tags were added to gene: MINPP1.
Mode of inheritance for gene: MINPP1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: MINPP1 were set to 33257696; 33168985
Phenotypes for gene: MINPP1 were set to Pontocerebellar hypoplasia
Intellectual disability v3.1075 NSF Sarah Leigh reviewed gene: NSF: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.1075 PMPCB Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: PMPCB were changed from Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 6, 617954 to Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 6 OMIM:617954; multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 6 MONDO:0054785
Intellectual disability v3.1074 FXN_GAA Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for STR: FXN_GAA were changed from Friedreich ataxia 229300 to Friedreich ataxia OMIM:229300; Friedreich ataxia with retained reflexes OMIM:229300; Friedreich ataxia 1 MONDO:0100340
Intellectual disability v3.1073 CAD Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: CAD were changed from Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 50 - MIM 616457 to Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 50, OMIM:616457
Intellectual disability v3.1072 TMEM222 Sarah Leigh Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: TMEM222.
Intellectual disability v3.1072 TMEM222 Sarah Leigh edited their review of gene: TMEM222: Added comment: Not associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM or Gen2Phen (TMEM222 not listed on OMIM 11/05/2021). At least ten variants reported in at least nine unrelated families. Moderate to severe intellectual disability was evident in all families.; Changed rating: GREEN
Intellectual disability v3.1072 TMEM222 Sarah Leigh Classified gene: TMEM222 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1072 TMEM222 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review.
Intellectual disability v3.1072 TMEM222 Sarah Leigh Gene: tmem222 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1071 TMEM222 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: TMEM222 were set to 33824500
Intellectual disability v3.1070 FARSA Ivone Leong Entity copied from White matter disorders and cerebral calcification - narrow panel v1.79
Intellectual disability v3.1070 FARSA Ivone Leong gene: FARSA was added
gene: FARSA was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review Red
Mode of inheritance for gene: FARSA was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: FARSA were set to 31355908
Phenotypes for gene: FARSA were set to ?Rajab interstitial lung disease with brain calcifications 2, OMIM:619013
Intellectual disability v3.1069 CAPN15 Zornitza Stark gene: CAPN15 was added
gene: CAPN15 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: CAPN15 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: CAPN15 were set to 33410501; 32885237
Phenotypes for gene: CAPN15 were set to Oculogastrointestinal neurodevelopmental syndrome, MIM# 619318
Review for gene: CAPN15 was set to GREEN
gene: CAPN15 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: 5 families reported, including DD/ID in 3. Profound in one family with bi-allelic LoF variant, PMID 33410501.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1069 CHD5 Zornitza Stark gene: CHD5 was added
gene: CHD5 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: CHD5 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: CHD5 were set to 33944996
Phenotypes for gene: CHD5 were set to Intellectual disability; Epilepsy
Review for gene: CHD5 was set to GREEN
gene: CHD5 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: 16 unrelated individuals reported with language deficits (81%), behavioral symptoms (69%), intellectual disability (64%), epilepsy (62%), and motor delay (56%).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1069 FBXO31 Zornitza Stark edited their review of gene: FBXO31: Added comment: PMIDs 33675180; 32989326: three unrelated individuals with de novo missense variant, (p.Asp334Asn) and spastic-dystonic CP, including ID.

AR ID: Single consanguineous family reported with homozygous truncating variant, limited functional evidence.; Changed rating: GREEN; Changed publications to: 24623383, 33675180, 32989326
Intellectual disability v3.1069 PTPN4 Zornitza Stark gene: PTPN4 was added
gene: PTPN4 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: PTPN4 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: PTPN4 were set to 17953619; 25424712; 30238967; DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xhgg.2021.100033
Phenotypes for gene: PTPN4 were set to Intellectual disability
Review for gene: PTPN4 was set to GREEN
gene: PTPN4 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: >3 unrelated probands and supportive mouse model
PMID: 17953619 - knockout mouse model has impaired motor learning and cerebellar synaptic plasticity
PMID: 25424712 - twins with a de novo whole gene deletion and a Rett-like neurodevelopmental disorder
PMID: 30238967 - mosaic de novo variant (p.Leu72Ser) identified in a child with developmental delay, autistic features, hypotonia, increased immunoglobulin E and dental problems. Also supporting mouse assays demonstrating loss of protein expression in dendritic spines
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xhgg.2021.100033 - missense and truncating variants in six unrelated individuals with varying degrees of intellectual disability or developmental delay. 5 were able to undergo segregation analysis and found to be de novo.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1069 ANKRD17 Zornitza Stark gene: ANKRD17 was added
gene: ANKRD17 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: ANKRD17 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: ANKRD17 were set to 33909992
Phenotypes for gene: ANKRD17 were set to Intellectual disability, speech delay, and dysmorphism
Review for gene: ANKRD17 was set to GREEN
gene: ANKRD17 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: 34 predominantly LoF variants reported - 29 de novo, 1 inherited from an affected parent, 1 inherited from a suspected mosaic parent. Main phenotypes were dev delay/ID, motor delay, and speech delay.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1069 SIN3B Zornitza Stark gene: SIN3B was added
gene: SIN3B was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: SIN3B was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: SIN3B were set to 33811806
Phenotypes for gene: SIN3B were set to Syndromic intellectual disability
Review for gene: SIN3B was set to GREEN
gene: SIN3B was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: PMID: 33811806
- 9 affected individuals, variants all de novo (2 PTCs, 2 missense, multigenic CNVs)
- syndrome hallmarked by intellectual disability, developmental delay, and dysmorphic facial features with variably penetrant ASD, congenital malformations, corpus callosum defects, and impaired growth.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1069 DPYSL5 Zornitza Stark gene: DPYSL5 was added
gene: DPYSL5 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: DPYSL5 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: DPYSL5 were set to 33894126
Phenotypes for gene: DPYSL5 were set to Neurodevelopmental disorder with corpus callosum agenesis and cerebellar abnormalities
Review for gene: DPYSL5 was set to GREEN
gene: DPYSL5 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Nine individuals with brain malformations, including corpus callosum agenesis and/or posterior fossa abnormalities, associated with variable degrees of intellectual disability. The recurrent de novo p.Glu41Lys was found in eight unrelated patients, and a p.Gly47Arg variant was identified in one individual from the first family reported with Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome. Both impaired DPYSL5 function on dendritic outgrowth regulation by preventing the formation of the ternary complex with MAP2 and βIII-tubulin, ultimately leading to abnormal brain development.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1069 EMC10 Zornitza Stark edited their review of gene: EMC10: Added comment: PMID 33531666: Additional 12 individuals from 7 Middle Eastern families reported. Same variant in all, suggestive of founder effect (but different to the previously reported family).; Changed rating: GREEN; Changed publications to: 32869858, 33531666; Changed phenotypes to: Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and variable seizures, MIM# 619264
Intellectual disability v3.1069 TMEM222 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: TMEM222 was added
gene: TMEM222 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: TMEM222 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: TMEM222 were set to 33824500
Phenotypes for gene: TMEM222 were set to Motor delay; Delayed speech and language development; Intellectual disability; Generalized hypotonia; Broad-based gait; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Seizures; Microcephaly; Behavioral abnormality
Penetrance for gene: TMEM222 were set to Complete
Review for gene: TMEM222 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Polla et al (2021 - PMID: 33824500) report 17 individuals from 9 unrelated families, with biallelic TMEM222 pathogenic variants.

The phenotype included motor, speech delay and moderate to severe ID (as universal features). Other manifestations included hypotonia (10/15), broad gait (5/12), seizures (7/17 - belonging to 6/9 families), MRI abnormalities (5/8). Variable behavioral abnormalities were observed (aggressive behavior, shy character, stereotypic movements etc). Abnormal OFC was a feature in several with microcephaly in 7 subjects from 4 families (measurements not available for all 17). Nonspecific facial features were reported in 10/17. Rare features incl. body tremors, decreased lower extremity muscle mass or disorder of motor neurons.

TMEM222 variants were identified following exome sequencing. Previous investigations incl. metabolic studies, FMR1, chromosomes by standard karyotype or CMA, SMA, CMT1A were reported to be normal (available for some individuals).

TMEM222 variants missense and pLoF ones mostly found in homozygosity (7/9 families were consanguineous, compound heterozygosity reported in a single case from the 9 families). Sanger sequencing was used for confirmation of variants, parental carrier state as well as testing of sibs (unaffected sibs tested in 4 families).

Few individuals had additional genetic findings in other genes, though classified as VUS (3 families).

The gene encodes transmembrane protein 222 (208 residues) which however has unknown function. The protein comprises 3 transmembrane domains and a domain of unknown function. TMEMs are a group of transmembrane proteins spanning membranes with - most commonly - unclear function.

The authors measured expression by qPCR mRNA analysis, demonstrating highest fetal and adult brain expression (incl. parietal and occipital cortex). Expression levels from GTEx data also support a role in neurodevelopment.

Immunocytochemistry revealed highest levels in mature human iPSC-derived glutaminergic cortical neurons and moderate in immature ones. Additional studies supported that the gene is highly expressed in dendrites and might play a role in postsynaptic vesicles (colocalization with postsynaptic and early endosomal markers).

A previous study by Riazuddin et al (2017 - PMID: 27457812) had identified TMEM222 as a candidate gene for ID. This family (PKMR213) however appears to be included as family 2 in the aforementioned publication (same pedigree, variant and phenotype in both articles).

In OMIM there is currently no associated phenotype.

The gene is listed among the primary ID genes in SysID.

Please consider inclusion in the ID panel with green (or amber) rating. This gene may also be included in other panels e.g. for epilepsy, microcephaly, etc.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1069 CLTC Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: CLTC were changed from Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 56, 617854; Autosomal dominant non-syndromic intellectual disability, Epilepsy and intellectual disability to Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 56, OMIM:617854
Intellectual disability v3.1068 UBTF Arina Puzriakova Mode of pathogenicity for gene: UBTF was changed from to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Intellectual disability v3.1067 UBTF Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: UBTF were set to 26350204; 28777933
Intellectual disability v3.1066 VPS11 Ivone Leong commented on gene: VPS11
Intellectual disability v3.1066 VPS11 Ivone Leong Tag watchlist was removed from gene: VPS11.
Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: VPS11.
Intellectual disability v3.1066 UBTF Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: UBTF were changed from developmental regression; motor and language regression; developmental delay; Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with brain atrophy, 617672 to Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with brain atrophy, OMIM:617672
Intellectual disability v3.1065 DYNC1I2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: DYNC1I2 were changed from Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Abnormality of head or neck; Microcephaly; Intellectual disability to Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly and structural brain anomalies, OMIM:618492
Intellectual disability v3.1064 DNA2 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: DNA2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 24389050, 31045292; Phenotypes: Seckel syndrome 8, OMIM:615807; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1064 DNA2 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: DNA2 were set to 23352259; 24389050
Intellectual disability v3.1063 DNA2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: DNA2 were changed from PRIMORDIAL DWARFISM SECKEL SYNDROME 8; SCKL8 to Seckel syndrome 8, OMIM:615807
Intellectual disability v3.1062 WDR4 Ivone Leong reviewed gene: WDR4: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.1062 WDR4 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: WDR4 were changed from Primordial dwarfism; motor and speech delay; intellectual disability; global developmental delay. to Galloway-Mowat syndrome 6, OMIM:61834; Microcephaly, growth deficiency, seizures, and brain malformations, OMIM:618347
Intellectual disability v3.1061 WDR4 Ivone Leong Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: WDR4.
Intellectual disability v3.1061 WDR4 Ivone Leong Publications for gene: WDR4 were set to 29597095; 26416026
Intellectual disability v3.1060 OCRL Eleanor Williams Publications for gene: OCRL were set to
Intellectual disability v3.1059 OCRL Eleanor Williams reviewed gene: OCRL: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33517444; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.1059 CDH11 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: CDH11 were changed from Elsahy-Waters syndrome to Elsahy-Waters syndrome, OMIM:211380; Teebi hypertelorism syndrome
Intellectual disability v3.1058 CDH11 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: CDH11 were set to 27431290; 29271567
Intellectual disability v3.1057 CDH11 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on mode of inheritance: Association with biallelic variants well-established, with ID reported in all cases to date. On the other hand, DD/ID is variable in individuals with monoallelic variants (PMID: 33811546) - 7/19 cases (4 families) presented a developmental phenotype including very mild speech delays in 5/7, mild-moderate DD in 1/7, and global delay in 1/7 individuals.

Overall, given the mostly mild degree of cognitive delay, as well as intra- and interfamilial reduced penetrance of this feature, there is currently not enough evidence to rate as Green on this panel for the monoallelic disease.
Intellectual disability v3.1057 CDH11 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: CDH11 was changed from BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1056 HTT Eleanor Williams changed review comment from: PMID: 33432339 - Jung et al 2021 - further characterisation of the family previously reported in PMID: 27329733 (Rodan et al 2016) - using WGS they confirm they are the most likely cause of the LOMARS phenotype and clarify their locations as NM_002111.8(HTT): c.8157T>A (p.Phe2719Leu) and NM_002111.8(HTT)c.4469+1G>A (Note there are incorrect Clinvar entries). Functional studies show them each to be a hypomorphic mutation, resulting in severe deficiency of huntingtin in compound heterozygotes.; to: PMID: 33432339 - Jung et al 2021 - further characterisation of the family previously reported in PMID: 27329733 (Rodan et al 2016) - using WGS they confirm they are the most likely cause of the LOMARS phenotype and clarify their locations as NM_002111.8(HTT): c.8157T>A (p.Phe2719Leu) and NM_002111.8(HTT)c.4469+1G>A (Note there are incorrect Clinvar entries). Functional studies show them each to be a hypomorphic mutation, resulting in severe deficiency of huntingtin in compound heterozygotes.

Still only 2 cases reported to date (PMID: 27329733/33432339 and 26740508) with biallelic LOF variants in HTT associated with the LOMARS phenotype although this study add further weight with some functional data.
Intellectual disability v3.1056 HTT Eleanor Williams reviewed gene: HTT: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33432339; Phenotypes: Lopes-Maciel-Rodan syndrome OMIM:617435; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1056 FAR1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: FAR1 were set to 25439727
Intellectual disability v3.1055 FAR1 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_expert_review tag was added to gene: FAR1.
Tag Q2_21_MOI tag was added to gene: FAR1.
Intellectual disability v3.1055 FAR1 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: FAR1: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 25439727, 30561787, 33239752; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.1055 HERC2 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: HERC2 were set to 23065719
Intellectual disability v3.1054 HERC2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: HERC2 were changed from Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 38 to Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 38, OMIM:615516
Intellectual disability v3.1053 NUBPL Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: NUBPL were changed from MITOCHONDRIAL COMPLEX I DEFICIENCY to Mitochondrial complex I deficiency, nuclear type 21, OMIM:618242
Intellectual disability v3.1052 INPP4A Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: INPP4A were changed from AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE MENTAL RETARDATION to Intellectual disability; Seizures
Intellectual disability v3.1051 INPP4A Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: INPP4A were set to 21937992
Intellectual disability v3.1050 INPP4A Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: INPP4A as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1050 INPP4A Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Upgraded from Red to Amber. 2 unrelated families with severe ID and biallelic variants in this gene reported to date (PMIDs: 25338135; 31978615)
Intellectual disability v3.1050 INPP4A Arina Puzriakova Gene: inpp4a has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1049 UBE4A Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Sufficient evidence to rate this gene Green at the next GMS panel update - 4 unrelated families with different homozygous LoF variants in UBE4A, supported by some functional data and animal model. Severe ID and GDD was a feature in all affected individuals (8 total).

UBE4A is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM (last edited on 17/09/2010) but has a 'probable' disease confidence rating for 'UBE4A-associated neurodevelopmental disorder' in Gene2Phenotype.; to: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Sufficient evidence to rate this gene Green at the next GMS panel update - PMID:33420346 report 4 unrelated families with different homozygous LoF variants in UBE4A, supported by some functional data and animal model. Severe ID and GDD was a feature in all affected individuals (8 total).

UBE4A is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM (last edited on 17/09/2010) but has a 'probable' disease confidence rating for 'UBE4A-associated neurodevelopmental disorder' in Gene2Phenotype.
Intellectual disability v3.1049 UBE4A Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: UBE4A.
Intellectual disability v3.1049 UBE4A Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: UBE4A as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1049 UBE4A Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Sufficient evidence to rate this gene Green at the next GMS panel update - 4 unrelated families with different homozygous LoF variants in UBE4A, supported by some functional data and animal model. Severe ID and GDD was a feature in all affected individuals (8 total).

UBE4A is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM (last edited on 17/09/2010) but has a 'probable' disease confidence rating for 'UBE4A-associated neurodevelopmental disorder' in Gene2Phenotype.
Intellectual disability v3.1049 UBE4A Arina Puzriakova Gene: ube4a has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1048 NCDN Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: NCDN.
Intellectual disability v3.1048 NCDN Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: NCDN as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1048 NCDN Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Sufficient evidence to rate this gene as Green with 'monoallelic' MOI at next GMS panel update.

- PMID: 33711248 (2021) - Six affected individuals (3 sibs with homozygous missense, and 3 unrelated patients with different de novo missense variants) with variable degrees of DD, ID, and seizures. Severity of ID in individuals with heterozygous variants is severe, moderate, and mild (but also learning disabilities), respectively. ID in the 3 sibs was determined as mild. Supportive functional data included.

NCDN is not yet associated with any phenotype in OMIM (last edited on 08/08/2012) but in Gene2Phenotype monoallelic disease has a 'probable' confidence rating while biallelic variants have a 'possible' disease confidence rating.
Intellectual disability v3.1048 NCDN Arina Puzriakova Gene: ncdn has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1047 NCDN Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on mode of inheritance: Setting MOI to 'Monoallelic' as only one biallelic case reported to date, and patients with biallelic variants would still be picked up by the Genomics England pipeline.
Intellectual disability v3.1047 NCDN Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: NCDN was changed from BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.1046 MAPKAPK5 Arina Puzriakova Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: MAPKAPK5.
Intellectual disability v3.1046 MAPKAPK5 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: MAPKAPK5 were set to 3344202
Intellectual disability v3.1045 MAPKAPK5 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: MAPKAPK5 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1045 MAPKAPK5 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Rating Amber, awaiting further cases (added watchlist tag)

- PMID: 33442026 report on 2 unrelated families with a comparable phenotype including severe GDD, who harbour different homozygous truncating variants in MAPKAPK5. Some functional evidence indicating the variants impact expression and function of MAPKAPK5 protein.

MAPKAPK5 is not yet associated with any phenotype in OMIM (last edited on 06/04/2016) but has a 'probable' disease confidence rating for 'MAPKAPK5-associated syndrome with synpolydactyly' in Gene2Phenotype.
Intellectual disability v3.1045 MAPKAPK5 Arina Puzriakova Gene: mapkapk5 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1044 COPB1 Arina Puzriakova Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: COPB1.
Intellectual disability v3.1044 COPB1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: COPB1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1044 COPB1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. PMID:33632302 reports on six individuals from two unrelated families with different homozygous variants in this gene. All affected patients had severe ID. Rating Amber, awaiting further cases.
Intellectual disability v3.1044 COPB1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: copb1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1043 COPB1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: COPB1 were changed from Baralle-Macken syndrome, MIM# 619255; Severe intellectual disability; variable microcephaly; cataracts to Baralle-Macken syndrome, OMIM:619255; Severe intellectual disability; Cataracts; Variable microcephaly
Intellectual disability v3.1042 CHD4 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: CHD4 were changed from Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome 617159 to Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome OMIM:617159; Sifrim-Hitz-Weiss syndrome MONDO:0014946
Intellectual disability v3.1041 PIGC Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PIGC as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1041 PIGC Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There are now at least 3 unrelated families with biallelic variants in this gene, and severe DD/ID is evident in all cases (PMIDs: 27694521; 32707268) . Therefore, PIGC can be upgraded to Green status at the next GMS panel update.
Intellectual disability v3.1041 PIGC Arina Puzriakova Gene: pigc has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1040 PIGC Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: PIGC were changed from Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect 16, 617816 to Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect 16, OMIM:617816
Intellectual disability v3.1039 PIGC Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: PIGC were set to 27694521
Intellectual disability v3.1038 PIGC Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: PIGC.
Intellectual disability v3.1038 PIGC Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: PIGC: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 32707268; Phenotypes: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect 16, OMIM:617816; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1038 MTFMT Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: MTFMT were changed from Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 15, 614947 to Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 15 OMIM:614947; combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 15 MONDO:0013987; Mitochondrial complex I deficiency, nuclear type 27 OMIM:618248; mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 27 MONDO:0032631
Intellectual disability v3.1037 JMJD1C Zornitza Stark gene: JMJD1C was added
gene: JMJD1C was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Expert Review
Mode of inheritance for gene: JMJD1C was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: JMJD1C were set to 26181491; 32996679
Phenotypes for gene: JMJD1C were set to Intellectual disability
Review for gene: JMJD1C was set to GREEN
gene: JMJD1C was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Reported in ID cohort (with Rett-like phenotypic overlap) with supporting functional studies (PMID: 26181491). 7 individuals with rare variants identified, and variants demonstrated to be de novo in 2, one with a Rett-like phenotype and the other with ID. Functional study of the JMJD1C mutant Rett syndrome patient demonstrated that the altered protein had abnormal subcellular localization, diminished activity to demethylate the DNA damage-response protein MDC1, and reduced binding to MECP2. JMJD1C protein shown to be widely expressed in brain regions and that its depletion compromised dendritic activity.

Splice-disrupting JMJD1C variant reported in association with learning disability and myoclonic epilepsy (PMID 32996679).

Disruption of gene due to balanced translocation (PMID 33591602) implicated in autism spectrum disease phenotype.
Sources: Expert Review
Intellectual disability v3.1037 LAMA1 Sarah Leigh reviewed gene: LAMA1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.1037 LAMA1 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: LAMA1 were changed from CEREBELLAR DYSPLASIA WITH CYSTS WITH OR WITHOUT RETINAL DYSTROPHY to Poretti-Boltshauser syndrome OMIM:615960; ataxia - intellectual disability - oculomotor apraxia - cerebellar cysts syndrome MONDO:0014419
Intellectual disability v3.1036 LAMA1 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: LAMA1 were set to 21937992; 30244536
Intellectual disability v3.1035 NEUROD2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: NEUROD2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1035 NEUROD2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence to rate this gene as Green at the next GMS panel update - sufficient number of unrelated cases (4, plus 1 unpublished), all presenting GDD as an early feature. Particularly pertinent to less severely affected individuals who do not develop seizures.
Intellectual disability v3.1035 NEUROD2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: neurod2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1034 NEUROD2 Arina Puzriakova gene: NEUROD2 was added
gene: NEUROD2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Q2_21_rating tags were added to gene: NEUROD2.
Mode of inheritance for gene: NEUROD2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: NEUROD2 were set to 16504944; 30323019; 33438828
Phenotypes for gene: NEUROD2 were set to Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 72, OMIM:618374
Review for gene: NEUROD2 was set to GREEN
Added comment: NEUROD2 is associated with a relevant phenotype in OMIM (MIM# 618374), but is not yet listed in Gene2Phenotype.

- PMID: 30323019 (2019) - Two unrelated children with refractory early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Developmental delay (DD) preceded onset of seizures in both cases, with signs of DD becoming evident at 2-4 months and seizures arising at 5 months of age. Patient 1 became seizure-free after introducing a ketogenic diet at 16 months; however, an EEG at 22 months remained abnormal and she continues to have severe GDD with no independent sitting, walking or speaking at the chronological age of 3 years and 2 months. Patient 2 became seizure-free when a vagal nerve stimulator (VNS) was placed at 16 months of age. He displayed significant improvement on EEG and subsequently began regaining neurodevelopmental milestones.
WES revealed different de novo variants in the NEUROD2 gene (P1: c.388G>C, p.E130Q; P2: c.401T>C, p.M134T, respectively). Knockdown of the neurod2 in Xenopus tropicalis tadpoles resulted in abnormal swimming behaviour and progressive seizures followed by periods of immobility. Overexpression of wild-type human NEUROD2 in tadpoles induced non-neuronal cells to differentiate into neurons - on the other hand, overexpression of the mutant alleles failed to to cause any (p.E130Q) or a comparable degree (p.M134T) of ectopic neuronal induction as seen with the wild-type protein.

- Conference poster (Genomics of Rare Disease 2021) - 'Neuronal Differentiation Factor 2 (NEUROD2) Pathogenic Variant as a Molecular Aetiology of Infantile Spasm ' by Sakpichaisakul et al, QSNICH, Thailand -
In a 15 month-old female with infantile spasm, trio exome sequencing revealed a de novo variant in NEUROD2 (c.388G>C, p.E130Q). She was born of non-consanguineous healthy parents with no family history of epilepsy. Poor eye contact and no social smile were noted in the first few months, followed by the first infantile spasm at 5 months of age. This was initially controlled by combined vigabatrin and prednisolone therapy - however relapsing seizures were detected at 15 months. Sequential treatment with vigabatrin following prednisolone resulted in cessation of seizures, and subsequently regaining of neurodevelopmental milestones (sitting without support, grabbing objects without pincer grasp and speaking one single word)

----- Cases without seizures -

- PMID: 33438828 (2021) - Adolescent (14 yrs old) with GDD but without seizures who was found to have a novel de novo NEUROD2 missense variant (c.488 T > C, p.L163P). An additional individual (12 yrs) with DD and a different missense NEUROD2 (c.703G>A, p.A235T) was also identified, but lacking parental samples for segregation analysis.
Functional analysis in Xenopus laevis revealed that injection of the p.L163P mRNA variant resulted in a defective ability to induce ectopic neurons in tadpoles as compared with wild-type NEUROD2 mRNA, while the p.A235T variant functioned similarly to wild-type.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1033 NCKAP1 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: NCKAP1.
Intellectual disability v3.1033 NCKAP1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: NCKAP1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1033 NCKAP1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is sufficient evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next GMS panel update. Guo et al 2020 (PMID:33157009) describe multiple families with inherited and de novo deleterious NCKAP1 variants. Neurodevelopmental features represent the core phenotypes, including autistic features, psychomotor delays, and ID or learning disabilities (10/16 individuals had a diagnosis of mild to severe ID)
Intellectual disability v3.1033 NCKAP1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: nckap1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1032 NCKAP1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: NCKAP1 were changed from to Intellectual disability; Autism
Intellectual disability v3.1031 NCKAP1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: NCKAP1 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.1030 NCKAP1 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: NCKAP1 was changed from to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.1029 DPYS Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_expert_review tag was added to gene: DPYS.
Intellectual disability v3.1029 DPYS Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: DPYS were set to
Intellectual disability v3.1028 DPYS Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: DPYS as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1028 DPYS Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Overall variable clinical presentation, even including asymptomatic subjects. However, DD and/or ID have been reported in multiple published cases (PMIDs: 9266350; 17383919; 20362666; 27604308; 26771602; 29054612). Sufficient unrelated cases (>3) to rate Green but will seek opinion from the GMS expert group due to highly variable penetrance of this phenotype.
Intellectual disability v3.1028 DPYS Arina Puzriakova Gene: dpys has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1027 DPYS Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: DPYS were changed from Dihydropyrimidinuria, MIM#222748 to Dihydropyrimidinuria, OMIM:222748
Intellectual disability v3.1026 DPM2 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: DPM2.
Intellectual disability v3.1026 DPM2 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: DPM2 were set to 23109149
Intellectual disability v3.1025 DPM2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: DPM2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1025 DPM2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM (MIM# 615042). Sufficient number of unrelated cases (3) with DPM2-CDG to rate Green at the next GMS panel update. Phenotypes include intellectual disability in all affected individuals.
Intellectual disability v3.1025 DPM2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: dpm2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1024 DPM2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: DPM2 were changed from Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Iu to Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Iu, OMIM:615042
Intellectual disability v3.1023 B4GALT1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: B4GALT1 were set to 26503795; 24896178; 11901181; 21920538; 30653653
Intellectual disability v3.1022 B4GALT1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: B4GALT1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1022 B4GALT1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Upgraded from Red to Amber as now there are 2 families (4 total) exhibiting severe cognitive impairment, albeit this resolved in the singleton by age 11 (remaining patients were age 2.5, 11 and 11 years at the time of reporting)
Intellectual disability v3.1022 B4GALT1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: b4galt1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1021 B4GALT1 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: B4GALT1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 11901181, 21920538, 30653653, 32157688; Phenotypes: Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IId, OMIM:607091; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1021 B4GALT1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: B4GALT1 were set to 26503795; 24896178; 11901181; 21920538
Intellectual disability v3.1020 B4GALT1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: B4GALT1 were changed from Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IId 607091 to Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IId, OMIM:607091
Intellectual disability v3.1019 AGO1 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_expert_review tag was added to gene: AGO1.
Intellectual disability v3.1019 AGO1 Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: AGO1
Intellectual disability v3.1019 AGO1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: AGO1 were set to 26350204; 30213762; 22495306; 23020937; 25363768; 25356899; 27620904; 29346770
Intellectual disability v3.1018 UBE4A Zornitza Stark gene: UBE4A was added
gene: UBE4A was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: UBE4A was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: UBE4A were set to 33420346
Phenotypes for gene: UBE4A were set to Intellectual disability
Review for gene: UBE4A was set to GREEN
gene: UBE4A was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: 8 individuals, from 4 unrelated families, with syndromic intellectual disability and global developmental delay (other clinical features included hypotonia, short stature, seizures, and behaviour disorder. Exome sequencing identified biallelic loss-of-function variants in UBE4A in the 4 families, with variants segregating with disease and parents carriers. They demonstrated that UBE4A loss-of-function variants reduced RNA expression and protein levels in clinical samples. Mice generated to mimic patient-specific Ube4a loss-of-function variant exhibited muscular and neurological/behavioural abnormalities, some of which are suggestive of the clinical abnormalities seen in the affected individuals.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1018 MAPKAPK5 Zornitza Stark gene: MAPKAPK5 was added
gene: MAPKAPK5 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: MAPKAPK5 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: MAPKAPK5 were set to 3344202
Phenotypes for gene: MAPKAPK5 were set to Developmental delay, variable brain anomalies, congenital heart defects, dysmorphism
Review for gene: MAPKAPK5 was set to GREEN
gene: MAPKAPK5 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: 3 individuals from 2 families with severe developmental delay, variable brain anomalies, congenital heart defects, dysmorphic facial features, and a distinctive type of synpolydactyly with an additional hypoplastic digit between the fourth and fifth digits of hands and/or feet. Exome sequencing identified different homozygous truncating variants in MAPKAPK5 in both families, segregating with disease and unaffected parents as carriers.

Patient-derived cells showed no expression of MAPKAPK5 protein isoforms and reduced levels of the MAPKAPK5-interacting protein ERK3. F-actin recovery after latrunculin B treatment was found to be less efficient in patient-derived fibroblasts than in control cells, supporting a role of MAPKAPK5 in F-actin polymerization.

Borderline Amber/Green but high impact variants and a distinctive phenotype with some functional data.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1018 FAR1 Zornitza Stark edited their review of gene: FAR1: Added comment: PMID 33239752: 12 patients with paediatric onset spastic paraparesis and bilateral congenital/juvenile cataracts. Most also had speech and gross motor developmental delay and truncal hypotonia. Exome sequencing identified de novo variants affecting the Arg480 residue in FAR1 (p.Arg480Cys/His/Leu). Further functional studies in fibroblasts showed that these variants cause a disruption of the plasmalogen-dependent feedback regulation of FAR1 protein levels leading to uncontrolled ether lipid production.; Changed rating: GREEN; Changed publications: 25439727, 33239752; Changed phenotypes: Peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 disorder, MIM#616154, spastic paraparesis and bilateral cataracts; Changed mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1018 NCDN Zornitza Stark gene: NCDN was added
gene: NCDN was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: NCDN was set to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: NCDN were set to 33711248
Phenotypes for gene: NCDN were set to Intellectual disability; epilepsy
Review for gene: NCDN was set to GREEN
Added comment: Four families reported, all with de novo missense variants except for 1 consanguineous family where 3 affecteds were homozygous and carrier parents unaffected. ID ranged from mild to severe, several had seizures. Green for mono-allelic disease, Red for bi-allelic.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1018 CDH11 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: CDH11: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33811546, 27431290, 28988429, 29271567, 33811546; Phenotypes: Elsahy-Waters syndrome, MIM# 211380, Teebi hypertelorism syndrome; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.1018 INPP4A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: INPP4A: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31978615, 31938306, 25338135, 20011524; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1018 LOXHD1 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: LOXHD1 was changed from BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1017 KCNH1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: KCNH1 were changed from Temple-Baraitser syndrome, OMIM:611816; Temple-Baraitser syndrome, MONDO:0012735; Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 1, OMIM:135500; Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 1, MONDO:0024526 to Temple-Baraitser syndrome, OMIM:611816; Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 1, OMIM:135500; Intellectual disability; Encephalopathy without features of TBS/ZLS
Intellectual disability v3.1016 KCNH1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: KCNH1 were set to 25420144; 33594261
Intellectual disability v3.1015 KCNH1 Arina Puzriakova edited their review of gene: KCNH1: Changed phenotypes: Intellectual disability, Encephalopathy without features of TBS/ZLS
Intellectual disability v3.1015 KCNH1 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: KCNH1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33811134; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.1015 COPB1 Zornitza Stark gene: COPB1 was added
gene: COPB1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: COPB1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: COPB1 were set to 33632302
Phenotypes for gene: COPB1 were set to Baralle-Macken syndrome, MIM# 619255; Severe intellectual disability; variable microcephaly; cataracts
Review for gene: COPB1 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Two unrelated families, some supportive functional data.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.1015 IRF2BPL Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: IRF2BPL were changed from Neurodevelopmental disorder with regression, abnormal movements, loss of speech, and seizures; Global developmental delay, Developmental regression, Seizures, Ataxia to Neurodevelopmental disorder with regression, abnormal movements, loss of speech, and seizures OMIM:618088; neurodevelopmental disorder with regression, abnormal movements, loss of speech, and seizures MONDO:0060759
Intellectual disability v3.1014 FBXL4 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on phenotypes: FATAL ENCEPHALOPATHY, LACTIC ACIDOSIS, AND SEVERE MTDNA DEPLETION IN MUSCLE
Intellectual disability v3.1014 FBXL4 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: FBXL4 were changed from Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 13 (encephalomyopathic type), 615471; FATAL ENCEPHALOPATHY, LACTIC ACIDOSIS, AND SEVERE MTDNA DEPLETION IN MUSCLE to Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 13 (encephalomyopathic type) OMIM:615471; mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 13 MONDO:0014198
Intellectual disability v3.1013 EBF3 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: EBF3 were changed from Hypotonia, ataxia, and delayed development syndrome 617330 to Hypotonia, ataxia, and delayed development syndrome OMIM:617330; hypotonia, ataxia, and delayed development syndrome MONDO:0015021
Intellectual disability v3.1012 DOCK3 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: DOCK3 were changed from Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, and ataxia, 618292 to Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, and ataxia OMIM:618292; neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, and ataxia MONDO:0032661
Intellectual disability v3.1011 KCNQ2 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: KCNQ2 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.1010 KCNQ2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: KCNQ2 were changed from Seizures, benign neonatal, 1, 121200Myokymia, 121200Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 7, 613720; BENIGN NEONATAL EPILEPSY TYPE 1 (EBN1) to Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 7, OMIM:613720
Intellectual disability v3.1009 FAR1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: FAR1 were set to 0
Intellectual disability v3.1008 FAR1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: FAR1 were changed from SEVERE INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY, EPILEPSY, AND CATARACTS to Peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 disorder, OMIM:616154
Intellectual disability v3.1007 LARS2 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: LARS2 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.1006 LARS2 Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: While are a few cases with neurological symptoms including developmental delay have been reported, this manifestation is part of a broader phenotype where cognitive impairment is unlikely to represent a main feature. In the majority of cases, cognitive function is preserved.

Therefore, rating Amber on this panel. The phenotypes associated with LARS2 are better represented in other panels (e.g. Hearing loss) where this gene is already Green.; to: Comment on list classification: While a few cases with neurological symptoms including developmental delay or neurologic decline have been reported (PMID: 29205794; 30737337; 32442335), this manifestation is part of a broader phenotype where cognitive impairment is unlikely to represent the main feature. In the majority of cases, cognitive function is preserved.

Therefore, rating Amber on this panel. The phenotypes associated with LARS2 are better represented in other panels (e.g. Hearing loss) where this gene is already Green.
Intellectual disability v3.1006 LARS2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: LARS2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.1006 LARS2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: While are a few cases with neurological symptoms including developmental delay have been reported, this manifestation is part of a broader phenotype where cognitive impairment is unlikely to represent a main feature. In the majority of cases, cognitive function is preserved.

Therefore, rating Amber on this panel. The phenotypes associated with LARS2 are better represented in other panels (e.g. Hearing loss) where this gene is already Green.
Intellectual disability v3.1006 LARS2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: lars2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.1005 LARS2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: LARS2 were changed from to Perrault syndrome 4, OMIM:615300; Hydrops, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia, OMIM:617021; Leukodystrophy
Intellectual disability v3.1004 LARS2 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: LARS2 was changed from to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1003 NCKAP1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NCKAP1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33157009; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, autism; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.1003 LARS2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: LARS2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29205794, 32423379, 30737337, 26537577, 23541342; Phenotypes: Perrault syndrome 4, Hydrops, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia, MIM# 617021, Leukodystrophy; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1003 DPYS Zornitza Stark gene: DPYS was added
gene: DPYS was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Expert Review
Mode of inheritance for gene: DPYS was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Phenotypes for gene: DPYS were set to Dihydropyrimidinuria, MIM#222748
Review for gene: DPYS was set to GREEN
gene: DPYS was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Highly variable phenotype, but many have ID.
Sources: Expert Review
Intellectual disability v3.1003 DPM2 Zornitza Stark edited their review of gene: DPM2: Added comment: Further unrelated individual reported, main clinical features were truncal hypotonia, hypertonicity, congenital heart defects, intellectual disability, and generalized muscle wasting.; Changed rating: GREEN; Changed publications: 23109149, 33129689
Intellectual disability v3.1003 B4GALT1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: B4GALT1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 11901181, 30653653, 21920538; Phenotypes: Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Iid, MIM#607091; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.1003 AGO1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: AGO1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30213762, 22495306, 23020937, 25363768, 25356899, 27620904, 29346770, 28135719; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, autism; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.1003 CLN5 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: CLN5 were changed from Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 5, 256731; NEURONAL CEROID LIPOFUSCINOSIS TYPE 5 (CLN5) to Ceroid lipofuscinosis, neuronal, 5 OMIM:256731; neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 5 MONDO:0009745
Intellectual disability v3.1002 BBS1 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: BBS1 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.1001 BBS1 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: BBS1 were changed from Bardet-Biedl syndrome 1, 209900; BARDET-BIEDL SYNDROME TYPE 1 (BBS1) to Bardet-Biedl syndrome 1 OMIM:209900; Bardet-Biedl syndrome 1 MONDO:0008854
Intellectual disability v3.1000 ATP8A2 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: ATP8A2 were set to 22892528; 27679995; 30012219; 29531481; 29531481; 31612321
Intellectual disability v3.999 ATP8A2 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: ATP8A2 were set to 22892528; 27679995; 30012219; 29531481
Intellectual disability v3.998 ATP8A2 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: ATP8A2 were changed from ?Cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and dysequilibrium syndrome 4 615268; intellectual disability to ?Cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and dysequilibrium syndrome 4 OMIM:615268; cerebellar ataxia, mental retardation, and dysequilibrium syndrome 4 MONDO:0014104
Intellectual disability v3.997 SPEN Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: SPEN were set to 33057194
Intellectual disability v3.996 SPEN Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SPEN as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.996 SPEN Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is now enough evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next review - sufficient cases (>20) with truncating SPEN variants and GDD/ID of relevant severity to this panel.
Intellectual disability v3.996 SPEN Arina Puzriakova Gene: spen has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.995 SPEN Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: SPEN.
Intellectual disability v3.995 MED27 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: MED27 were changed from Intellectual disability; cerebellar hypoplasia; dystonia to Intellectual disability; Axial hypotonia; Spasticity; Dystonia; Cerebellar hypoplasia; Cataracts; Epilepsy
Intellectual disability v3.994 MED27 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: MED27 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.994 MED27 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is sufficient evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next review - at least 11 unrelated families reported with MED27 variants presenting overlapping phenotypes that include ID of relevant severity to this panel.
Intellectual disability v3.994 MED27 Arina Puzriakova Gene: med27 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.993 MED27 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: MED27.
Intellectual disability v3.993 MED27 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: MED27: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33443317; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, Axial hypotonia, Spasticity, Dystonia, Cerebellar hypoplasia, Cataracts, Epilepsy; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.993 EIF5A Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: EIF5A.
Intellectual disability v3.993 EIF5A Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: EIF5A as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.993 EIF5A Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence to rate this gene Green at the next review - PMID: 33547280 (2021) reports 7 unrelated individuals with different de novo heterozygous variants in the EIF5A gene. All were affected by variable degrees of DD and/or ID, mostly within the moderate severity range. Other features such as microcephaly and craniofacial dysmorphism were prominent but overall, the phenotype is best represented by this panel. Supportive functional data included.

EIF5A is currently not associated with any phenotype in OMIM (last edited on 18/07/2019), but is listed in Gene2Phenotype with a 'probable' disease confidence rating for 'EIF5A-related craniofacial-neurodevelopmental disorder'
Intellectual disability v3.993 EIF5A Arina Puzriakova Gene: eif5a has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.992 RAD50 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: RAD50 were changed from Nijmegen breakage syndrome-like disorder, 613078 to Nijmegen breakage syndrome-like disorder, OMIM:613078
Intellectual disability v3.991 RAD50 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: RAD50 were set to 1887849; 19409520; 32212377
Intellectual disability v3.990 RAD50 Arina Puzriakova edited their review of gene: RAD50: Added comment: - PMID: 33378670 (2020) - single patient described with bone marrow failure, immunodeficiency and developmental defects, who was compound heterozygous for a frameshift and premature stop codon (c.2165dup; p.Glu723Glyfs∗5 - maternally inherited) and in-frame deletion (c.3109_3111del; p.Glu1035del - de novo) in the RAD50 gene.
Functional characterisation using patient-derived fibroblasts indicated defects in DNA replication, DNA repair, and DNA end resection; however, ATM-dependent DNA damage response remained intact. Studies in yeast modelling the variant corresponding to p.Glu1035del produced defects in both DNA repair and Tel1ATM-dependent signalling following thermal activation.

This is the third case published with biallelic variants in the RAD50 gene. Although authors report 'developmental defects', it is unclear whether this individual displayed cognitive impairment. Therefore, maintaining the Red gene rating on this panel.; Changed rating: RED; Changed publications: 19409520, 32212377, 33378670; Changed phenotypes: Nijmegen breakage syndrome-like disorder, OMIM:613078; Changed mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.990 ALDH5A1 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: ALDH5A1 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.989 ALDH5A1 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: ALDH5A1 were changed from Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency, 271980; SUCCINATE SEMIALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY to Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency OMIM:271980; succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency MONDO:0010083
Intellectual disability v3.988 GNB1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: GNB1 were changed from Intellectual disability; developmental delay; Global developmental delay to Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 42, OMIM:616973
Intellectual disability v3.987 ADPRHL2 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: ADPRHL2 were changed from Developmental regression; Seizures; Ataxia; Intellectual disability to Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, stress-induced, with variable ataxia and seizures OMIM:618170; neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, stress-induced, with variable ataxia and seizures MONDO:0100095
Intellectual disability v3.986 ADPRHL2 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: ADPRHL2 were set to 30100084
Intellectual disability v3.985 TMPRSS9 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on mode of inheritance: Rating this gene Red as second case is based on unpublished results, but with a watchlist tag as new data on this gene-disease association may become available soon.
Intellectual disability v3.985 TMPRSS9 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: TMPRSS9 was changed from BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.984 TMPRSS9 Arina Puzriakova gene: TMPRSS9 was added
gene: TMPRSS9 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Other
watchlist tags were added to gene: TMPRSS9.
Mode of inheritance for gene: TMPRSS9 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: TMPRSS9 were set to 31943016
Phenotypes for gene: TMPRSS9 were set to Progressive intellectual and neurological deterioration; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autism; Epilepsy
Review for gene: TMPRSS9 was set to RED
Added comment: TMPRSS9 is currently not associated with any phenotype in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype.

- PMID: 31943016 (2020) - Single female subject with compound heterozygous nonsense variants (paternal: c.286C>T, p.R96*; maternal: c.1267C>T; p.R423*) in TMPRSS9. Early childhood development was normal until 2.5 years of age when she experienced profound developmental regression, including speech, social interaction and motor skills, resulting in ASD and profound ID. Knockout mice showed decreased social interest and recognition, and additionally borderline recognition memory deficit in aged female mice.

- Conference poster (Genomics of Rare Disease 2021) - 'ZOEMBA: combining metabolomics and genomics data to solve the unsolved' by Oud et al, United for Metabolic Diseases (UMD), Netherlands -
Trio WES revealed compound heterozygous variants (paternal: c.143-1G>A, p.?; maternal: c.1864G>A; p.V622M) in the TMPRSS9 gene in a female proband with GDD, PIND, aggression, autism and epilepsy. The individual was recruited on the basis of 'suspicion of an inherited metabolic disorder and extensive genetic and metabolic work-up with no diagnosis'.
Sources: Other
Intellectual disability v3.983 DDB1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: DDB1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.983 DDB1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next review - sufficient unrelated cases (8) presenting consistent features primarily characterised by ID/DD and hypotonia, supported by functional data (PMID:33743206)
Intellectual disability v3.983 DDB1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: ddb1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.982 DDB1 Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: - PMID: 33743206 (2021) - 8 unrelated individuals with de novo variants in DDB1, including one recurrent variant in four individuals (c.637G>A, p.Glu213Lys) and two different substitutions at the same amino acid residue (p.Arg188Trp and p.Arg188Gln). Clinical features were consistent and include hypotonia (7/8) and mild-moderate developmental delay or intellectual disability (8/8) and similar facial gestalt. Brachydactyly was common and most noticeable in the feet (6/8), and two individuals had cutaneous toe syndactyly. All three older individuals had a BMI in the obese range for their age. Functional studies using patient-derived lymphoblasts showed altered DDB1 function resulting in abnormal DNA damage signatures and histone methylation following UV-induced DNA damage.
Sources: Literature; to: - PMID: 33743206 (2021) - 8 unrelated individuals with de novo variants in DDB1, including one recurrent variant in four individuals (c.637G>A, p.Glu213Lys) and two different substitutions at the same amino acid residue (p.Arg188Trp and p.Arg188Gln). Clinical features were consistent and include hypotonia (7/8) and mild-moderate developmental delay or intellectual disability (8/8) and similar facial gestalt. Brachydactyly was common and most noticeable in the feet (6/8), and two individuals had cutaneous toe syndactyly. All three older individuals had a BMI in the obese range for their age. Functional studies using patient-derived lymphoblasts showed altered DDB1 function resulting in abnormal DNA damage signatures and histone methylation following UV-induced DNA damage.

Variants in other CRL4 complex components, such as CUL4B (MIM# 300304) and PHIP (MIM# 612870), have been shown to cause overlapping phenotypes consisting of syndromic ID with hypotonia and obesity.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.982 DDB1 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: DDB1.
Intellectual disability v3.982 DDB1 Arina Puzriakova gene: DDB1 was added
gene: DDB1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: DDB1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: DDB1 were set to 33743206
Phenotypes for gene: DDB1 were set to Intellectual disability
Review for gene: DDB1 was set to GREEN
Added comment: - PMID: 33743206 (2021) - 8 unrelated individuals with de novo variants in DDB1, including one recurrent variant in four individuals (c.637G>A, p.Glu213Lys) and two different substitutions at the same amino acid residue (p.Arg188Trp and p.Arg188Gln). Clinical features were consistent and include hypotonia (7/8) and mild-moderate developmental delay or intellectual disability (8/8) and similar facial gestalt. Brachydactyly was common and most noticeable in the feet (6/8), and two individuals had cutaneous toe syndactyly. All three older individuals had a BMI in the obese range for their age. Functional studies using patient-derived lymphoblasts showed altered DDB1 function resulting in abnormal DNA damage signatures and histone methylation following UV-induced DNA damage.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.981 GSPT2 Arina Puzriakova Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: GSPT2.
Intellectual disability v3.981 GSPT2 Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: GSPT2
Intellectual disability v3.981 PIGU Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: PIGU were changed from Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect 2, 618590; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Cerebral atrophy; Cerebellar hypoplasia; Scoliosis to Neurodevelopmental disorder with brain anomalies, seizures, and scoliosis, OMIM:618590
Intellectual disability v3.980 SMARCB1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SMARCB1 were changed from Rhabdoid tumors, somatic, 609322Rhabdoid predisposition syndrome 1, 609322Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 15, 614608; RHABDOID PREDISPOSITION SYNDROME 1 to Coffin-Siris syndrome 3, OMIM:614608
Intellectual disability v3.979 SMARCA4 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on phenotypes: This gene is also associated with {Rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome 2}, OMIM:613325
Intellectual disability v3.979 SMARCA4 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SMARCA4 were changed from Rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome 2, 613325Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 16, 614609; COFFIN SIRIS to Coffin-Siris syndrome 4, OMIM:614609
Intellectual disability v3.978 POLD1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: POLD1 were changed from {Colorectal cancer, susceptibility to, 10}, 612591; Mandibular; hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features, and lipodystrophy syndrome, 615381 to {Colorectal cancer, susceptibility to, 10}, 612591; Mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features, and lipodystrophy syndrome, 615381
Intellectual disability v3.977 SIAH1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SIAH1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.977 SIAH1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There are sufficient unrelated cases (5) to promote this gene to Green at the next GMS panel update. Developmental delay, including cognitive impairment, was a key presenting feature of the disease phenotype. Inclusion on this panel would also cover the infantile hypotonia element as the ID panel is a component panel of the 'Hypotonic infant, R69' super panel.
Intellectual disability v3.977 SIAH1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: siah1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.976 SIAH1 Arina Puzriakova gene: SIAH1 was added
gene: SIAH1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Q2_21_rating tags were added to gene: SIAH1.
Mode of inheritance for gene: SIAH1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: SIAH1 were set to 32430360
Phenotypes for gene: SIAH1 were set to Developmental delay; Infantile hypotonia; Dysmorphic features; Laryngomalacia
Review for gene: SIAH1 was set to GREEN
Added comment: - PMID: 32430360 (2021) - Five unrelated individuals with shared features of developmental delay, infantile hypotonia, dysmorphic features and laryngomalacia. All had speech delay and where cognitive assessment was age appropriate individuals exhibited learning difficulties. Trio WES revealed distinct de novo variants in SIAH1. In vitro assays demonstrated that SIAH1 mutants induce loss of Wnt stimulatory activity.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.975 EIF5A Zornitza Stark gene: EIF5A was added
gene: EIF5A was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: EIF5A was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: EIF5A were set to 33547280
Phenotypes for gene: EIF5A were set to Intellectual disability; microcephaly; dysmorphism
Review for gene: EIF5A was set to GREEN
Added comment: 7 unrelated individuals reported with de novo variants in this gene and variable combinations of developmental delay, microcephaly, micrognathia and dysmorphism.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.975 MED27 Zornitza Stark gene: MED27 was added
gene: MED27 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: MED27 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: MED27 were set to 33443317
Phenotypes for gene: MED27 were set to Intellectual disability; cerebellar hypoplasia; dystonia
Review for gene: MED27 was set to GREEN
gene: MED27 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: 16 patients from 11 families reported
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.975 SPEN Zornitza Stark edited their review of gene: SPEN: Added comment: PMID: 33596411
- 34 individuals with truncating variants in SPEN reported, most are de novo variants.
- Clinical profile includes developmental delay/intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, aggressive behavior, attention deficit disorder, hypotonia, brain and spine anomalies, congenital heart defects, high/narrow palate, facial dysmorphisms, and obesity/increased BMI, especially in females.
- Authors showed haploinsufficiency of SPEN is associated with a distinctive DNA methylation episignature of the X chromosome in affected females.; Changed rating: GREEN; Changed publications: 33057194, 33596411; Changed phenotypes: Developmental delay/intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, aggressive behavior, attention deficit disorder, hypotonia, brain and spine anomalies, congenital heart defects, high/narrow palate, facial dysmorphisms, and obesity/increased BMI; Set current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.975 ERBB4 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: ERBB4 were set to 33603162; 23633123; 15219717; 30498032
Intellectual disability v3.974 ERBB4 Sarah Leigh Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: ERBB4.
Intellectual disability v3.974 ERBB4 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: ERBB4 were set to 33603162; 23633123
Intellectual disability v3.973 ERBB4 Sarah Leigh changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review depending on the interpretation of structural variants.; to: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review depending on the interpretation of copy number variants.
Intellectual disability v3.973 ERBB4 Sarah Leigh edited their review of gene: ERBB4: Added comment: Not associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM or Gen2Phen. PMID 33603162 reports that at least six 2q34 deletions resulting in exon loss in ERBB4 may cause autosomal dominant mild to moderate developmental delay, ID or epilepsy. Rhodent knock out models support this finding (PMID 15219717;30498032).; Changed rating: GREEN; Changed publications: 15219717, 30498032; Changed mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.973 ERBB4 Sarah Leigh Classified gene: ERBB4 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.973 ERBB4 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review depending on the interpretation of structural variants.
Intellectual disability v3.973 ERBB4 Sarah Leigh Gene: erbb4 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.972 ERBB4 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on phenotypes: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 19 615515 is not appropriate for this panel At present there is no precise ID phenotype associated with variants in this gene.
Intellectual disability v3.972 ERBB4 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: ERBB4 were changed from intellectual disability; epilepsy to intellectual disability MONDO:0001071
Intellectual disability v3.971 ERBB4 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: ERBB4 were set to 33603162; 23633123
Intellectual disability v3.971 ERBB4 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: ERBB4 were set to 33603162
Intellectual disability v3.970 SETD1B Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: SETD1B were set to 29322246; 27106595; 25428890; 31110234
Intellectual disability v3.969 SETD1B Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SETD1B were changed from Epilepsy, developmental delay, intellectual disability, autistic behavior and craniofacial dysmorphic features to Intellectual developmental disorder with seizures and language delay, OMIM:619000; Intellectual developmental disorder with seizures and language delay, MONDO:0033559
Intellectual disability v3.968 ACO2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: ACO2 were changed from INFANTILE CEREBELLAR-RETINAL DEGENERATION to Infantile cerebellar-retinal degeneration, OMIM:614559; Infantile cerebellar-retinal degeneration, MONDO:0013802
Intellectual disability v3.967 KCNN3 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: KCNN3 were set to 31155282
Intellectual disability v3.966 KCNN3 Arina Puzriakova edited their review of gene: KCNN3: Added comment: Now at least 6 unrelated individuals with different gain-of-function KCNN3 variants (PMIDs: 31155282 and 33594261). Phenotypes include mild-to-moderate DD and/or ID.; Changed publications: 31155282, 33594261
Intellectual disability v3.966 PPP2R2B_CAG Arina Puzriakova Tag curated_removed tag was added to STR: PPP2R2B_CAG.
Intellectual disability v3.966 CSTB_CCCCGCCCCGCG Arina Puzriakova Tag curated_removed tag was added to STR: CSTB_CCCCGCCCCGCG.
Intellectual disability v3.966 C9orf72_GGGGCC Arina Puzriakova Tag curated_removed tag was added to STR: C9orf72_GGGGCC.
Intellectual disability v3.966 ATXN7_CAG Arina Puzriakova Tag curated_removed tag was added to STR: ATXN7_CAG.
Intellectual disability v3.966 ATXN3_CAG Arina Puzriakova Tag curated_removed tag was added to STR: ATXN3_CAG.
Intellectual disability v3.966 ATXN1_CAG Arina Puzriakova Tag curated_removed tag was added to STR: ATXN1_CAG.
Intellectual disability v3.966 FXN_GAA Arina Puzriakova Tag curated_removed tag was added to STR: FXN_GAA.
Intellectual disability v3.966 ATXN10_ATTCT Arina Puzriakova Tag curated_removed tag was added to STR: ATXN10_ATTCT.
Intellectual disability v3.966 ATXN2_CAG Arina Puzriakova Tag curated_removed tag was added to STR: ATXN2_CAG.
Intellectual disability v3.966 KCNN3 Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Comment on mode of pathogenicity: Gain-of-function variants identified in all patients, reported to date.; to: Comment on mode of pathogenicity: Gain-of-function variants identified in all patients reported to date.
Intellectual disability v3.966 KCNN3 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: KCNN3 were changed from Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 3; OMIM# 618658 to Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 3, OMIM:618658
Intellectual disability v3.965 KCNH1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: KCNH1 were set to 25420144
Intellectual disability v3.964 KCNH1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: KCNH1 were changed from TEMPLE BARRAISTER SYNDROME to Temple-Baraitser syndrome, OMIM:611816; Temple-Baraitser syndrome, MONDO:0012735; Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 1, OMIM:135500; Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 1, MONDO:0024526
Intellectual disability v3.963 ERBB4 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_NHS_review tag was added to gene: ERBB4.
Intellectual disability v3.963 CXorf56 Catherine Snow Tag new-gene-name tag was added to gene: CXorf56.
Intellectual disability v3.963 CXorf56 Catherine Snow commented on gene: CXorf56
Intellectual disability v3.963 MPP5 Catherine Snow Tag new-gene-name tag was added to gene: MPP5.
Intellectual disability v3.963 MPP5 Catherine Snow commented on gene: MPP5
Intellectual disability v3.963 ARMC4 Catherine Snow Tag new-gene-name tag was added to gene: ARMC4.
Intellectual disability v3.963 ARMC4 Catherine Snow commented on gene: ARMC4
Intellectual disability v3.963 CCDC114 Catherine Snow Tag new-gene-name tag was added to gene: CCDC114.
Intellectual disability v3.963 CCDC114 Catherine Snow commented on gene: CCDC114
Intellectual disability v3.963 C12orf65 Catherine Snow Tag new-gene-name tag was added to gene: C12orf65.
Intellectual disability v3.963 C12orf65 Catherine Snow commented on gene: C12orf65
Intellectual disability v3.963 FAM160B1 Catherine Snow Tag new-gene-name tag was added to gene: FAM160B1.
Intellectual disability v3.963 FAM160B1 Catherine Snow commented on gene: FAM160B1
Intellectual disability v3.963 LRRC6 Catherine Snow Tag new-gene-name tag was added to gene: LRRC6.
Intellectual disability v3.963 LRRC6 Catherine Snow commented on gene: LRRC6
Intellectual disability v3.963 CDK19 Sarah Leigh edited their review of gene: CDK19: Added comment: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review.; Changed rating: GREEN
Intellectual disability v3.963 ERBB4 Julia Baptista gene: ERBB4 was added
gene: ERBB4 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: ERBB4 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: ERBB4 were set to 33603162
Phenotypes for gene: ERBB4 were set to intellectual disability; epilepsy
Penetrance for gene: ERBB4 were set to Incomplete
Review for gene: ERBB4 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Heterozygous intragenic multi-exonic ERBB4 deletions were identified in nine individuals from five unrelated families. Affected individuals had either non-syndromic ID or generalised epilepsy.
The deletion segregated with the phenotype in five affected individuals in one family, it was de novo in a second family and the inheritance was unknown in two families. In the fifth family, the deletion was inherited from a normal parent.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.963 KCNH1 Julia Baptista reviewed gene: KCNH1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33594261; Phenotypes: Temple-Baraitser syndrome, Zimmermann-Laband syndrome 1; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.963 KCNN3 Julia Baptista reviewed gene: KCNN3: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Other; Publications: 33594261; Phenotypes: developmental delay, ID, hypotonia, gingival enlargement, hypertrichosis, nail anomalies; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.963 CDK19 Julia Baptista changed review comment from: De novo missense variants mapped to the kinase domain of CDK19 were described in 11 unrelated individuals (age range: 9 months to 14 years).Two recurrent changes at residues Tyr32 and Gly28 were identified.
One additional case report (PMID:33568421) described a 10-month-old male patient who presented with a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by infantile spasms and a de novo missense variant c.92C>A (p.Thr31Asn) (also in the kinase domain). This brings the total of cases reported in the literature to 15.; to: De novo missense variants mapped to the kinase domain of CDK19 were described in 11 unrelated individuals (age range: 9 months to 14 years).Two recurrent changes at residues Tyr32 and Gly28 were identified.
One additional case report (PMID:33568421) described a 10-month-old male patient who presented with a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by infantile spasms and a de novo missense variant c.92C>A (p.Thr31Asn) (also in the kinase domain). This brings the total of cases reported in the literature to 15.
Intellectual disability v3.963 CDK19 Julia Baptista reviewed gene: CDK19: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: PMID: 33495529, 33568421, 32330417; Phenotypes: developmental delay, hypotonia, seizures, autism/autistic traits; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.963 CLP1 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: CLP1 were changed from PONTOCEREBELLAR HYPOPLASIA, TYPE 10 to Pontocerebellar hypoplasia 10 OMIM:615803; Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 10 MONDO:0014349
Intellectual disability v3.962 CLP1 Sarah Leigh Tag founder-effect tag was added to gene: CLP1.
Intellectual disability v3.962 ATCAY Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: ATCAY
Intellectual disability v3.961 ANO3 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: ANO3
Intellectual disability v3.960 ADGRV1 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: ADGRV1
Intellectual disability v3.959 ABHD12 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: ABHD12
Intellectual disability v3.958 CDK16 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: CDK16
Intellectual disability v3.957 ZC3H14 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: ZC3H14
Intellectual disability v3.956 XPA Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: XPA
Intellectual disability v3.955 USP27X Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: USP27X
Intellectual disability v3.953 TUBGCP4 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: TUBGCP4
Intellectual disability v3.952 TRAPPC11 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: TRAPPC11
Intellectual disability v3.951 TMEM231 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: TMEM231
Intellectual disability v3.950 SRGAP3 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: SRGAP3
Intellectual disability v3.949 SMARCD2 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: SMARCD2
Intellectual disability v3.947 SACS Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: SACS
Intellectual disability v3.946 RAX Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: RAX
Intellectual disability v3.945 WT1 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: WT1
Intellectual disability v3.944 NUP62 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: NUP62
Intellectual disability v3.943 NDUFAF2 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: NDUFAF2
Intellectual disability v3.942 MIR17HG Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: MIR17HG
Intellectual disability v3.941 VPS35 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: VPS35
Intellectual disability v3.940 TTPA Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: TTPA
Intellectual disability v3.939 MAPK10 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: MAPK10
Intellectual disability v3.938 TTC7A Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: TTC7A
Intellectual disability v3.937 TTBK2 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: TTBK2
Intellectual disability v3.936 KLHL15 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: KLHL15
Intellectual disability v3.935 HAX1 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: HAX1
Intellectual disability v3.934 TGM6 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: TGM6
Intellectual disability v3.933 TFG Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: TFG
Intellectual disability v3.932 TFAP2B Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: TFAP2B
Intellectual disability v3.931 TFAP2A Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: TFAP2A
Intellectual disability v3.930 TBP Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: TBP
Intellectual disability v3.929 TARDBP Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: TARDBP
Intellectual disability v3.928 STUB1 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: STUB1
Intellectual disability v3.927 PLEC Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PLEC
Intellectual disability v3.926 SPG7 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: SPG7
Intellectual disability v3.926 PLCE1 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PLCE1
Intellectual disability v3.925 SPG21 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: SPG21
Intellectual disability v3.924 PINK1 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PINK1
Intellectual disability v3.923 SNCA Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: SNCA
Intellectual disability v3.922 PDYN Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PDYN
Intellectual disability v3.922 SMO Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: SMO
Intellectual disability v3.922 PDGFB Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PDGFB
Intellectual disability v3.921 PCYT1A Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PCYT1A
Intellectual disability v3.921 SLC20A2 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: SLC20A2
Intellectual disability v3.920 PARK7 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PARK7
Intellectual disability v3.919 SIGMAR1 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: SIGMAR1
Intellectual disability v3.919 PALB2 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PALB2
Intellectual disability v3.918 NPHS2 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: NPHS2
Intellectual disability v3.917 NOP56 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: NOP56
Intellectual disability v3.916 SH3TC2 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: SH3TC2
Intellectual disability v3.915 SGCE Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: SGCE
Intellectual disability v3.914 NIPA1 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: NIPA1
Intellectual disability v3.913 SETX Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: SETX
Intellectual disability v3.912 NHLRC1 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: NHLRC1
Intellectual disability v3.911 SCN9A Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: SCN9A
Intellectual disability v3.911 NHEJ1 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: NHEJ1
Intellectual disability v3.910 SCARB2 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: SCARB2
Intellectual disability v3.909 NEFL Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: NEFL
Intellectual disability v3.908 SBF2 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: SBF2
Intellectual disability v3.908 NDRG1 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: NDRG1
Intellectual disability v3.907 MTPAP Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: MTPAP
Intellectual disability v3.906 RTN2 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: RTN2
Intellectual disability v3.906 MTMR2 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: MTMR2
Intellectual disability v3.905 RNF216 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: RNF216
Intellectual disability v3.904 RIPK4 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: RIPK4
Intellectual disability v3.903 RFX6 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: RFX6
Intellectual disability v3.902 REEP2 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: REEP2
Intellectual disability v3.901 REEP1 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: REEP1
Intellectual disability v3.900 MPZ Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: MPZ
Intellectual disability v3.899 PSEN1 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PSEN1
Intellectual disability v3.899 MMP21 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: MMP21
Intellectual disability v3.898 MITF Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: MITF
Intellectual disability v3.897 PRX Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PRX
Intellectual disability v3.896 MECR Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: MECR
Intellectual disability v3.895 MARS2 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: MARS2
Intellectual disability v3.894 PRKRA Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PRKRA
Intellectual disability v3.894 MAFB Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: MAFB
Intellectual disability v3.893 LRRK2 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: LRRK2
Intellectual disability v3.893 PRKN Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PRKN
Intellectual disability v3.893 LOXHD1 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: LOXHD1
Intellectual disability v3.892 PRKCG Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PRKCG
Intellectual disability v3.892 LITAF Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: LITAF
Intellectual disability v3.891 PRICKLE2 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PRICKLE2
Intellectual disability v3.891 KIF1C Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: KIF1C
Intellectual disability v3.890 KCNE1 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: KCNE1
Intellectual disability v3.889 PRICKLE1 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PRICKLE1
Intellectual disability v3.889 KCNA1 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: KCNA1
Intellectual disability v3.888 ITGA3 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: ITGA3
Intellectual disability v3.887 PPP2R2B Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PPP2R2B
Intellectual disability v3.886 IGHMBP2 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: IGHMBP2
Intellectual disability v3.885 PNKD Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PNKD
Intellectual disability v3.884 DCTN1 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: DCTN1
Intellectual disability v3.883 DHODH Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: DHODH
Intellectual disability v3.882 DNM2 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: DNM2
Intellectual disability v3.881 EFHC1 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: EFHC1
Intellectual disability v3.880 EIF4G1 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: EIF4G1
Intellectual disability v3.879 ELOVL5 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: ELOVL5
Intellectual disability v3.878 EPM2A Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: EPM2A
Intellectual disability v3.877 FAM111B Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: FAM111B
Intellectual disability v3.876 GDAP1 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: GDAP1
Intellectual disability v3.875 GNAL Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: GNAL
Intellectual disability v3.874 GORAB Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: GORAB
Intellectual disability v3.873 GOSR2 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: GOSR2
Intellectual disability v3.872 GRN Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: GRN
Intellectual disability v3.871 MDH2 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: MDH2
Intellectual disability v3.870 KNL1 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: KNL1
Intellectual disability v3.869 KIAA0586 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: KIAA0586
Intellectual disability v3.868 HECW2 Ivone Leong commented on gene: HECW2
Intellectual disability v3.868 HECW2 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: HECW2 were changed from Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, seizures, and absent language to Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, seizures, and absent language, OMIM:617268
Intellectual disability v3.867 HECW2 Ivone Leong Mode of pathogenicity for gene: HECW2 was changed from to Other
Intellectual disability v3.866 HECW2 Ivone Leong Publications for gene: HECW2 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.865 HECW2 Ivone Leong gene: HECW2 was added
gene: HECW2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Expert Review Green,BRIDGE study SPEED NEURO Tier1 Gene,Victorian Clinical Genetics Services
Mode of inheritance for gene: HECW2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Phenotypes for gene: HECW2 were set to Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, seizures, and absent language
Intellectual disability v3.864 IFT140 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: IFT140
Intellectual disability v3.863 FLAD1 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: FLAD1
Intellectual disability v3.862 DNMT1 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: DNMT1
Intellectual disability v3.861 Ivone Leong removed gene:HECW2 from the panel
Intellectual disability v3.860 HACE1 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: HACE1
Intellectual disability v3.859 GRID2 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: GRID2
Intellectual disability v3.858 GLIS3 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: GLIS3
Intellectual disability v3.857 FGF12 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: FGF12
Intellectual disability v3.857 GJB1 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: GJB1
Intellectual disability v3.856 EBF3 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: EBF3
Intellectual disability v3.855 CHD4 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: CHD4
Intellectual disability v3.854 BRPF1 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: BRPF1
Intellectual disability v3.854 GBA2 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: GBA2
Intellectual disability v3.853 BMP4 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: BMP4
Intellectual disability v3.852 ACADS Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: ACADS
Intellectual disability v3.851 AAAS Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: AAAS
Intellectual disability v3.851 FRAS1 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: FRAS1
Intellectual disability v3.850 FAM120C Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: FAM120C
Intellectual disability v3.850 MBTPS2 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: MBTPS2
Intellectual disability v3.850 CSF1R Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: CSF1R
Intellectual disability v3.849 FAAH2 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: FAAH2
Intellectual disability v3.849 UBTF Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: UBTF
Intellectual disability v3.848 ERMARD Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: ERMARD
Intellectual disability v3.847 THOC2 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: THOC2
Intellectual disability v3.847 CRYGC Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: CRYGC
Intellectual disability v3.846 TECPR2 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: TECPR2
Intellectual disability v3.845 EPB41L1 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: EPB41L1
Intellectual disability v3.844 TAF1 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: TAF1
Intellectual disability v3.843 EEF1B2 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: EEF1B2
Intellectual disability v3.843 SZT2 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: SZT2
Intellectual disability v3.842 DPM3 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: DPM3
Intellectual disability v3.842 ST3GAL5 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: ST3GAL5
Intellectual disability v3.841 DLG2 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: DLG2
Intellectual disability v3.840 SMC3 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: SMC3
Intellectual disability v3.840 DLG1 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: DLG1
Intellectual disability v3.839 SMAD4 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: SMAD4
Intellectual disability v3.838 DIP2B Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: DIP2B
Intellectual disability v3.838 SLC33A1 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: SLC33A1
Intellectual disability v3.837 DDX53 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: DDX53
Intellectual disability v3.836 SERAC1 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: SERAC1
Intellectual disability v3.835 RTTN Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: RTTN
Intellectual disability v3.834 CYP7B1 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: CYP7B1
Intellectual disability v3.834 RLIM Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: RLIM
Intellectual disability v3.833 QARS Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: QARS
Intellectual disability v3.833 CHL1 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: CHL1
Intellectual disability v3.832 PYCR2 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: PYCR2
Intellectual disability v3.831 CEP63 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: CEP63
Intellectual disability v3.831 PYCR1 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: PYCR1
Intellectual disability v3.830 CD96 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: CD96
Intellectual disability v3.829 PUS1 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: PUS1
Intellectual disability v3.828 C9orf72 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: C9orf72
Intellectual disability v3.828 PUF60 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: PUF60
Intellectual disability v3.827 PEX11B Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: PEX11B
Intellectual disability v3.827 BEAN1 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: BEAN1
Intellectual disability v3.826 NTRK1 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: NTRK1
Intellectual disability v3.826 CRYBA4 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: CRYBA4
Intellectual disability v3.825 NFIA Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: NFIA
Intellectual disability v3.824 ATXN7 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: ATXN7
Intellectual disability v3.823 ATXN3 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: ATXN3
Intellectual disability v3.822 ATXN2 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: ATXN2
Intellectual disability v3.821 ATXN10 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: ATXN10
Intellectual disability v3.820 ATXN1 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: ATXN1
Intellectual disability v3.819 NDST1 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: NDST1
Intellectual disability v3.817 UNC80 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: UNC80
Intellectual disability v3.816 LONP1 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: LONP1
Intellectual disability v3.815 KMT2C Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: KMT2C
Intellectual disability v3.815 UBA5 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: UBA5
Intellectual disability v3.814 CDC45 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: CDC45
Intellectual disability v3.813 IER3IP1 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: IER3IP1
Intellectual disability v3.812 TRMT10A Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: TRMT10A
Intellectual disability v3.812 HIVEP2 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: HIVEP2
Intellectual disability v3.811 TMEM240 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: TMEM240
Intellectual disability v3.810 GMPPB Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: GMPPB
Intellectual disability v3.810 TBCD Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: TBCD
Intellectual disability v3.809 GFER Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: GFER
Intellectual disability v3.808 EMX2 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: EMX2
Intellectual disability v3.808 SPTBN2 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: SPTBN2
Intellectual disability v3.807 ELP2 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: ELP2
Intellectual disability v3.806 DNAJC19 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: DNAJC19
Intellectual disability v3.805 DAG1 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: DAG1
Intellectual disability v3.803 CRADD Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: CRADD
Intellectual disability v3.803 SPART Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: SPART
Intellectual disability v3.802 COG5 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: COG5
Intellectual disability v3.801 SON Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: SON
Intellectual disability v3.801 CLCN4 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: CLCN4
Intellectual disability v3.800 CHMP1A Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: CHMP1A
Intellectual disability v3.800 CCDC115 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: CCDC115
Intellectual disability v3.798 CAMK2A Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: CAMK2A
Intellectual disability v3.798 PRUNE1 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PRUNE1
Intellectual disability v3.797 CACNA1S Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: CACNA1S
Intellectual disability v3.797 CACNA1D Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: CACNA1D
Intellectual disability v3.796 CACNA1A Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: CACNA1A
Intellectual disability v3.795 PGAP1 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PGAP1
Intellectual disability v3.795 BRCA2 Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: BRCA2
Intellectual disability v3.794 BSCL2 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: BSCL2
Intellectual disability v3.792 PNPLA6 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PNPLA6
Intellectual disability v3.791 ATP6V0A2 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: ATP6V0A2
Intellectual disability v3.790 PDE4D Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PDE4D
Intellectual disability v3.789 ASL Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: ASL
Intellectual disability v3.789 ATP7B Sarah Leigh Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: ATP7B
Intellectual disability v3.787 PARN Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PARN
Intellectual disability v3.787 ARL13B Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: ARL13B
Intellectual disability v3.786 ARID2 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: ARID2
Intellectual disability v3.785 OPA3 Catherine Snow Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: OPA3
Intellectual disability v3.784 AP3B1 Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: AP3B1
Intellectual disability v3.783 PMP22 Arina Puzriakova Source: Expert Review Amber was removed from gene: PMP22
Intellectual disability v3.782 ADK Ivone Leong Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: ADK
Intellectual disability v3.781 CCDC186 Sarah Leigh Classified gene: CCDC186 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.781 CCDC186 Sarah Leigh Gene: ccdc186 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.780 CCDC186 Sarah Leigh changed review comment from: Not associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM or Gen2Phen. At least 2 terminating variants reported in unrelated cases.
Sources: Literature; to: Not associated with a relevant phenotype in OMIM or Gen2Phen. At least 2 terminating variants reported in cases with failure to thrive and developmental delay.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.780 CCDC186 Sarah Leigh gene: CCDC186 was added
gene: CCDC186 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
watchlist tags were added to gene: CCDC186.
Mode of inheritance for gene: CCDC186 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: CCDC186 were set to 33259146; 28600779
Phenotypes for gene: CCDC186 were set to failure to thrive and developmental delay
Review for gene: CCDC186 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Not associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM or Gen2Phen. At least 2 terminating variants reported in unrelated cases.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.779 LMBRD2 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on mode of pathogenicity: Both of the references for this entry suggest a gain-of-function action for LMBRD2 variants.
Intellectual disability v3.779 LMBRD2 Sarah Leigh Mode of pathogenicity for gene: LMBRD2 was changed from None to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Intellectual disability v3.778 ADAM22 Sarah Leigh Classified gene: ADAM22 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.778 ADAM22 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is just enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review, which may make it a boarderline case.
Intellectual disability v3.778 ADAM22 Sarah Leigh Gene: adam22 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.777 KCNN2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: KCNN2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.777 KCNN2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. There is enough evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next GMS panel update - variable degrees of cognitive impairment were a universal feature amongst individuals with KCNN2 variants (at least 10 unrelated cases with unique variants). Pathogenicity was supported by functional data.
Intellectual disability v3.777 KCNN2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: kcnn2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.776 KCNN2 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: KCNN2.
Intellectual disability v3.776 KCNN2 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: KCNN2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33242881; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.776 SATB1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: SATB1 were set to 33057194
Intellectual disability v3.775 SATB1 Arina Puzriakova Deleted their comment
Intellectual disability v3.775 SATB1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SATB1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.775 SATB1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is now enough evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next major review.
Intellectual disability v3.775 SATB1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: satb1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.775 SATB1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SATB1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.775 SATB1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is now enough evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next major review.
Intellectual disability v3.775 SATB1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: satb1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.774 SATB1 Arina Puzriakova Tag watchlist was removed from gene: SATB1.
Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: SATB1.
Intellectual disability v3.774 SATB1 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: SATB1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33513338; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.774 OTUD5 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: OTUD5 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.774 OTUD5 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. There is enough evidence to rate this gene Green at the next GMS panel update.

At least 8 families reported with a multiple congenital anomaly disorder and distinct hemizygous variants in this gene. GDD/ID is part of the disease presentation and was noted in all cases of relevant age (PMIDs: 33131077 and 33523931).
Intellectual disability v3.774 OTUD5 Arina Puzriakova Gene: otud5 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.773 OTUD5 Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: OTUD5.
Intellectual disability v3.773 OTUD5 Zornitza Stark changed review comment from: PMID 33523931: Another 10 individuals from 7 families reported, promote to Green. X-linked multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome (MCAND) is an X-linked recessive congenital multisystemic disorder characterized by poor growth, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, and variable abnormalities of the cardiac, skeletal, and genitourinary systems. Most affected individuals also have hypotonia and dysmorphic craniofacial features. Brain imaging typically shows enlarged ventricles and thin corpus callosum; some have microcephaly, whereas others have hydrocephalus. The severity of the disorder is highly variable, ranging from death in early infancy to survival into the second or third decade.; to: PMID 33523931: Another 10 individuals from 7 families reported. Key features include poor growth, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, and variable abnormalities of the cardiac, skeletal, and genitourinary systems. Most affected individuals also have hypotonia and dysmorphic craniofacial features. Brain imaging typically shows enlarged ventricles and thin corpus callosum; some have microcephaly, whereas others have hydrocephalus. The severity of the disorder is highly variable, ranging from death in early infancy to survival into the second or third decade.
Intellectual disability v3.773 OTUD5 Zornitza Stark edited their review of gene: OTUD5: Added comment: PMID 33523931: Another 10 individuals from 7 families reported, promote to Green. X-linked multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome (MCAND) is an X-linked recessive congenital multisystemic disorder characterized by poor growth, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, and variable abnormalities of the cardiac, skeletal, and genitourinary systems. Most affected individuals also have hypotonia and dysmorphic craniofacial features. Brain imaging typically shows enlarged ventricles and thin corpus callosum; some have microcephaly, whereas others have hydrocephalus. The severity of the disorder is highly variable, ranging from death in early infancy to survival into the second or third decade.; Changed rating: GREEN; Changed publications: 33131077, 33523931
Intellectual disability v3.773 PIGF Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Rating Red as 2 families with the same (likely founder) variant reported at present (PMID: 33386993). Phenotypes did include severe ID or DD, respectively - but additional cases with other variants in the LRRC32 gene required to substantiate causation (added founder-effect tag); to: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Rating Red as 2 families with the same (likely founder) variant reported at present (PMID: 33386993). Phenotypes did include severe ID or DD, respectively - but additional cases with other variants in the PIGF gene required to substantiate causation (added founder-effect tag)
Intellectual disability v3.773 PIGF Arina Puzriakova Tag founder-effect tag was added to gene: PIGF.
Intellectual disability v3.773 PIGF Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PIGF as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.773 PIGF Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Rating Red as 2 families with the same (likely founder) variant reported at present (PMID: 33386993). Phenotypes did include severe ID or DD, respectively - but additional cases with other variants in the LRRC32 gene required to substantiate causation (added founder-effect tag)
Intellectual disability v3.773 PIGF Arina Puzriakova Gene: pigf has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.772 OTUD5 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: OTUD5 were set to 33131077
Intellectual disability v3.771 OTUD5 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: OTUD5 were changed from X-linked severe neurodevelopmental delay, hydrocephalus, and early lethality to Multiple congenital anomalies-neurodevelopmental syndrome, X-linked, OMIM:301056
Intellectual disability v3.770 METAP1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: METAP1 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.770 METAP1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Rating Red as only one family reported at present (PMID:32764695). Phenotypes do include ID/DD, but additional cases required to corroborate this gene-disease association.
Intellectual disability v3.770 METAP1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: metap1 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.769 HPDL Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: HPDL as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.769 HPDL Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Evan Reid (University of Cambridge). There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated Green at the next major review.
Intellectual disability v3.769 HPDL Arina Puzriakova Gene: hpdl has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.768 HPDL Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: HPDL were set to PMID: 32707086; 33188300
Intellectual disability v3.767 HPDL Arina Puzriakova Tag Q2_21_rating tag was added to gene: HPDL.
Intellectual disability v3.767 HPDL Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: HPDL: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 32707086, 33188300; Phenotypes: Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive spasticity and brain white matter abnormalities, OMIM:619026, Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive spasticity and brain white matter abnormalities, MONDO:0033613; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.767 HPDL Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: HPDL were changed from spastic paraplegia; spastic tetraplegia; microcephaly; brain atrophy; epilepsy; severe intellectual; motor disability to Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive spasticity and brain white matter abnormalities, OMIM:619026; Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive spasticity and brain white matter abnormalities, MONDO:0033613
Intellectual disability v3.766 HIRA Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: HIRA as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.766 HIRA Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. At least 4 unrelated individuals with heterozygous variants in this gene - however, only 1 presented moderate ID (2 had ASD rather than ID, while the phenotype is unclear for the fourth individual). HIRA is a good candidate for neurodevelopmental impairment, supported by an animal model, but additional cases are required to ascertain the relevance of ID.

Therefore, at present there is only enough evidence to rate Amber awaiting further cases/clinical evidence (added 'watchlist' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.766 HIRA Arina Puzriakova Gene: hira has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.765 HIRA Arina Puzriakova Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: HIRA.
Intellectual disability v3.765 HIRA Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: HIRA: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 25363760, 28135719, 33417013; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.765 VPS4A Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: VPS4A were changed from developmental delay; intellectual disability; cerebellar hypoplasia; pontine hypoplasia; thin corpus callosum; microcephaly; growth retardation; congenital anaemia; dyserythropeoitic anaemia; dystonia; congenital cataracts; deafness to CIMDAG syndrome
Intellectual disability v3.764 B4GALNT1 Sarah Leigh Classified gene: B4GALNT1 as Green List (high evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.764 B4GALNT1 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on list classification: Associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM, but not associated with phenotype in Gen2Phen. At least eight variants reported in at least eight unrelated cases.
Intellectual disability v3.764 B4GALNT1 Sarah Leigh Gene: b4galnt1 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.763 B4GALNT1 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: B4GALNT1 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.762 B4GALNT1 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: B4GALNT1 were changed from ID; Spastic paraplegia 26, autosomal recessive to Spastic paraplegia 26, autosomal recessive OMIM:609195; hereditary spastic paraplegia 26 MONDO:0012213
Intellectual disability v3.761 PIGF Zornitza Stark gene: PIGF was added
gene: PIGF was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: PIGF was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: PIGF were set to 33386993
Phenotypes for gene: PIGF were set to Glycosylphosphatidylinositol deficiency, onychodystrophy, osteodystrophy, intellectual disability, and seizures
Review for gene: PIGF was set to RED
Added comment: The same homozygous missense variant identified in 2 individuals from different families from the same region of India. Individuals had a phenotype similar to DOORS syndrome without deafness. Impaired glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis was demonstrated.

Rated Red as the two families are likely to be related (founder mutation?).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.761 DDX58 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: DDX58: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.761 DDX58 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: DDX58 was changed from to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.760 HPDL Evan Reid gene: HPDL was added
gene: HPDL was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: HPDL was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: HPDL were set to PMID: 32707086; 33188300
Phenotypes for gene: HPDL were set to spastic paraplegia; spastic tetraplegia; microcephaly; brain atrophy; epilepsy; severe intellectual; motor disability
Penetrance for gene: HPDL were set to Complete
Review for gene: HPDL was set to GREEN
Added comment: Newly identified gene that can give a phenotype ranging from infantile epileptic encephalopathy with severe developmental delay/intellectual disability to juvenile onset progressive spastic paraplegia.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.760 TCTN3 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: TCTN3 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.759 TCTN3 Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: There is sufficient evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).

At least 3 unrelated cases with Joubert syndrome, presenting with ID, and biallelic variants in this gene (PMIDs: 22883145; 25118024; 26092869); to: Comment on list classification: There is sufficient evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).

Independent reports of at least 3 unrelated cases with Joubert syndrome, presenting with ID, and different biallelic variants in this gene (PMIDs: 22883145; 25118024; 26092869)
Intellectual disability v3.759 TCTN3 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: TCTN3 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.759 TCTN3 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is sufficient evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).

At least 3 unrelated cases with Joubert syndrome, presenting with ID, and biallelic variants in this gene (PMIDs: 22883145; 25118024; 26092869)
Intellectual disability v3.759 TCTN3 Arina Puzriakova Gene: tctn3 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.758 PRUNE1 Eleanor Williams Phenotypes for gene: PRUNE1 were changed from Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, and variable brain anomalies, 617481; NMIHBA; Complex neurological syndrome to Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, and variable brain anomalies OMIM:617481; neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, and variable brain anomalies MONDO:0060490; NMIHBA; Complex neurological syndrome
Intellectual disability v3.757 PRUNE1 Eleanor Williams Publications for gene: PRUNE1 were set to 26539891; 28334956
Intellectual disability v3.756 PRUNE1 Eleanor Williams reviewed gene: PRUNE1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33105479; Phenotypes: Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, and variable brain anomalies OMIM:617481, neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, and variable brain anomalies MONDO:0060490; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.756 TCTN3 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: TCTN3.
Intellectual disability v3.756 VPS4A Arina Puzriakova edited their review of gene: VPS4A: Changed publications: 33186545, 33186543, 33460484
Intellectual disability v3.756 VPS4A Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: VPS4A as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.756 VPS4A Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Evan Reid (University of Cambridge). At least 5 different variants reported in 10 unrelated individuals with a comparable phenotype, including severe-to-profound ID/DD. Pathogenicity is supported by functional data.

There is enough evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.756 VPS4A Arina Puzriakova Gene: vps4a has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.755 VPS4A Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on mode of inheritance: Setting MOI to 'Monoallelic' as only one biallelic case reported to date, and patients with biallelic variants would still be picked up by the Genomics England pipeline.
Intellectual disability v3.755 VPS4A Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: VPS4A was changed from MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.754 VPS4A Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: VPS4A: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments; Publications: 33186545, 33186543; Phenotypes: CIMDAG syndrome; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.754 VPS4A Ivone Leong Tag for-review tag was added to gene: VPS4A.
Intellectual disability v3.754 VPS4A Ivone Leong Classified gene: VPS4A as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.754 VPS4A Ivone Leong Gene: vps4a has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.753 VPS4A Ivone Leong Publications for gene: VPS4A were set to (PMID: 33186545; 33186543; 33460484)
Intellectual disability v3.752 ADAM22 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: ADAM22 were changed from to ?Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 61 OMIM:617933; developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 61 MONDO:0033370
Intellectual disability v3.751 ADAM22 Sarah Leigh Tag for-review tag was added to gene: ADAM22.
Intellectual disability v3.751 ADAM22 Sarah Leigh reviewed gene: ADAM22: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.751 VPS4A Evan Reid changed review comment from: Multiple families (now 10) described with a consistent phenotype (we have termed it CIMDAG as an acronym for the major features). All have de novo heterozygous missense mutations of VPS4A, with a distinct mutational hotspot (R284) in many families. Mechanism is likely dominant negative. Haplo-insufficiency of VPS4A is tolerated and present in general population databases, so loss of function mutations likely do not cause this disease.
Sources: Literature, Research; to: Multiple families (now 10) described with a consistent phenotype (termed CIMDAG as an acronym for the major features). All have de novo heterozygous missense mutations of VPS4A, with a distinct mutational hotspot (R284) in many families. Mechanism is likely dominant negative. Haplo-insufficiency of VPS4A is tolerated and present in general population databases, so loss of function mutations likely do not cause this disease.
Sources: Literature, Research
Intellectual disability v3.751 VPS4A Evan Reid gene: VPS4A was added
gene: VPS4A was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Research
Mode of inheritance for gene: VPS4A was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: VPS4A were set to (PMID: 33186545; 33186543; 33460484)
Phenotypes for gene: VPS4A were set to developmental delay; intellectual disability; cerebellar hypoplasia; pontine hypoplasia; thin corpus callosum; microcephaly; growth retardation; congenital anaemia; dyserythropeoitic anaemia; dystonia; congenital cataracts; deafness
Penetrance for gene: VPS4A were set to Complete
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: VPS4A was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Review for gene: VPS4A was set to GREEN
Added comment: Multiple families (now 10) described with a consistent phenotype (we have termed it CIMDAG as an acronym for the major features). All have de novo heterozygous missense mutations of VPS4A, with a distinct mutational hotspot (R284) in many families. Mechanism is likely dominant negative. Haplo-insufficiency of VPS4A is tolerated and present in general population databases, so loss of function mutations likely do not cause this disease.
Sources: Literature, Research
Intellectual disability v3.751 TET3 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: TET3 were changed from Beck-Fahrner syndrome 618798 to Beck-Fahrner syndrome OMIM:618798
Intellectual disability v3.751 TET3 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: TET3 were set to https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.12.007; 31928709
Intellectual disability v3.750 PIGK Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: PIGK were changed from Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and cerebellar atrophy, with or without seizures 618879 to Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and cerebellar atrophy, with or without seizures OMIM:618879
Intellectual disability v3.749 HIRA Zornitza Stark gene: HIRA was added
gene: HIRA was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: HIRA was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: HIRA were set to 33417013; 28135719; 25363760
Phenotypes for gene: HIRA were set to Neurodevelopmental disorder
Review for gene: HIRA was set to GREEN
gene: HIRA was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Two unrelated patients with different de novo loss of function variants identified in PMID 33417013:

Individual 1: intragenic deletion, phenotype included psychomotor retardation, ID, growth retardation, microcephaly, and facial features reminiscent of 22q deletion syndrome.
Individual 2: canonical splice variant, phenotype mostly confined to ASD

Another two de novo variants were identified in the literature by the authors of that paper, one stop-gain (DDD study, PMID 28135719) and one missense (large autism cohort, PMID 25363760).

PMID 33417013 also showed that HIRA knockdown in mice results in neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

Rated Green due to 4 unrelated individuals (albeit 2 in large cohort studies) and a mouse model. NB: HIRA is within the common 22q deletion region.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.749 SATB1 Zornitza Stark changed review comment from: PMID: 33513338: 42 patients with SNVs. 28 de novo, 3 inherited from an affected parent.
Missense variants - more severe, profound ID
NMD PTCs - milder disease; to: PMID: 33513338: 42 patients with SNVs. 28 de novo, 3 inherited from an affected parent.
Missense variants - more severe, profound ID
NMD PTCs - milder disease

Consider adding to epilepsy and ataxia panels.
Intellectual disability v3.749 SATB1 Zornitza Stark edited their review of gene: SATB1: Added comment: PMID: 33513338: 42 patients with SNVs. 28 de novo, 3 inherited from an affected parent.
Missense variants - more severe, profound ID
NMD PTCs - milder disease; Changed rating: GREEN; Changed publications: 33057194, 33513338; Changed phenotypes: Neurodevelopmental disorder; Set current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.749 METAP1 Zornitza Stark gene: METAP1 was added
gene: METAP1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: METAP1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: METAP1 were set to 32764695
Phenotypes for gene: METAP1 were set to Intellectual disability, aggression, neurodevelopmental delay
Review for gene: METAP1 was set to RED
Added comment: Biallelic nonsense (NMD-predicted) variant identified in 4 sibs in a consanguineous family with dev delay. One sib had bilateral clinodactyly of her toes and her left 3rd finger, other sibs were not dysmorphic. Rated red due to single consanguineous family.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.749 KCNN2 Zornitza Stark gene: KCNN2 was added
gene: KCNN2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: KCNN2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: KCNN2 were set to 33242881
Phenotypes for gene: KCNN2 were set to Intellectual disability; seizures; movement disorder
Review for gene: KCNN2 was set to GREEN
gene: KCNN2 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: - 11 probands all de novo except for 1 mother-daughter pair.
- a mix of null and missense variants
- 2/11 with microcephaly, 10/11 motor delay, 7/11 language delay (excluding 2 with regression), all with varying degrees of ID, 3/11 seizures, 7/11 movement disorder, 4/11 cerebellar ataxia, 6/11 MRI anomalies
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.749 OTUD5 Zornitza Stark gene: OTUD5 was added
gene: OTUD5 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: OTUD5 was set to X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females
Publications for gene: OTUD5 were set to 33131077
Phenotypes for gene: OTUD5 were set to X-linked severe neurodevelopmental delay, hydrocephalus, and early lethality
Review for gene: OTUD5 was set to RED
Added comment: 13 male patients from a single family with three generations affected. Patients presented prenatally or during the neonatal period with IUGR, ventriculomegaly, hydrocephalus, hypotonia, congenital heart defects, hypospadias, and severe neurodevelopmental delay. The disease is typically fatal during infancy, mainly due to sepsis (pneumonias). Female carriers are asymptomatic. WGS in four individuals identified a unique candidate variant in the OTUD5 gene (NM_017602.3:c.598G > A, p.Glu200Lys). The variant cosegregated with the disease in 10 tested individuals.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.749 MSMO1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: MSMO1 were changed from Microcephaly, congenital cataract, and psoriasiform dermatitis, 616834 to Microcephaly, congenital cataract, and psoriasiform dermatitis, OMIM:616834; Microcephaly-congenital cataract-psoriasiform dermatitis syndrome, MONDO:0014793
Intellectual disability v3.748 MEIS2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: MEIS2 were changed from Cleft palate, cardiac defects, and mental retardation; Oral cleft; Abnormal heart morphology; Intellectual disability; Cleft palate, cardiac defects, and mental retardation, 600987 to Cleft palate, cardiac defects, and mental retardation, OMIM:600987; Cardiac malformation, cleft lip/palate, microcephaly, and digital anomalies, MONDO:0010970
Intellectual disability v3.747 KNL1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: KNL1 were changed from Microcephaly 4, primary, autosomal recessive 604321 to Microcephaly 4, primary, autosomal recessive, OMIM:604321; Microcephaly 4, primary, autosomal recessive, MONDO:0011437
Intellectual disability v3.746 KATNB1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: KATNB1 were changed from Lissencephaly 6, with microcephaly, MIM 616212 to Lissencephaly 6, with microcephaly, OMIM:616212, MONDO:0014534
Intellectual disability v3.745 TOR1A Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: TOR1A as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.745 TOR1A Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Upgraded from Red to Amber, but there is sufficient evidence linking biallelic variants to a relevant phenotype to rate this gene Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.745 TOR1A Arina Puzriakova Gene: tor1a has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.744 TOR1A Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: TOR1A: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30244176, 29053766, 28516161; Phenotypes: Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 5, OMIM:618947, Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 5, MONDO:0100218; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.744 TOR1A Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: TOR1A.
Intellectual disability v3.744 TOR1A Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: TOR1A were set to 24896178
Intellectual disability v3.743 TOR1A Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: TOR1A were changed from Dystonia-1, torsion, 128100; Dystonia, early-onset atypical, with myoclonic features; {Dystonia-1, modifier of} to Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 5, OMIM:618947; Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 5, MONDO:0100218
Intellectual disability v3.743 TOR1A Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: TOR1A was changed from MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.742 TMX2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: TMX2 were changed from Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Microcephaly; Abnormal cortical gyration; Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, cortical malformations, and spasticity, 618730 to Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, cortical malformations, and spasticity, OMIM:618730; Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, cortical malformations, and spasticity, MONDO:0032887
Intellectual disability v3.741 TENM3 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: TENM3 were changed from Microphthalmia, syndromic 15, MIM#615145; coloboma to Microphthalmia, syndromic 15, OMIM:615145; ?Microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 9, OMIM:615145; Microphthalmia, isolated, with coloboma 9, MONDO:0014059
Intellectual disability v3.740 ABCC9 Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: Intellectual impairment as been reported in individuals with loss-of-function variants and a percentage of those with gain-of-function variants. However, this is less prominent than other features of the disease presentation (e.g. cardiac, skeletal defects) and often ID is perhaps too mild.

Therefore, ABCC9 will be flagged for review by the GMS team with regards to phenotypic fit for this panel and determine whether it should be demoted from Green to Amber (added for-review tag).; to: Comment on list classification: Intellectual impairment has been reported in individuals with loss-of-function variants and a percentage of those with gain-of-function variants. ID is typically mild, however it is plausible that patients may still be tested for this panel, particularly if recruited under Coffin-Siris-like coarse facial features which can be associated with this gene. Therefore, maintaining Green gene rating.

Comment on mode of inheritance: Leaving MOI as Monoallelic as only 2 families with the same biallelic variant (possible founder variant) reported to date (PMID:31575858), and patients with biallelic variants would still be picked up by the Genomics England pipeline.
Intellectual disability v3.740 ABCC9 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review was removed from gene: ABCC9.
Intellectual disability v3.740 UBR7 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: UBR7.
Intellectual disability v3.740 UBR7 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: UBR7 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.740 UBR7 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: In view of recent expert review by Zornitza Stark, upgraded from Red to Amber but with a recommendation of rating Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)

At least 6 SNVs and 1 intragenic deletion reported in 7 individuals from 6 families with a comparable neurodevelopmental disorder. DD/ID was a feature in all cases (PMID:33340455)
Intellectual disability v3.740 UBR7 Arina Puzriakova Gene: ubr7 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.739 UBR7 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: UBR7 were set to 21937992
Intellectual disability v3.738 UBR7 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: UBR7 were changed from AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE MENTAL RETARDATION to Intellectual disability; epilepsy; hypothyroidism; congenital anomalies; dysmorphic features
Intellectual disability v3.737 RNU7-1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: RNU7-1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.737 RNU7-1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Various degrees of cognitive impairment reported (PMID:33230297). However, DD is an early feature often preceding other neurological concerns, and there are enough cases with sufficiently severe ID for inclusion on this panel.

Rating Amber but should be promoted to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.737 RNU7-1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: rnu7-1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.736 RNU7-1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: RNU7-1 were changed from Aicardi–Goutières syndrome-like to Aicardi–Goutières syndrome-like; Type I interferonopathy
Intellectual disability v3.735 RNU7-1 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: RNU7-1.
Intellectual disability v3.735 APC2 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: APC2 were changed from Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Morphological abnormality of the central nervous system to Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 10 OMIM:618677
Intellectual disability v3.734 RNU7-1 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: RNU7-1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33230297; Phenotypes: Aicardi–Goutières syndrome-like, Type I interferonopathy; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.734 FGFR1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: FGFR1 were changed from Hartsfield syndrome, OMIM:615465; Pfeiffer syndrome, OMIM:101600 to Hartsfield syndrome, OMIM:615465; Pfeiffer syndrome, OMIM:101600; Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis, somatic mosaic, OMIM:613001
Intellectual disability v3.733 FGFR1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: FGFR1 were set to 28825856
Intellectual disability v3.732 FGFR1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: FGFR1 were changed from Encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis, 613001; KALLMANN SYNDROME TYPE 2; Pfeiffer syndrome,101600 to Hartsfield syndrome, OMIM:615465; Pfeiffer syndrome, OMIM:101600
Intellectual disability v3.731 FGFR1 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: FGFR1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.731 TANC2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: TANC2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.731 TANC2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: This gene should be promoted to Green at the next GMS panel update - multiple unrelated families with a comparable neurodevelopmental disorder (including ID). As highlighted in review by Zornitza Stark, most reported SNVs are de novo putative disruptive variants, or missense variants that are predicted in silico to have a damaging or possibly damaging effect. Gene expression and function are neurodevelopmentally-relevant, and there is some limited functional data.

Gene-disease association is also now listed in both OMIM and Gene2Phenotype.
Intellectual disability v3.731 TANC2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: tanc2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.730 TANC2 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: TANC2 were set to 26350204; 31616000
Intellectual disability v3.729 TANC2 Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: TANC2: Removed 'watchlist' tag and added 'for-review' tag as there is now sufficient evidence to promote this gene to Green
Intellectual disability v3.729 TANC2 Arina Puzriakova Tag watchlist was removed from gene: TANC2.
Tag for-review tag was added to gene: TANC2.
Intellectual disability v3.729 TANC2 Arina Puzriakova edited their review of gene: TANC2: Changed phenotypes: Intellectual developmental disorder with autistic features and language delay, with or without seizures, OMIM:618906
Intellectual disability v3.729 TANC2 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: TANC2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31616000, 33160097, 30021165; Phenotypes: TANC2-related neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorder, OMIM:618906; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.729 ATP1A3 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: ATP1A3 were set to 22842232; 29396171; 29291920; 22842232; 28969699
Intellectual disability v3.729 ATP1A3 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: ATP1A3 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.729 ATP1A3 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Maintaining Amber rating on this panel, in line with the previous comments by Louise Daugherty (Genomics England) and internal clinical review.

Heterozygous variants are associated with several phenotypes, not all of which include cognitive impairment. Gain from inclusion on the ID panel is likely smaller than the risk of incidental information for the majority of the ID cohort. Patients are expected to be tested under the paroxysmal central nervous system disorders or dystonia GMS panels.
Intellectual disability v3.729 ATP1A3 Arina Puzriakova Gene: atp1a3 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.728 LAMB2 Zornitza Stark edited their review of gene: LAMB2: Changed rating: GREEN
Intellectual disability v3.728 PPIL1 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: PPIL1.
Intellectual disability v3.728 PPIL1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PPIL1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.728 PPIL1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Currently not associated with any phenotype in OMIM (last edited on: 10/07/2001) but has a 'probable' gene rating for 'PPIL1-related Neurodegenerative Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia with Microcephaly' in Gene2Phenotype.

At least 12 variants identified in 17 individuals from 9 unrelated families (PMID: 33220177). All displayed pontocerebellar hypoplasia and congenital microcephaly. Severe ID, with or without seizures, was noted in all subjects (14) where information was provided (see table S1). Pathogenicity is supported by animal model.

Sufficient evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.728 PPIL1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: ppil1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.727 PPIL1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: PPIL1 were changed from Pontocerebellar hypoplasia; microcephaly; seizures; intellectual disbility to PPIL1-related Neurodegenerative Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia with Microcephaly
Intellectual disability v3.726 FGF13 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: FGF13 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.726 FGF13 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Three variants (c.31C>T, c.41G>C, c.32G>C) identified by WES/WGS in seven individuals from five unrelated families who presented with severe infantile-onset seizures and severe-to-profound ID. Supportive functional data.

Sufficient number of unrelated cases with relevant phenotype; however, early-onset epilepsy represents the main feature of the disorder and ID appears to be a secondary manifestation (see supplemental note in PMID:33245860 for clinical details). Therefore, rating Amber on this panel but will add the FGF13 gene to 'Genetic epilepsy syndromes'
Intellectual disability v3.726 FGF13 Arina Puzriakova Gene: fgf13 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.725 FGF13 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: FGF13 were changed from Intellectual disability; epilepsy to Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy; Intellectual disability; Infantile-onset seizures
Intellectual disability v3.724 FGF13 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: FGF13 was changed from X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females to X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, monoallelic mutations in females may cause disease (may be less severe, later onset than males)
Intellectual disability v3.723 FBRSL1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: FBRSL1 were changed from Intellectual disability; congenital anomalies to Intellectual disability; Microcephaly; Heart defect; Cleft palate; Contractures; Hearing impairment; Skin creases
Intellectual disability v3.722 FBRSL1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: FBRSL1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.722 FBRSL1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. There is enough evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag) - sufficient number of unrelated cases with distinct variants and relevant phenotype, supported by functional data.

Currently not associated with any phenotype in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype.
Intellectual disability v3.722 FBRSL1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: fbrsl1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.721 FBRSL1 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: FBRSL1.
Intellectual disability v3.721 FBRSL1 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: FBRSL1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 32424618; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.721 DPH2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: DPH2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.721 DPH2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Currently not associated with any phenotype in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype.

At least 2 unrelated families with biallelic variants in this gene. Phenotypes included DD with expressive language delays in the 19-month-old male in PMID: 32576952 (2020); and intellectual disability in both sibs in PMID: 27421267 (2016), albeit within the mild range (Stanford-Binet scale IQ = 58 and 68, respectively). However in the latter case, KALRN was proposed as the causative gene at the time of publication, as scarce data was known for the DPH2 gene.

Additional cases would help corroborate this gene-disease association and so rating Amber, awaiting further cases/clinical evidence.
Intellectual disability v3.721 DPH2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: dph2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.720 CDC40 Arina Puzriakova Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: CDC40.
Intellectual disability v3.720 CDC40 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: CDC40 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.720 CDC40 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. CDC40 currently not associated with any phenotype in OMIM (last edited: 23/08/19) but has a 'possible' disease confidence for 'CDC40-related Neurodegenerative Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia with Microcephaly' in Gene2Phenotype.

Rating Red as currently only a single individual reported in PMID: 33220177 (2021). There is some functional and animal model data to support pathogenicity, so have added 'watchlist' tag. If additional cases arise, CDC40 may also be considered for other panels (e.g. Malformations of cortical development, Genetic epilepsy syndromes, Cytopenia - NOT Fanconi anaemia, etc)
Intellectual disability v3.720 CDC40 Arina Puzriakova Gene: cdc40 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.719 CDC40 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: CDC40 were changed from Pontocerebellar hypoplasia; microcephaly; seizures; intellectual disability to CDC40-related Neurodegenerative Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia with Microcephaly
Intellectual disability v3.718 ABCC9 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: ABCC9 as Green List (high evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.718 ABCC9 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Intellectual impairment as been reported in individuals with loss-of-function variants and a percentage of those with gain-of-function variants. However, this is less prominent than other features of the disease presentation (e.g. cardiac, skeletal defects) and often ID is perhaps too mild.

Therefore, ABCC9 will be flagged for review by the GMS team with regards to phenotypic fit for this panel and determine whether it should be demoted from Green to Amber (added for-review tag).
Intellectual disability v3.718 ABCC9 Arina Puzriakova Gene: abcc9 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.717 ABCC9 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: ABCC9.
Intellectual disability v3.717 ABCC9 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: ABCC9: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31575858; Phenotypes: mild ID, similar facies, myopathy, cerebral white matter hyperintensities, cardiac systolic dysfunction; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.717 TMEM260 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: TMEM260 was changed from to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.716 TRAPPC12 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: TRAPPC12 were changed from Encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with brain atrophy and spasticity, 617669; Developmental delay to Encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with brain atrophy and spasticity, OMIM:617669; Early-onset progressive encephalopathy-hearing loss-pons hypoplasia-brain atrophy syndrome, MONDO:0044696
Intellectual disability v3.715 TRAPPC12 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: TRAPPC12 were set to 28777934
Intellectual disability v3.714 TRAPPC12 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: TRAPPC12: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 32369837; Phenotypes: Encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with brain atrophy and spasticity, OMIM:617669, Early-onset progressive encephalopathy-hearing loss-pons hypoplasia-brain atrophy syndrome, MONDO:0044696; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.714 SMG8 Ivone Leong Tag for-review tag was added to gene: SMG8.
Intellectual disability v3.714 NUP214 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review was removed from gene: NUP214.
Intellectual disability v3.714 NARS Ivone Leong Tag for-review tag was added to gene: NARS.
Intellectual disability v3.714 FGF13 Helen Lord Deleted their review
Intellectual disability v3.714 FGF13 Helen Lord commented on gene: FGF13
Intellectual disability v3.714 GLS_GCA Arina Puzriakova Tag NGS Not Validated tag was added to STR: GLS_GCA.
Intellectual disability v3.714 GLS_GCA Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: Early developmental delay, which preceded other progressive neurological concerns, was reported in the three unrelated cases from PMID:30970188. Following discussion with Helen Brittain (Genomics England Clinical Team) it was agreed that this is sufficient for inclusion on this panel.

However, detection of this 5' UTR triplet expansion must first be internally validated for the interpretation pipeline. In the meantime, rating Red but will raise the STR for validation with the Rare Disease team.; to: Comment on list classification: Early developmental delay, which preceded other progressive neurological concerns, was reported in the three unrelated cases from PMID:30970188. Following discussion with Helen Brittain (Genomics England Clinical Team) it was agreed that this is sufficient for inclusion on this panel.

However, detection of this 5' UTR triplet expansion must first be validated within the Genomics England pipeline. In the meantime, rating Red but will raise the STR for validation with the Rare Disease team.
Intellectual disability v3.714 GLS_GCA Arina Puzriakova Classified STR: GLS_GCA as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.714 GLS_GCA Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Early developmental delay, which preceded other progressive neurological concerns, was reported in the three unrelated cases from PMID:30970188. Following discussion with Helen Brittain (Genomics England Clinical Team) it was agreed that this is sufficient for inclusion on this panel.

However, detection of this 5' UTR triplet expansion must first be internally validated for the interpretation pipeline. In the meantime, rating Red but will raise the STR for validation with the Rare Disease team.
Intellectual disability v3.714 GLS_GCA Arina Puzriakova Str: gls_gca has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.713 GLS_GCA Arina Puzriakova Tag STR tag was added to STR: GLS_GCA.
Tag for-review tag was added to STR: GLS_GCA.
Intellectual disability v3.713 GLS Arina Puzriakova Deleted their comment
Intellectual disability v3.713 GLS Arina Puzriakova Tag STR tag was added to gene: GLS.
Tag for-review tag was added to gene: GLS.
Intellectual disability v3.713 GLS Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: GLS as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.713 GLS Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Early developmental delay, which preceded other progressive neurological concerns, was reported in the three unrelated cases from PMID:30970188. Following discussion with Helen Brittain (Genomics England Clinical Team) it was agreed that this is sufficient for inclusion on this panel.

However, detection of the 5' UTR triplet expansion must first be internally validated for the interpretation pipeline. In the meantime, rating Amber but will raise the STR for validation with the Rare Disease team.
Intellectual disability v3.713 GLS Arina Puzriakova Gene: gls has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.712 GLS Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: GLS were changed from Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine, MIM# 618412 to Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine, OMIM:618412; Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine, MONDO:0032733; ?Infantile cataract, skin abnormalities, glutamate excess, and impaired intellectual development, OMIM:618339; Infantile cataract, skin abnormalities, glutamate excess, and impaired intellectual development, MONDO:0032685
Intellectual disability v3.712 GLS Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on phenotypes: Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine, OMIM:618412; Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine, MONDO:0032733; ?Infantile cataract, skin abnormalities, glutamate excess, and impaired intellectual development, OMIM:618339; Infantile cataract, skin abnormalities, glutamate excess, and impaired intellectual development, MONDO:0032685
Intellectual disability v3.712 GLS Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: GLS were changed from Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine, OMIM:618412; Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine, MONDO:0032733 to Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine, MIM# 618412
Intellectual disability v3.711 GLS Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: GLS were changed from Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine, MIM# 618412 to Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine, OMIM:618412; Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine, MONDO:0032733
Intellectual disability v3.710 GLS Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on mode of inheritance: As evidence for pathogenicity of monoallelic variants is limited (currently only 1 case), MOI will remain as 'Biallelic' until further cases emerge that support an association between monoallelic variants and disease.
Intellectual disability v3.710 GLS Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: GLS was changed from BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.709 GLS Arina Puzriakova edited their review of gene: GLS: Added comment: One case reported with a de novo (i.e. monoallelic) gain-of-function variant, associated with profound developmental delay, infantile cataract, skin abnormalities, and glutamate excess. Functional analysis showed the variant causes hyperactivity and compensatory downregulation of GLS expression combined with upregulation of the counteracting enzyme GS (PMID: 30239721).; Changed publications: 30970188, 30239721; Changed phenotypes: Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine, OMIM:618412, Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine, MONDO:0032733
Intellectual disability v3.709 GLS_GCA Arina Puzriakova STR: GLS_GCA was added
STR: GLS_GCA was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for STR: GLS_GCA was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for STR: GLS_GCA were set to 30970188
Phenotypes for STR: GLS_GCA were set to Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine, OMIM:618412; Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine, MONDO:0032733
Review for STR: GLS_GCA was set to GREEN
Added comment: - PMID: 30970188 (2019) - Three unrelated cases who presented with an early-onset global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated levels of glutamine. One patient also showed cerebellar atrophy.

All 3 individuals harboured a large trinucleotide (GCA) repeat expansion in the 5' UTR (length: 680-1,500-copy repeats). The repeat expansion was found in homozygosity in 1 case, and occurred in compound heterozygosity with an SNV in the other two cases (missense and frameshift variant, respectively). Functional analysis showed the repeat expansion results in reduced expression and glutaminase deficiency.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.708 GLS Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: GLS: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30970188; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, progressive ataxia, and elevated glutamine, OMIM: 618412; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.708 MN1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: MN1 were changed from Central hypotonia; Feeding difficulties; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Hearing impairment; Abnormality of facial skeleton; Craniosynostosis; Abnormality of the face; Abnormality of the cerebellum; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Polymicrogyria to CEBALID syndrome, OMIM:618774; CEBALID syndrome, MONDO:0032908
Intellectual disability v3.707 KIF14 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: KIF14 were changed from Microcephaly 20, primary, autosomal recessive, 617914 to Microcephaly 20, primary, autosomal recessive, OMIM:617914; Microcephaly 20, primary, autosomal recessive, MONDO:0054761
Intellectual disability v3.706 B9D1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: B9D1 were changed from ?Meckel syndrome 9 614209; Joubert syndrome 27 617120 to Meckel syndrome 9, OMIM:614209; Meckel syndrome 9, MONDO:0013630; Joubert syndrome 27, OMIM:617120; Joubert syndrome 27, MONDO:0014927
Intellectual disability v3.705 B9D2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: B9D2 were changed from Joubert syndrome 34 614175; Meckel syndrome 10 614175 to Joubert syndrome 34, OMIM:614175; Meckel syndrome 10, OMIM:614175; Meckel syndrome, type 10, MONDO:0013609
Intellectual disability v3.704 EEF1A2 Eleanor Williams Tag for-review was removed from gene: EEF1A2.
Intellectual disability v3.704 SCN8A Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on mode of inheritance: MOI was changed back from "Both monoallelic and biallelic" to "Monoallelic", which reflects the original MOI of the signed off panel (version 3.2). The MOI will be changed back to "Both monoallelic and biallelic" after the panel has been reviewed.
Intellectual disability v3.704 SCN8A Ivone Leong Mode of inheritance for gene: SCN8A was changed from BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.703 ALKBH8 Ivone Leong Classified gene: ALKBH8 as Green List (high evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.703 ALKBH8 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: This gene has been promoted back to Green status to reflect the rating that was on the signed off version of this panel (version 3.2). This gene should be demoted to Amber at the next review.
Intellectual disability v3.703 ALKBH8 Ivone Leong Gene: alkbh8 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.702 ALKBH8 Ivone Leong Tag for-review tag was added to gene: ALKBH8.
Intellectual disability v3.702 NUS1 Eleanor Williams edited their review of gene: NUS1: Changed rating: GREEN
Intellectual disability v3.702 NUS1 Eleanor Williams Added comment: Comment on mode of inheritance: The mode of inheritance should be considered for change to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic (but BIALLELIC mutations cause a more SEVERE disease form), autosomal or pseudoautosomal in line with its classification on the Genetic Epilepsy Syndromes panel.
Intellectual disability v3.702 NUS1 Eleanor Williams Mode of inheritance for gene: NUS1 was changed from MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.701 NUS1 Eleanor Williams Classified gene: NUS1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.701 NUS1 Eleanor Williams Added comment: Comment on list classification: Due to further reported cases, and review on the Genetic epilepsy syndromes by Helen Lord this gene should be considered for a green rating as GMS review.
Intellectual disability v3.701 NUS1 Eleanor Williams Gene: nus1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.700 TLK2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: TLK2 were changed from intellectual disability to Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 57, OMIM:618050; Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 57, MONDO:0054837
Intellectual disability v3.699 ZNF526 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: ZNF526 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.699 ZNF526 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Upgraded from Red to Amber but can be rated Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).

Truncating variants associated with a more severe disease presentation; however, ID is the universal feature among individuals with biallelic variants in this gene.
Intellectual disability v3.699 ZNF526 Arina Puzriakova Gene: znf526 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.698 ZNF526 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: ZNF526 were changed from Non-syndromic autosomal recessive intellectual disability to Intellectual disability; Microcephaly; Cataracts; Epilepsy; Hypertonia; Dystonia
Intellectual disability v3.697 ZNF526 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: ZNF526 were set to 21937992; 27012031
Intellectual disability v3.696 ZNF526 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: ZNF526.
Intellectual disability v3.696 ZNF526 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: ZNF526: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 21937992, 25558065, 33397746; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, Microcephaly, Cataracts, Epilepsy, Hypertonia, Dystonia; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.696 TUBB2A Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: TUBB2A were set to 24702957
Intellectual disability v3.695 TUBB2A Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: TUBB2A were changed from CORTICAL DYSPLASIA, COMPLEX, WITH OTHER BRAIN MALFORMATIONS 5 to Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 5, OMIM:615763; Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations 5, MONDO:0014337
Intellectual disability v3.694 FGF13 Zornitza Stark gene: FGF13 was added
gene: FGF13 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: FGF13 was set to X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females
Publications for gene: FGF13 were set to 33245860
Phenotypes for gene: FGF13 were set to Intellectual disability; epilepsy
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: FGF13 was set to Other
Review for gene: FGF13 was set to GREEN
gene: FGF13 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Two sibling pairs and three unrelated males reported who presented in infancy with intractable focal seizures and severe developmental delay. The variants were located in the N-terminal domain of the A isoform of FGF13/FHF2 (FHF2A). The X-linked FHF2 gene (also known as FGF13) has alternative first exons which produce multiple protein isoforms that differ in their N-terminal sequence. The variants were located at highly conserved residues in the FHF2A inactivation particle that competes with the intrinsic fast inactivation mechanism of Nav channels. Functional characterization of mutant FHF2A co-expressed with wild-type Nav1.6 (SCN8A) revealed that mutant FHF2A proteins lost the ability to induce rapid-onset, long-term blockade of the channel while retaining pro-excitatory properties. These gain-of-function effects are likely to increase neuronal excitability consistent with the epileptic potential of FHF2 variants.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.694 UBR7 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: UBR7: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33340455; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, epilepsy, hypothyroidism, congenital anomalies, dysmorphic features; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.694 RNU7-1 Zornitza Stark gene: RNU7-1 was added
gene: RNU7-1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: RNU7-1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: RNU7-1 were set to 33230297
Phenotypes for gene: RNU7-1 were set to Aicardi–Goutières syndrome-like
Review for gene: RNU7-1 was set to GREEN
gene: RNU7-1 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Review originally submitted by Ming Wong
- 16 affected individuals from 11 families
- Compared to control fibroblasts, patient fibroblasts were enriched for misprocessed forms of
replication-dependent histone (RDH) mRNAs
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.694 DPH2 Zornitza Stark gene: DPH2 was added
gene: DPH2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: DPH2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: DPH2 were set to 32576952; 27421267
Phenotypes for gene: DPH2 were set to Diphthamide-deficiency syndrome
Review for gene: DPH2 was set to AMBER
Added comment: One 19 month old reported (PMID:32576952) with biallelic (one missense, one nonsense) variants in DPH2, with phenotype similar to DPH1 deficiency (gross motor delay, not walking, fine motor and expressive language delays, macrocephaly)

Another family (sibs) was previously reported with biallelic nonsense variants (PMID:27421267) with a comparable phenotype, this family also has biallelic variants in KALRN and the authors thought those variants more likely causative. Patients had ID and microcephaly (in contrast to the 19 month old above).

In vitro functional assays support reduced diphthamide synthesis activity for the variants identified in PMID:32576952.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.694 FBRSL1 Zornitza Stark gene: FBRSL1 was added
gene: FBRSL1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: FBRSL1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: FBRSL1 were set to 32424618
Phenotypes for gene: FBRSL1 were set to Intellectual disability; congenital anomalies
Review for gene: FBRSL1 was set to GREEN
gene: FBRSL1 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: Three children with de novo PTCs that escape NMD, and an overlapping syndromic phenotype with respiratory insufficiency, postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, global developmental delay and other malformations. 2/3 had heart defects, cleft palate and hearing impairement.
Supported by Xenopus oocyte functional studies
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.694 CDC40 Zornitza Stark gene: CDC40 was added
gene: CDC40 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: CDC40 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: CDC40 were set to 33220177
Phenotypes for gene: CDC40 were set to Pontocerebellar hypoplasia; microcephaly; seizures; intellectual disability
Review for gene: CDC40 was set to RED
Added comment: Single individual reported with bi-allelic variants in the gene and PCH, microcephaly, hypotonia, seizures, severe DD/ID, thrombocytopaenia, anaemia. Interaction with PPIL1 and mouse model support gene-disease association.

Gene referred to as PRP17 in paper.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.694 CCDC40 Zornitza Stark Deleted their comment
Intellectual disability v3.694 CCDC40 Zornitza Stark commented on gene: CCDC40: PMID 33220177, provided in error, refers to CDC40.
Intellectual disability v3.694 CCDC40 Zornitza Stark Deleted their comment
Intellectual disability v3.694 CCDC40 Zornitza Stark changed review comment from: ID is not part of the phenotype.; to: ID is not part of the phenotype.
Intellectual disability v3.694 CCDC40 Zornitza Stark edited their review of gene: CCDC40: Added comment: New publication: Single individual reported with bi-allelic variants in the gene and PCH, microcephaly, hypotonia, seizures, severe DD/ID, thrombocytopaenia, anaemia. Interaction with PPIL1 and mouse model support gene-disease association.; Changed publications: 33220177
Intellectual disability v3.694 PPIL1 Zornitza Stark gene: PPIL1 was added
gene: PPIL1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: PPIL1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: PPIL1 were set to 33220177
Phenotypes for gene: PPIL1 were set to Pontocerebellar hypoplasia; microcephaly; seizures; intellectual disbility
Review for gene: PPIL1 was set to GREEN
Added comment: 17 individuals from 9 unrelated families reported with bi-allelic variants in the gene and PCH, microcephaly, hypotonia, seizures, severe DD/ID. Mouse models support gene-disease association.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.694 AP4E1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: AP4E1 were changed from Spastic paraplegia 51, autosomal recessive, 613744; CEREBRAL PALSY SPASTIC QUADRIPLEGIC TYPE 4 to Spastic paraplegia 51, autosomal recessive, OMIM:613744; Hereditary spastic paraplegia 51, MONDO:0013401
Intellectual disability v3.693 AP4B1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: AP4B1 were changed from Spastic paraplegia 47, autosomal recessive, 614066; CEREBRAL PALSY SPASTIC QUADRIPLEGIC TYPE 5 to Spastic paraplegia 47, autosomal recessive, OMIM:614066; Hereditary spastic paraplegia 47, MONDO:0013551
Intellectual disability v3.692 TBCD Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: TBCD were changed from Encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with brain atrophy and thin corpus callosum 617193 to Encephalopathy, progressive, early-onset, with brain atrophy and thin corpus callosum, OMIM:617193; Early-onset progressive diffuse brain atrophy-microcephaly-muscle weakness-optic atrophy syndrome, MONDO:0044646
Intellectual disability v3.691 SMC1A Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SMC1A were changed from CORNELIA DE LANGE SYNDROME TYPE 2 (CDLS2) to Cornelia de Lange syndrome 2, OMIM:300590; Cornelia de Lange syndrome 2, MONDO:0010370; Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 85, with or without midline brain defects, OMIM:301044; Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 85, with or without midline brain defects, MONDO:0026771
Intellectual disability v3.690 SLC9A7 Arina Puzriakova Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: SLC9A7.
Intellectual disability v3.690 SLC9A7 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SLC9A7 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.690 SLC9A7 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM and Gene2Phenotype. However, only 2 unrelated families reported at present (PMID: 30335141) and therefore only sufficient for an Amber rating, awaiting further publications/clinical evidence (added 'watchlist' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.690 SLC9A7 Arina Puzriakova Gene: slc9a7 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.689 SLC9A7 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SLC9A7 were changed from Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked 108; OMIM #301024 to Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked 108, OMIM:301024; Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked 108, MONDO:0026723
Intellectual disability v3.688 MPI Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: MPI were set to 9525984; 3080572; 9585601
Intellectual disability v3.687 MPI Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: MPI were changed from CONGENITAL DISORDERS OF GLYCOSYLATION to Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Ib, OMIM:602579; MPI-CDG, MONDO:0011257
Intellectual disability v3.686 MPI Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: MPI: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.686 MPI Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: MPI.
Intellectual disability v3.686 HDAC4 Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: HDAC4
Intellectual disability v3.686 HDAC4 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review was removed from gene: HDAC4.
Intellectual disability v3.686 AGO2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: AGO2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.686 AGO2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. All patients reported in PMID: 33199684 presented GDD/ID, while other features were relatively heterogenous. However, cognitive impairment was perhaps too mild in majority of cases. Tagged 'for-review' to assess whether there is sufficient evidence for a Green rating in light of the scope of the ID panel.
Intellectual disability v3.686 AGO2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: ago2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.685 AGO2 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: AGO2.
Intellectual disability v3.685 AGO2 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: AGO2: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33199684; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.685 ZNF407 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: ZNF407 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.685 ZNF407 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Some evidence linking both mono- and biallelic variants with disease but currently not sufficient for a Green rating. Further cases would help validate this gene-disease association (added 'watchlist' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.685 ZNF407 Arina Puzriakova Gene: znf407 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.684 SMG8 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SMG8 were changed from Intellectual disability; Microcephaly; Short stature; Facial dysmorphism Edit to Intellectual disability; Microcephaly; Short stature; Facial dysmorphism
Intellectual disability v3.684 SMG8 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SMG8 were changed from Intellectual disability to Intellectual disability; Microcephaly; Short stature; Facial dysmorphism Edit
Intellectual disability v3.683 SMG8 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SMG8 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.683 SMG8 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Additional cases reported in recent publication (PMID: 33242396) extend the total to at least 5 unrelated families with GDD/ID and different homozygous variants in the SMG8 gene. Also some supporting functional data provided.

Upgraded from Red to Amber, but there is sufficient evidence to promote to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.683 SMG8 Arina Puzriakova Gene: smg8 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.682 SMG8 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: SMG8 were set to 31130284
Intellectual disability v3.681 SMG8 Arina Puzriakova edited their review of gene: SMG8: Added comment: PMID: 33242396 (2020) - 9 affected individuals from 4 consanguineous families with different biallelic variants in the SMG8 gene. Clinical features include GDD (8/8), dysmorphic features (9/9) microcephaly (6/9), short stature (4/9), brain imaging anomalies (4/5), congenital heart disease (3/9) and cataract (3/8). Only two sibs from Family 2 had a formal ID diagnosis, but this can be inferred from the clinical reports of the other cases demonstrating severe language delays, difficulties to follow simple instructions or perform daily activities.
-----
Several features described here overlap with those in the previously reported cases from PMID: 31130284 (e.g. microcephaly, ID, cataract, VSD); Changed rating: GREEN; Changed publications: 31130284, 33242396
Intellectual disability v3.681 LSS Eleanor Williams changed review comment from: In light of the recent expert review green by Zornitza Stark, this gene should be considered for a green rating by the GMS. The phenotype is variable with the ID phenotype being part of the presentation in approx half the families.; to: In light of the recent expert review green by Zornitza Stark, this gene should be considered for a green rating by the GMS, as agreed with Genomics England clinicians. The phenotype is variable with the ID phenotype being part of the presentation in approx half the families.
Intellectual disability v3.681 LSS Eleanor Williams Tag for-review tag was added to gene: LSS.
Intellectual disability v3.681 LSS Eleanor Williams edited their review of gene: LSS: Added comment: In light of the recent expert review green by Zornitza Stark, this gene should be considered for a green rating by the GMS. The phenotype is variable with the ID phenotype being part of the presentation in approx half the families.; Changed rating: GREEN
Intellectual disability v3.681 KCNMA1 Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Multiple individuals reported with either mono- or biallelic variants. Developmental delay and intellectual disability of relevant severity to this panel has been reported in a sufficient number of cases for inclusion on this panel. Although in most cases the phenotypes are primarily characterised by seizures or dyskinesia, it is plausible that these individuals may still be tested under the ID panel.

Furthermore, several individuals have been reported with severe GDD/ID and other variable feature such as craniofacial dysmorphism, ataxia, bone dysplasia, visceral malformations, and brain imaging anomalies, but without epilepsy or paroxysmal dyskinesia (namely Liang-Wang syndrome, PMID: 31152168). In less severely affected cases DD with significant speech delay has been noted as the main clinical indication of the presenting phenotypes, further indicating benefit of inclusion on a diagnostic ID panel.; to: Multiple individuals reported with either mono- or biallelic variants. Developmental delay and intellectual disability of relevant severity has been reported in a sufficient number of cases for inclusion on this panel. Although in most cases the phenotypes are primarily characterised by seizures or dyskinesia, it is plausible that these individuals may still be tested under the ID panel in context of the severe intellectual impairment that may be observed.

Furthermore, several individuals have been reported with severe GDD/ID and other variable feature such as craniofacial dysmorphism, ataxia, bone dysplasia, visceral malformations, and brain imaging anomalies, but without epilepsy or paroxysmal dyskinesia (namely Liang-Wang syndrome, PMID: 31152168). In less severely affected cases DD with significant speech delay has been noted as the main clinical indication of the presenting phenotypes, further indicating benefit of inclusion on a diagnostic ID panel.
Intellectual disability v3.681 KCNMA1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: KCNMA1 were changed from Cerebellar atrophy, developmental delay, and seizures, 617643; Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia, 3, with or without generalized epilepsy, 609446 to Cerebellar atrophy, developmental delay, and seizures, OMIM:617643; Cerebellar atrophy, developmental delay, and seizures, MONDO:0060551; Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia, 3, with or without generalized epilepsy, OMIM:609446; Generalized epilepsy-paroxysmal dyskinesia syndrome, MONDO:0012276; Liang-Wang syndrome, OMIM:618729; Liang-Wang syndrome, MONDO:0032886; {Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 16}, OMIM:618596; Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 16, MONDO:0032827
Intellectual disability v3.680 KCNMA1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: KCNMA1 were set to 15937479; 31427379; 31152168; 27567911; 29545233; 26195193
Intellectual disability v3.679 KCNMA1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: KCNMA1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.679 KCNMA1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is sufficient evidence to promote this gene to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.679 KCNMA1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: kcnma1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.678 KCNMA1 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: KCNMA1.
Intellectual disability v3.678 KCNMA1 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: KCNMA1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26195193, 27567911, 29330545, 29545233, 31152168, 31427379; Phenotypes: Cerebellar atrophy, developmental delay, and seizures, OMIM:617643, Cerebellar atrophy, developmental delay, and seizures, MONDO:0060551, Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia, 3, with or without generalized epilepsy, OMIM:609446, Generalized epilepsy-paroxysmal dyskinesia syndrome, MONDO:0012276, Liang-Wang syndrome, OMIM:618729, Liang-Wang syndrome, MONDO:0032886, {Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 16}, OMIM:618596, Epilepsy, idiopathic generalized, susceptibility to, 16, MONDO:0032827; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.678 LIAS Eleanor Williams commented on gene: LIAS
Intellectual disability v3.678 LIAS Eleanor Williams Tag for-review tag was added to gene: LIAS.
Intellectual disability v3.678 GRIA1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: GRIA1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.678 GRIA1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Maintaining Amber rating as no new evidence has been published since previous review. Most commonly reported as a candidate gene in large screening studies with limited segregation/phenotype/functional data. Also variable penetrance of the ID phenotype. Therefore, there is currently not enough evidence to classify as Green.
Intellectual disability v3.678 GRIA1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: gria1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.677 H3F3B Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Currently not associated with any phenotype in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype.

- PMID: 33268356 (2020) - De novo missense variants identified in 13 unrelated individuals with a shared phenotype of GDD/ID, usually severe and often progressive, with mostly minor congenital anomalies. 8/13 patients showed abnormalities on brain MRI including hypomyelination (5), cortical atrophy (4), arachnoid cysts (3), and a thin corpus collosum (2). Variable seizure phenotypes were reported in 6/13 cases, all early-onset where specified, mostly during infancy (latest onset at 10 years of age).; to: Currently not associated with any phenotype in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype.

- PMID: 33268356 (2020) - De novo missense variants identified in 13 unrelated individuals with a shared phenotype of GDD/ID, usually severe and often progressive, with mostly minor congenital anomalies. One individual was reported to have a normal IQ at 15 years. 8/13 patients showed abnormalities on brain MRI including hypomyelination (5), cortical atrophy (4), arachnoid cysts (3), and a thin corpus collosum (2). Variable seizure phenotypes were reported in 6/13 cases, all early-onset where specified, mostly during infancy (latest onset at 10 years of age).
Intellectual disability v3.677 H3F3B Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: H3F3B were set to
Intellectual disability v3.676 H3F3B Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: H3F3B were changed from to Developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Neurodegeneration; Epilepsy; Facial dysmorphism; Congenital anomalies
Intellectual disability v3.675 H3F3B Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: H3F3B was changed from to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.674 H3F3B Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: H3F3B as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.674 H3F3B Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Upgraded from Red to Amber, but there is sufficient evidence to promoted to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).

Multiple unrelated cases (at least 12) with GDD/ID associated with de novo variants in this gene.
Intellectual disability v3.674 H3F3B Arina Puzriakova Gene: h3f3b has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.673 H3F3B Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: H3F3B.
Intellectual disability v3.673 H3F3B Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: H3F3B: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33268356; Phenotypes: Developmental delay, Neurodegeneration, Epilepsy, Facial dysmorphism, Congenital anomalies; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.673 H3F3A Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: H3F3A were changed from to Developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Neurodegeneration; Epilepsy; Facial dysmorphism; Congenital anomalies
Intellectual disability v3.672 H3F3A Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: H3F3A were set to
Intellectual disability v3.671 H3F3A Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: H3F3A was changed from to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.670 H3F3A Arina Puzriakova Deleted their comment
Intellectual disability v3.670 H3F3A Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: H3F3A as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.670 H3F3A Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Upgraded from Red to Amber, but there is sufficient evidence to promoted to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).

Multiple unrelated cases (>30) with GDD/ID associated with de novo variants in this gene.
Intellectual disability v3.670 H3F3A Arina Puzriakova Gene: h3f3a has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.670 H3F3A Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: H3F3A as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.670 H3F3A Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Upgraded from Red to Amber, but there is sufficient evidence to promoted to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).

Multiple unrelated cases (>30) with GDD/ID associated with de novo variants in this gene.
Intellectual disability v3.670 H3F3A Arina Puzriakova Gene: h3f3a has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.669 H3F3A Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: H3F3A.
Intellectual disability v3.669 H3F3A Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: H3F3A: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31942419, 33268356; Phenotypes: Developmental delay, Neurodegeneration, Epilepsy, Facial dysmorphism, Congenital anomalies; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.669 KDM4B Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: KDM4B.
Intellectual disability v3.669 KDM4B Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: KDM4B as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.669 KDM4B Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark. Rating Amber but may be promoted to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).

9 unrelated individuals reported at present (PMID: 33232677). Although all presented GDD, only 1 individual had severe ID (IQ = 50) and 3 had mild ID. Although ID is too mild in majority of cases, developmental delay was the universal feature amongst affected individuals and other phenotypes were heterogenous (e.g. seizures, brain malformations). Therefore, there may be value in inclusion on this panel for capturing this phenotype.
Intellectual disability v3.669 KDM4B Arina Puzriakova Gene: kdm4b has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.668 HSPG2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: HSPG2 were changed from Schwartz-Jampel syndrome, type 1, 255800 to Schwartz-Jampel syndrome, type 1, OMIM:255800; Schwartz-Jampel syndrome, MONDO:0009717
Intellectual disability v3.667 HSPG2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: HSPG2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.667 HSPG2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: While there are sufficient cases to support a gene-disease association, DD/ID is part of a broader phenotype and cognitive impairment is unlikely to represent a main feature of the disease presentation.

Maintaining Amber rating as the disorder is better represented in other panels (e.g. Skeletal dysplasia, Arthrogryposis, etc) where this gene is already Green.
Intellectual disability v3.667 HSPG2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: hspg2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.666 CSNK1G1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: CSNK1G1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.666 CSNK1G1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Upgraded from Red to Amber as now at least 5 unrelated individuals reported (PMID: 33009664). All present developmental delay of varying severity, although a formal ID assessment was not performed. Tagged 'for-review' to evaluate relevance of the phenotypes to this panel.
Intellectual disability v3.666 CSNK1G1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: csnk1g1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.665 CSNK1G1 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: CSNK1G1.
Intellectual disability v3.665 SHMT2 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: SHMT2.
Intellectual disability v3.665 SHMT2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SHMT2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.665 SHMT2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Sufficient number of unrelated cases (>3) with ID of relevant severity to this panel. Some functional data indicating variants result in impaired SHMT2 enzymatic function. Rating Amber but should be promoted to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)

SHMT2 is listed in Gene2Phenotype with a 'probable' disease confidence rating for 'SHMT2-related neurodevelopmental syndrome', and is also associated with 'Neurodevelopmental disorder with cardiomyopathy, spasticity, and brain abnormalities, MIM# 619121' in OMIM.
Intellectual disability v3.665 SHMT2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: shmt2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.664 SHMT2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SHMT2 were changed from Congenital microcephaly; Infantile axial hypotonia; Spastic paraparesis; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Abnormal cortical gyration; Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Abnormality of the face; Proximal placement of thumb; 2-3 toe syndactyly to Neurodevelopmental disorder with cardiomyopathy, spasticity, and brain abnormalities, OMIM:619121
Intellectual disability v3.663 ITFG2 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: ITFG2 were set to 28397838; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41525-020-00150-z
Intellectual disability v3.662 ITFG2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: ITFG2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.662 ITFG2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Rating Amber as ITFG2 can only be classified as a possible candidate gene based present evidence. Clinical and pedigree details are limited and there is no supporting functional data. Additional cases required to corroborate this gene-disease association.
Intellectual disability v3.662 ITFG2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: itfg2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.661 RAP1B Ivone Leong Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: RAP1B.
Intellectual disability v3.661 RAP1B Ivone Leong Classified gene: RAP1B as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.661 RAP1B Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is associated with a phenotype in Gene2Phenotype but not OMIM.

PMID: 32627184 describes 2 patients.
36 yo patient of non-consanguineous parents. Had unclear pancytopenia, multiple congenital malformations, mild intellectual disability, endocrine disorders (short stature with growth hormone deficiency), dysmorphism and other features. Parents and sibling unaffected.
13 yo of non-consanguineous parents with thrombocytopenia, multiple congenital anomalies and learning difficulties. He had normal developmental milestones, walk was achieved at 14 months and there was no speech delay. He attended mainstream school with auxiliary help because of learning difficulties with graphism, syntaxic comprehension, logical reasoning and attention deficit. Parents and siblings unaffected.

PMID: 26280580 describes another patient with variant in RAP1B. The clinical features can be found in supplementary table 2. The table lists ID, but doesn't say severity and lists a host of other features including short stature, facial dysmorphism and skeletal findings.

All 3 cases seem to have a very wide spectrum of differing phenotypes and therefore, this gene has been given an Amber rating until further evidence is available.
Intellectual disability v3.661 RAP1B Ivone Leong Gene: rap1b has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.660 MPI Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: MPI: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 12414827, 9585601, 10980531, 33098580, 33204592, 32905087, 32266963, 30242110; Phenotypes: Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Ib, MIM# 602579, MPI-CDG MONDO:0011257; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.660 AASS Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: AASS were changed from HYPERLYSINEMIA to Hyperlysinemia, OMIM:238700; Hyperlysinemia (disease), MONDO:0009388
Intellectual disability v3.659 AARS Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: AARS were changed from EARLY-ONSET EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY WITH PERSISTENT MYELINATION DEFECT. to Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 29, OMIM:616339; Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 29, MONDO:0014593
Intellectual disability v3.658 AAAS Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: AAAS were changed from Achalasia-addisonianism-alacrimia syndrome 231550 to Achalasia-addisonianism-alacrimia syndrome, OMIM:231550; Triple-A syndrome, MONDO:0009279
Intellectual disability v3.657 GOT2 Arina Puzriakova Tag watchlist was removed from gene: GOT2.
Intellectual disability v3.657 GOT2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: GOT2 were changed from Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Increased serum lactate; Hyperammonemia; Microcephaly; Failure to thrive; Feeding difficulties; Abnormality of nervous system morphology to Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 82, OMIM:618721; Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 82, MONDO:0032880
Intellectual disability v3.656 GOT2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: GOT2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.656 GOT2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: ID of relevant severity to this panel (severe-to-profound) is reported in 4/4 individuals (PMID:31422819). However, intellectual impairment was secondary to epilepsy and there is no evidence of neurodevelopmental delay preceding the onset of seizures. Therefore, maintaining Amber rating on this panel (GOT2 is already Green on the Genetic epilepsy syndromes (v2.236) panel)
Intellectual disability v3.656 GOT2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: got2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.655 GOT2 Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: GOT2
Intellectual disability v3.655 GATA6 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: GATA6 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.655 GATA6 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Developmental delay has been reported in some patients with GATA6 variants. However, in view of the pancreatic and cardiac abnormalities that constitute the main phenotypes, cognitive impairment is unlikely to represent a key feature of the disease presentation.

Maintaining Amber rating as the disorder is better represented in other panels (e.g. Diabetes, Severe Paediatric Disorders, etc) where this gene is already Green.
Intellectual disability v3.655 GATA6 Arina Puzriakova Gene: gata6 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.654 HS2ST1 Ivone Leong Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: HS2ST1.
Intellectual disability v3.654 HS2ST1 Ivone Leong Classified gene: HS2ST1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.654 HS2ST1 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is not associated with a relevant phenotype in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype. Only 2 of 3 unrelated families with affected individuals described in PMID: 33159882 were reported to have ID. The affected individuals in the third family could not be assessed for ID. Therefore, there is currently not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.654 HS2ST1 Ivone Leong Gene: hs2st1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.653 BICRA Ivone Leong Classified gene: BICRA as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.653 BICRA Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is not associated with any phenotypes in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype. There is enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene should be rated Green at the next review.
Intellectual disability v3.653 BICRA Ivone Leong Gene: bicra has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.652 BICRA Ivone Leong Tag for-review tag was added to gene: BICRA.
Intellectual disability v3.652 EMC10 Ivone Leong Classified gene: EMC10 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.652 EMC10 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is not associated with any phenotypes in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype. As there is only 1 case, this gene has been given a Red rating.
Intellectual disability v3.652 EMC10 Ivone Leong Gene: emc10 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.651 CSNK1G1 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: CSNK1G1 were changed from severe non-syndromic early-onset epilepsy to severe non-syndromic early-onset epilepsy; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autism; Seizures; Abnormality of the face; Abnormality of limbs
Intellectual disability v3.650 CSNK1G1 Ivone Leong Publications for gene: CSNK1G1 were set to 24463883
Intellectual disability v3.649 GATA6 Ivone Leong Publications for gene: GATA6 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.648 NARS Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM, and in Gene2Phenotype with 'confirmed' disease confidence for 'NARS1 Neurodevelopmental Disorder (monoallelic)' and 'probable' for 'NARS1 Neurodevelopmental Disorder (biallelic)'

Total of 23 patients from 13 unrelated families with biallelic variants in the NARS1 gene (PMIDs: 32738225 and 32788587) and 8 unrelated patients with de novo heterozygous nonsense variants (PMIDs: 32738225). All individuals had GDD and ID, which varied in severity from moderate to profound. Other features include microcephaly, seizures, ataxia, and dysmorphism. Supportive functional data.; to: Associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM, and in Gene2Phenotype with 'confirmed' disease confidence for 'NARS1 Neurodevelopmental Disorder (monoallelic)' and 'probable' for 'NARS1 Neurodevelopmental Disorder (biallelic)'

Total of 24 patients from 13 unrelated families with biallelic variants in the NARS1 gene (PMIDs: 32738225 and 32788587) and 8 unrelated patients with de novo heterozygous variants (PMIDs: 32738225). All individuals had GDD and ID, which varied in severity from moderate to profound. Other features include microcephaly, seizures, ataxia, and dysmorphism. Supportive functional data.
Intellectual disability v3.648 NARS Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM, and in Gene2Phenotype with 'confirmed' disease confidence for 'NARS1 Neurodevelopmental Disorder (monoallelic)' and 'probable' for 'NARS1 Neurodevelopmental Disorder (biallelic)'

Total of 23 patients from 13 unrelated families with biallelic variants in the NARS1 gene (PMIDs: 32738225 and 32788587) and 6 unrelated patients with de novo heterozygous nonsense variants (PMIDs: 32738225). All individuals had GDD and ID, which varied in severity from moderate to profound. Other features include microcephaly, seizures, ataxia, and dysmorphism. Supportive functional data.; to: Associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM, and in Gene2Phenotype with 'confirmed' disease confidence for 'NARS1 Neurodevelopmental Disorder (monoallelic)' and 'probable' for 'NARS1 Neurodevelopmental Disorder (biallelic)'

Total of 23 patients from 13 unrelated families with biallelic variants in the NARS1 gene (PMIDs: 32738225 and 32788587) and 8 unrelated patients with de novo heterozygous nonsense variants (PMIDs: 32738225). All individuals had GDD and ID, which varied in severity from moderate to profound. Other features include microcephaly, seizures, ataxia, and dysmorphism. Supportive functional data.
Intellectual disability v3.648 NARS Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: NARS: Added new-gene-name tag, new approved HGNC gene symbol for NARS is NARS1
Intellectual disability v3.648 NARS Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: NARS as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.648 NARS Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is sufficient evidence to rate this gene Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.648 NARS Arina Puzriakova Gene: nars has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.647 NARS Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: NARS: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 32738225, 32788587; Phenotypes: Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, impaired language, and gait abnormalities, autosomal recessive, OMIM:619091, Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, impaired language, epilepsy, and gait abnormalities, autosomal dominant, OMIM:619092; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.647 NARS Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: NARS were set to 32738225
Intellectual disability v3.646 NARS Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: NARS were changed from Abnormal muscle tone; Microcephaly; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Ataxia; Abnormality of the face; Demyelinating peripheral neuropathy to Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, impaired language, and gait abnormalities, autosomal recessive, OMIM:619091; Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, impaired language, epilepsy, and gait abnormalities, autosomal dominant, OMIM:619092
Intellectual disability v3.645 ATP2A2 Ivone Leong reviewed gene: ATP2A2: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.645 ISCA-37418-Loss Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for Region: ISCA-37418-Loss were changed from Potocki-Lupski syndrome; hypotonia, poor feeding, failure to thrive, developmental delay particularly cognitive and language deficity, mild-moderate intellectual deficit, and neuropsychiatric disorders; Smith-Magenis syndrome; Structural cardiovascular anomalies (dilated aortic root, bicommissural aortic valve, atrial/ventricular and septal defects) and sleep disturbance; 182290; moderate intellectual disability, delayed speech and language skills, distinctive facial features, sleep disturbances, and behavioral problems; hypotonia, failure to thrive, mental retardation, pervasive developmental disorders, congenital anomalies; Dental abnormalities to Smith-Magenis syndrome, OMIM:182290; Smith-Magenis syndrome, MONDO:0008434
Intellectual disability v3.644 RAP1B Zornitza Stark gene: RAP1B was added
gene: RAP1B was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: RAP1B was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: RAP1B were set to 32627184; 26280580
Phenotypes for gene: RAP1B were set to Syndromic intellectual disability
Review for gene: RAP1B was set to GREEN
Added comment: Three unrelated individuals reported with de novo variants, some functional data. One of them described as Kabuki-like but lacks typical facial gestalt.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.644 EMC10 Zornitza Stark gene: EMC10 was added
gene: EMC10 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: EMC10 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: EMC10 were set to 32869858
Phenotypes for gene: EMC10 were set to Intellectual disability
Review for gene: EMC10 was set to RED
Added comment: Homozygous variants of EMC1 are associated with GDD, scoliosis, and cerebellar atrophy, indicating the relevance of this pathway for neurogenetic disorders.

One Saudi family with 2 affected individuals with mild ID, speech delay, and GDD.
WES and Sanger sequencing revealed a homozygous splice acceptor site variant (c.679‐1G>A) in EMC10 . Variant segregated within the family. RT‐qPCR showed a substantial decrease in the relative EMC10 gene expression in the patients.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.644 BICRA Zornitza Stark gene: BICRA was added
gene: BICRA was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: BICRA was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: BICRA were set to 33232675
Phenotypes for gene: BICRA were set to Developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder,behavioral abnormalities, dysmorphic features
Review for gene: BICRA was set to GREEN
Added comment: 12 individuals reported, 11 de novo (1 not resolved), with neurodevelopmental phenotypes—developmental delay (HP:0001263), intellectual disability (HP:0001249), autism spectrum disorder (HP:0000729), and/or behavioral phenotypes (HP:0000708)—and variable structural birth defects and dysmorphic features. Mostly LoF or gene deletions, but 2 missense reported. Zebrafish model supports the gene-disease association.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.644 HS2ST1 Zornitza Stark gene: HS2ST1 was added
gene: HS2ST1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: HS2ST1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: HS2ST1 were set to 33159882
Phenotypes for gene: HS2ST1 were set to Intellectual disability; dysmorphic features; congenital anomalies
Review for gene: HS2ST1 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Four affected individuals from 3 unrelated families. 3 unique missense and 2 PTCs. Clinical features included developmental delay, corpus callosum hypoplasia or aplasia, and skeletal and renal abnormalities as well as joint contractures/arthrogryposis.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.644 KDM4B Zornitza Stark gene: KDM4B was added
gene: KDM4B was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: KDM4B was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: KDM4B were set to 33232677
Phenotypes for gene: KDM4B were set to Global developmental delay, intellectual disability and neuroanatomical defects
Review for gene: KDM4B was set to GREEN
Added comment: Nine individuals with mono-allelic de novo or inherited variants in KDM4B.

All individuals presented with dysmorphic features and global developmental delay (GDD) with language and motor skills most affected. Three individuals had a history of seizures, and four had anomalies on brain imaging ranging from agenesis of the corpus callosum with hydrocephalus to cystic formations, abnormal hippocampi, and polymicrogyria.

In a knockout mouse the total brain volume was significantly reduced with decreased
size of the hippocampal dentate gyrus, partial agenesis of the corpus callosum, and ventriculomegaly.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.644 SMG8 Zornitza Stark edited their review of gene: SMG8: Added comment: Four more families reported in PMID 33242396. Some functional data also provided.; Changed rating: GREEN; Changed publications: 31130284, 33242396
Intellectual disability v3.644 AGO2 Zornitza Stark gene: AGO2 was added
gene: AGO2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: AGO2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: AGO2 were set to 33199684
Phenotypes for gene: AGO2 were set to Intellectual disability; regression; seizures
Review for gene: AGO2 was set to GREEN
Added comment: 21 individuals reported, five variants (p.L192P, p.G201V, p.T357M, p.M364T, p.C751Y) were recurrent. Variable ID.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.644 H3F3B Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: H3F3B: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33268356; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, regression, seizures; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.644 H3F3A Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: H3F3A: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33268356; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, regression, seizures; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.644 HDAC4 Zornitza Stark edited their review of gene: HDAC4: Added comment: New report of 4 different missense present in the 14-3-3 binding site, identified de novo in 7 individuals with an intellectual disability syndrome, and supporting in vitro functional assays.; Changed rating: GREEN; Changed publications: 24715439, 20691407, 31209962, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xhgg.2020.100015
Intellectual disability v3.644 ATP2A2 Ivone Leong Publications for gene: ATP2A2 were set to 19250991; 20456342
Intellectual disability v3.643 SMARCA2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SMARCA2 were changed from Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, 601358; COFFIN SIRIS to Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome, OMIM:601358; Coffin-siris syndrome; Blepharophimosis intellectual disability syndrome
Intellectual disability v3.642 SMARCA2 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: SMARCA2 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.641 MORC2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: MORC2 were changed from Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2Z, MIM #616688 to Developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Growth retardation; Microcephaly; Craniofacial dysmorphism; Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2Z, OMIM:616688
Intellectual disability v3.640 MORC2 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: MORC2 were set to https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.06.013
Intellectual disability v3.639 MORC2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: MORC2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.639 MORC2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Though signs suggestive of neuropathy were observed in the cohort presented by Sacoto et al (PMID:32693025), these were not the predominant feature of the disease presentation or the primary indication for diagnostic testing. Inclusion on this panel would be of value for detecting such cases, and so this gene should be promoted to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.639 MORC2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: morc2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.638 MORC2 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: MORC2.
Intellectual disability v3.638 MORC2 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: MORC2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 32693025; Phenotypes: Developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Growth retardation, Microcephaly, Craniofacial dysmorphism; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.638 LARS Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: LARS: Added new-gene-name tag, new approved HGNC gene symbol for LARS is LARS1
Intellectual disability v3.638 LARS Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: LARS as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.638 LARS Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Developmental delay is prevalent among affected individuals, and there are sufficient unrelated cases (>3) presenting with relevant severity to this panel. This may serve as a possible route for diagnostic testing as currently there are no relevant panels for detecting the hepatic phenotype of the disease presentation, and so there may be value in rating Green at the next major panel review (added 'for-review tag).
Intellectual disability v3.638 LARS Arina Puzriakova Gene: lars has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.637 LARS Arina Puzriakova Tag new-gene-name tag was added to gene: LARS.
Tag for-review tag was added to gene: LARS.
Intellectual disability v3.637 NUS1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: NUS1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.637 NUS1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: nus1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.636 NUS1 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: NUS1.
Intellectual disability v3.636 SOX3 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SOX3 were changed from Mental retardation, X-linked, with isolated growth hormone deficiency, 300123Panhypopituitarism, X-linked, 312000; SEX REVERSAL TYPE 3 (SRXX3) to Mental retardation, X-linked, with isolated growth hormone deficiency, OMIM:300123; Intellectual disability, X-linked, with panhypopituitarism, MONDO:0010252
Intellectual disability v3.635 SOX3 Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: SOX3
Intellectual disability v3.635 SOX3 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: SOX3.
Intellectual disability v3.635 PSAT1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: PSAT1 were set to 17436247
Intellectual disability v3.634 PSAT1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: PSAT1 were changed from PHOSPHOSERINE AMINOTRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY to Phosphoserine aminotransferase deficiency, OMIM:610992; Neu-Laxova syndrome 2, OMIM:616038
Intellectual disability v3.633 PRKAR1A Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: PRKAR1A were changed from Gene2Phenotype confirmed gene with ID HPO to Acrodysostosis 1, with or without hormone resistance, OMIM:101800
Intellectual disability v3.632 SH3PXD2B Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SH3PXD2B as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.632 SH3PXD2B Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.632 SH3PXD2B Arina Puzriakova Gene: sh3pxd2b has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.631 SEC23B Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SEC23B as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.631 SEC23B Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.631 SEC23B Arina Puzriakova Gene: sec23b has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.630 SCN11A Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SCN11A as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.630 SCN11A Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.630 SCN11A Arina Puzriakova Gene: scn11a has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.629 SCARF2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SCARF2 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.629 SCARF2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.629 SCARF2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: scarf2 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.628 SBDS Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SBDS as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.628 SBDS Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.628 SBDS Arina Puzriakova Gene: sbds has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.627 SALL4 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SALL4 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.627 SALL4 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.627 SALL4 Arina Puzriakova Gene: sall4 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.626 PRSS56 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PRSS56 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.626 PRSS56 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.626 PRSS56 Arina Puzriakova Gene: prss56 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.625 PROP1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PROP1 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.625 PROP1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.625 PROP1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: prop1 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.624 PRDM12 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PRDM12 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.624 PRDM12 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.624 PRDM12 Arina Puzriakova Gene: prdm12 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.623 PPA2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PPA2 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.623 PPA2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.623 PPA2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: ppa2 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.622 POLR1D Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: POLR1D as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.622 POLR1D Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.622 POLR1D Arina Puzriakova Gene: polr1d has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.621 POLD1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: POLD1 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.621 POLD1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.621 POLD1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: pold1 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.620 POC1B Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: POC1B as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.620 POC1B Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.620 POC1B Arina Puzriakova Gene: poc1b has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.619 PMS2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PMS2 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.619 PMS2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.619 PMS2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: pms2 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.618 PLOD2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PLOD2 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.618 PLOD2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.618 PLOD2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: plod2 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.617 PKHD1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PKHD1 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.617 PKHD1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.617 PKHD1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: pkhd1 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.616 PKD1L1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PKD1L1 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.616 PKD1L1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.616 PKD1L1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: pkd1l1 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.615 PITX3 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PITX3 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.615 PITX3 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.615 PITX3 Arina Puzriakova Gene: pitx3 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.614 PITX2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PITX2 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.614 PITX2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics)
Intellectual disability v3.614 PITX2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: pitx2 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.613 PIK3R1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PIK3R1 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.613 PIK3R1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Following discussion with the Genomics England clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark
Intellectual disability v3.613 PIK3R1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: pik3r1 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.612 POLR1C Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: POLR1C were changed from Treacher Collins syndrome 3, 248390 to Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 11, OMIM:616494
Intellectual disability v3.611 POLR1C Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: POLR1C were set to
Intellectual disability v3.610 POLR1C Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: POLR1C.
Intellectual disability v3.610 POLR1C Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: POLR1C as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.610 POLR1C Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Cognitive impairment (ID and/or cognitive regression) may be variable amongst affected individuals; however, there are sufficient unrelated cases (>3) for inclusion on this panel as Green.
Intellectual disability v3.610 POLR1C Arina Puzriakova Gene: polr1c has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.609 PNPT1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: PNPT1 were changed from Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 13, 614932; Deafness, autosomal recessive 70, 614934; developmental delay; intellectual disability to Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 13, OMIM:614932; Combined oxidative phosphorylation defect type 13, MONDO:0013977
Intellectual disability v3.608 PNPT1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PNPT1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.608 PNPT1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: GDD/ID is a prominent feature of the disease presentation and there are sufficient unrelated cases (>3) presenting with relevant severity to this panel. This is a possible route for diagnostic testing and so there may be value in classifying as Green - PNPT1 will be flagged for review at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.608 PNPT1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: pnpt1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.607 SCN1B Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SCN1B as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.607 SCN1B Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Biallelic variants associated with developmental epileptic encephalopathy characterised by early onset epileptic seizures followed by cognitive decline. At least 5 unrelated families in literature (PMIDs: 19710327; 23148524; 28218389).

Rating Amber as seizures are the prominent feature of the disease presentation, to which cognitive impairment is secondary. Cases would be detected via the epilepsy route (SCN1B is already Green on Genetic epilepsy syndromes panel).
Intellectual disability v3.607 SCN1B Arina Puzriakova Gene: scn1b has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.606 SCN1B Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SCN1B were changed from EPILEPSY, GENERALIZED, WITH FEBRILE SEIZURES PLUS, TYPE 1 to Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 52, OMIM:617350; Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 52, MONDO:0033361
Intellectual disability v3.605 SCN1B Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: SCN1B were set to 18464934
Intellectual disability v3.604 SCN1B Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: SCN1B was changed from MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.603 ZFHX4 Ivone Leong Publications for gene: ZFHX4 were set to 26350204; 21802062
Intellectual disability v3.602 ZFHX4 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: ZFHX4 were changed from to Developmental disorders; intellectual disability, dysmorphic features
Intellectual disability v3.601 ZFHX4 Ivone Leong Classified gene: ZFHX4 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.601 ZFHX4 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). This gene is associated with a phenotype in OMIM. Based on the available evidence there is enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene should be promoted to Green at the next review.
Intellectual disability v3.601 ZFHX4 Ivone Leong Gene: zfhx4 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.600 ZFHX4 Ivone Leong Mode of inheritance for gene: ZFHX4 was changed from to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.599 ZFHX4 Ivone Leong Tag for-review tag was added to gene: ZFHX4.
Intellectual disability v3.599 UPF1 Ivone Leong Classified gene: UPF1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.599 UPF1 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics).

PMID: 28539120 describes a patient with significant ID. The patient has SNVs in SQSTM1 and UPF1. The authors suggests that it is plausible that the haploinsufficiency of SQSTM1 may have caused neurofunctional defects, which the haploinsufficiency of UPF1 may have exacerbated.

As the patient in the second case has another variant in another gene, there is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.599 UPF1 Ivone Leong Gene: upf1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.598 UPF1 Ivone Leong Publications for gene: UPF1 were set to 33057194
Intellectual disability v3.597 U2AF2 Ivone Leong Classified gene: U2AF2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.597 U2AF2 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.597 U2AF2 Ivone Leong Gene: u2af2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.596 TCF7L2 Ivone Leong Classified gene: TCF7L2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.596 TCF7L2 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.596 TCF7L2 Ivone Leong Gene: tcf7l2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.595 SRRM2 Ivone Leong Classified gene: SRRM2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.595 SRRM2 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.595 SRRM2 Ivone Leong Gene: srrm2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.594 SPEN Ivone Leong Classified gene: SPEN as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.594 SPEN Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.594 SPEN Ivone Leong Gene: spen has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.593 SATB1 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: SATB1 were changed from intellectual disability to intellectual disability; developmental disorders
Intellectual disability v3.592 SATB1 Ivone Leong Classified gene: SATB1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.592 SATB1 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: Gene promoted from Red to Amber based on the provided evidence.
Intellectual disability v3.592 SATB1 Ivone Leong Gene: satb1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.591 SATB1 Ivone Leong Publications for gene: SATB1 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.590 MSL2 Ivone Leong Classified gene: MSL2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.590 MSL2 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.590 MSL2 Ivone Leong Gene: msl2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.590 MSL2 Ivone Leong Classified gene: MSL2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.590 MSL2 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.590 MSL2 Ivone Leong Gene: msl2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.589 RAB14 Ivone Leong Classified gene: RAB14 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.589 RAB14 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.589 RAB14 Ivone Leong Gene: rab14 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.588 PSMC5 Ivone Leong Classified gene: PSMC5 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.588 PSMC5 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.588 PSMC5 Ivone Leong Gene: psmc5 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.587 MMGT1 Ivone Leong Classified gene: MMGT1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.587 MMGT1 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.587 MMGT1 Ivone Leong Gene: mmgt1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.586 HNRNPD Ivone Leong Classified gene: HNRNPD as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.586 HNRNPD Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.586 HNRNPD Ivone Leong Gene: hnrnpd has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.585 FBXO31 Ivone Leong Classified gene: FBXO31 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.585 FBXO31 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.585 FBXO31 Ivone Leong Gene: fbxo31 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.584 FBXO31 Ivone Leong Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: FBXO31.
Intellectual disability v3.584 PIK3C2A Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PIK3C2A as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.584 PIK3C2A Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Maintaining Amber rating as only 2/2 individuals assessed for ID (both from the same family) are reported with it (PMID:31034465). Although authors state that 'most affected individuals exhibited neurological involvement including developmental delay', this was not formally assessed or otherwise reported on in the remaining cases.
Intellectual disability v3.584 PIK3C2A Arina Puzriakova Gene: pik3c2a has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.583 FBXO31 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: FBXO31 were changed from Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 45, MIM#615979; Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant to ?Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 45, OMIM:615979; Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant
Intellectual disability v3.582 FOXP4 Ivone Leong Classified gene: FOXP4 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.582 FOXP4 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). As ID is not present in the majority of affected patients, and the affected individuals only show mild ID, this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.582 FOXP4 Ivone Leong Gene: foxp4 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.581 DHX32 Ivone Leong Classified gene: DHX32 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.581 DHX32 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.581 DHX32 Ivone Leong Gene: dhx32 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.580 GIGYF1 Ivone Leong Classified gene: GIGYF1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.580 GIGYF1 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.580 GIGYF1 Ivone Leong Gene: gigyf1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.579 ATP6V0A1 Ivone Leong Classified gene: ATP6V0A1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.579 ATP6V0A1 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.579 ATP6V0A1 Ivone Leong Gene: atp6v0a1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.578 DDX23 Ivone Leong Classified gene: DDX23 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.578 DDX23 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.578 DDX23 Ivone Leong Gene: ddx23 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.577 DDX23 Ivone Leong Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: DDX23.
Intellectual disability v3.577 ARHGAP35 Ivone Leong Classified gene: ARHGAP35 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.577 ARHGAP35 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.577 ARHGAP35 Ivone Leong Gene: arhgap35 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.576 ARHGAP35 Ivone Leong Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: ARHGAP35.
Intellectual disability v3.576 SVBP Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SVBP were changed from Neurodevelopmental disorder with ataxia, hypotonia, and microcephaly, 618569 to Neurodevelopmental disorder with ataxia, hypotonia, and microcephaly, OMIM:618569; Neurodevelopmental disorder with ataxia, hypotonia, and microcephaly, MONDO:0032816
Intellectual disability v3.575 AP2S1 Ivone Leong Classified gene: AP2S1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.575 AP2S1 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics). There is not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association so this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.575 AP2S1 Ivone Leong Gene: ap2s1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.574 AP2S1 Ivone Leong Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: AP2S1.
Intellectual disability v3.574 ALDH7A1 Eleanor Williams reviewed gene: ALDH7A1: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 32969477; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.574 TFE3 Arina Puzriakova Tag Skewed X-inactivation tag was added to gene: TFE3.
Intellectual disability v3.574 TFE3 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: TFE3 were changed from to TFE3-related intellectual disability with pigmentary mosaicism
Intellectual disability v3.574 TFE3 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: TFE3 was changed from to X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, monoallelic mutations in females may cause disease (may be less severe, later onset than males)
Intellectual disability v3.573 ISCA-37418-Loss Zornitza Stark reviewed Region: ISCA-37418-Loss: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Smith-Magenis syndrome, MIM# 182290; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.573 CDH2 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: CDH2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31650526; Phenotypes: Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome, OMIM:618929; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.573 CDH2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: CDH2 were changed from Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome 618929 to Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome, OMIM:618929; Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome, MONDO:0030065
Intellectual disability v3.572 CDH2 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: CDH2 were set to 31585109; 9015265; 17222817
Intellectual disability v3.571 ISCA-37415-Gain Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for Region: ISCA-37415-Gain were changed from to Intellectual disability; Developmental delay; Autism; Aortopathy
Intellectual disability v3.570 ISCA-37415-Gain Arina Puzriakova Publications for Region: ISCA-37415-Gain were set to 23637818; 24352232; 21614007
Intellectual disability v3.569 ISCA-37415-Gain Zornitza Stark reviewed Region: ISCA-37415-Gain: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30287593; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability, autism, aortopathy; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.569 ATP2A2 Andrea Nemeth reviewed gene: ATP2A2: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: PMID: 25704118; Phenotypes: Intellectual disability; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.569 RNPC3 Ivone Leong gene: RNPC3 was added
gene: RNPC3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Expert Review,Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: RNPC3 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: RNPC3 were set to 24480542; 29866761; 32462814
Phenotypes for gene: RNPC3 were set to isolated growth hormone deficiency; ?Growth hormone deficiency, isolated, type V, 618160; developmental delay/intellectual deficiency and delayed puberty
Review for gene: RNPC3 was set to RED
Added comment: This gene is an Amber gene on the Growth failure in early childhood panel (v1.16). The following reviews are present for this gene on that panel:

"Comment on list classification: Based on the available evidence and expert review, this gene has been promoted from Red to Amber. This gene is associated with a relevant phenotype on OMIM. The family described in PMIDs 24480542 and 29866761 are the same. The 3 sisters in this family had GH deficiency only. PMID: 32462814 had GH deficiency and almost undetectable levels of prolactin as well.
Ivone Leong (Genomics England Curator), 15 Oct 2020

Two families reported. PMID 29866761: isolated growth deficiency and pituitary hypoplasia. PMID 32462814: growth hormone deficiency, central congenital hypothyroidism, congenital cataract, developmental delay/intellectual deficiency and delayed puberty. Full spectrum of phenotype unclear at present.
Zornitza Stark (Australian Genomics), 5 Oct 2020"

As only 1 affected family has developmental delay/intellectual deficiency, this gene is given a Red rating.
Sources: Expert Review, Literature
Intellectual disability v3.568 DNMT3A Sarah Leigh Mode of pathogenicity for gene: DNMT3A was changed from None to Other
Intellectual disability v3.568 DNMT3A Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: DNMT3A were changed from OVERGROWTH SYNDROME WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY to Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome OMIM:615879; Heyn-Sproul-Jackson syndrome OMIM:618724; MONDO:0032882
Intellectual disability v3.567 DNMT3A Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on mode of pathogenicity: Tatton-Brown-Rahman syndrome 615879 is associated with loss of function variants and Heyn-Sproul-Jackson syndrome OMIM:618724 is associated with gain of function variants.
Intellectual disability v3.567 DNMT3A Sarah Leigh Mode of pathogenicity for gene: DNMT3A was changed from to None
Intellectual disability v3.566 LMNB2 Sarah Leigh Classified gene: LMNB2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.566 LMNB2 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review.
Intellectual disability v3.566 LMNB2 Sarah Leigh Gene: lmnb2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.565 LMNB2 Sarah Leigh reviewed gene: LMNB2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33033404; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.565 DDC Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: DDC were set to 20505134
Intellectual disability v3.564 DDC Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: DDC were changed from AROMATIC L-AMINO-ACID DECARBOXYLASE DEFICIENCY to Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency, OMIM:608643; Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase deficiency, MONDO:0012084
Intellectual disability v3.563 AGAP1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: AGAP1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.563 AGAP1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added as Amber. Clinical reports are generally limited and the contribution of secondary variants in other genes in 2 subjects cannot be ruled out. Additional cases necessary to corroborate this gene-disease association.
Intellectual disability v3.563 AGAP1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: agap1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.562 AGAP1 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: AGAP1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31700678, 30472483, 25666757; Phenotypes: Cerebral palsy, Developmental delay; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.562 MPP5 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: MPP5 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.562 MPP5 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. ased on the evidence provided in PMID:33073849, this gene should be promoted to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag) - 3 unrelated individuals with de novo variants in the MPP5 gene associated with ID/GDD, language delay/regression and behavioural changes. Supportive animal model.
Intellectual disability v3.562 MPP5 Arina Puzriakova Gene: mpp5 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.561 MPP5 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: MPP5.
Intellectual disability v3.561 JARID2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: JARID2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.561 JARID2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is sufficient evidence to rate this gene Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag). Multiple unrelated individuals all with DD as the common feature, as well as ID in the majority of cases.
Intellectual disability v3.561 JARID2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: jarid2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.560 JARID2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: JARID2 were changed from Intellectual disability to Intellectual disability; Neurodevelopmental syndrome
Intellectual disability v3.559 JARID2 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: JARID2.
Intellectual disability v3.559 JARID2 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: JARID2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33077894; Phenotypes: Neurodevelopmental syndrome; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.559 LMNB1 Sarah Leigh changed review comment from: Not associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM (19/11/2020), but as confirmed Gen2Phen gene for LMNB1-associated developmental disorder. At least 7 variants reported in at least 7 unrelated cases. Each variant was associated with intellectual disability and microcephaly (PMID 32910914; 33033404).; to: Not associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM (19/11/2020), but as confirmed Gen2Phen gene for LMNB1-associated developmental disorder. At least 5 variants reported in at least 5 unrelated cases. Each variant was associated with intellectual disability and microcephaly (PMID 32910914; 33033404).
Intellectual disability v3.559 LMNB1 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: LMNB1 were changed from Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Microcephaly; Short stature; Seizures; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Cortical gyral simplification; Feeding difficulties; Scoliosis to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Microcephaly; Short stature; Seizures; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Cortical gyral simplification; Feeding difficulties; Scoliosis; LMNB1-associated developmental disorder
Intellectual disability v3.558 LMNB1 Sarah Leigh edited their review of gene: LMNB1: Added comment: Not associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM (19/11/2020), but as confirmed Gen2Phen gene for LMNB1-associated developmental disorder. At least 7 variants reported in at least 7 unrelated cases. Each variant was associated with intellectual disability and microcephaly (PMID 32910914; 33033404).; Changed rating: GREEN; Changed phenotypes: LMNB1-associated developmental disorder
Intellectual disability v3.558 LMNB1 Sarah Leigh Classified gene: LMNB1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.558 LMNB1 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review.
Intellectual disability v3.558 LMNB1 Sarah Leigh Gene: lmnb1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.557 LMNB1 Sarah Leigh Tag for-review tag was added to gene: LMNB1.
Intellectual disability v3.557 PJA1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PJA1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.557 PJA1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Upgraded rating from Red to Amber - 7 individuals reported in PMID:32530565 all with ID, albeit due to a founder variant. Some cases with deletions encompassing this gene reported with mild DD, however contribution of other affected genes cannot be ruled out. Evidence of pathogenicity of other PJA1 variants is required prior to inclusion on a diagnostic panel.
Intellectual disability v3.557 PJA1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: pja1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.556 PJA1 Arina Puzriakova Tag founder-effect tag was added to gene: PJA1.
Intellectual disability v3.556 PJA1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: PJA1 were set to 17941886; 12036302; 11533224
Intellectual disability v3.555 LMNB1 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: LMNB1 were set to 32910914
Intellectual disability v3.554 MAPK1 Catherine Snow Tag for-review tag was added to gene: MAPK1.
Intellectual disability v3.554 MAPK1 Catherine Snow Classified gene: MAPK1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.554 MAPK1 Catherine Snow Gene: mapk1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.553 MAPK1 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: MAPK1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments; Publications: 32721402; Phenotypes: Noonan syndrome 13, OMIM:619087, MONDO:0018997; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.553 FAM50A Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: FAM50A were changed from Mental retardation syndrome, X-linked, Armfield type (MIM #300261) to Mental retardation syndrome, X-linked, Armfield type, OMIM:300261; Armfield syndrome, MONDO:0010284
Intellectual disability v3.552 FAM50A Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: FAM50A as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.552 FAM50A Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Based on the evidence provided in PMID:32703943, this gene should be promoted to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag) - 6 individuals from 5 families, all exhibiting GDD/ID as the common presenting feature.
Intellectual disability v3.552 FAM50A Arina Puzriakova Gene: fam50a has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.551 FAM50A Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: FAM50A.
Intellectual disability v3.551 PRKACB Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PRKACB as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.551 PRKACB Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Rating Amber based on the evidence provided in one publication (PMID:33058759) reporting 2/4 unrelated individuals with ID among other features, although this presentation was mild in one of these cases.
Intellectual disability v3.551 PRKACB Arina Puzriakova Gene: prkacb has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.550 PIGQ Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on phenotypes: According to Joanna Peas-Welch (OMIM), Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-4 (MCAHS4) will replace Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 77, OMIM:618548 as the name for this phenotype (12/11/2020).
Intellectual disability v3.550 PIGQ Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: PIGQ were changed from Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile 77, OMIM:618548 to Multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-4 OMIM:618548
Intellectual disability v3.549 NARS Sarah Leigh Tag new-gene-name tag was added to gene: NARS.
Intellectual disability v3.549 PIGQ Sarah Leigh edited their review of gene: PIGQ: Added comment: Associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM and as possible Gen2Phen gene for severe early onset epilepsy. At least 11 variants reported in seven unrelated cases of multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome-4 (MCAHS4)(Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 77 618548)(OMIM:618548).; Changed rating: GREEN; Changed phenotypes: OMIM:618548; Changed mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.549 PIGQ Sarah Leigh Classified gene: PIGQ as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.549 PIGQ Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review.
Intellectual disability v3.549 PIGQ Sarah Leigh Gene: pigq has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.548 PIGQ Sarah Leigh Tag for-review tag was added to gene: PIGQ.
Intellectual disability v3.548 COX6B1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: COX6B1 were changed from MITOCHONDRIAL COMPLEX IV DEFICIENCY (MT-C4D) to Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency, nuclear type 7, OMIM:619051
Intellectual disability v3.547 COX6B1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: COX6B1 were set to 0
Intellectual disability v3.546 COX6B1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: COX6B1 as Green List (high evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.546 COX6B1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: This gene should be demoted from Green to Red and will be flagged for evaluation at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag) in view of the recent review by Zornitza Stark. As discussed the disease presentation is not prominent for ID, and rather is primarily characterised by lactate acidosis and encephalopathy which should be sufficient indications for diagnostic testing - COX6B1 is already Green on relevant metabolic/mitochondrial panels.
Intellectual disability v3.546 COX6B1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: cox6b1 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.545 PIGQ Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: PIGQ were changed from Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile 77, 618548 to Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile 77, OMIM:618548
Intellectual disability v3.544 PIGQ Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: PIGQ were changed from SEVERE EARLY-ONSET EPILEPSY; Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 77, 618548 to Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile 77, 618548
Intellectual disability v3.543 PIGQ Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: PIGQ were set to 24463883
Intellectual disability v3.542 COX6B1 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: COX6B1.
Intellectual disability v3.542 TFE3 Sarah Leigh changed review comment from: Not associated with a relevant phenotype in OMIM, but as a confirmed Gen2Phen gene for X-linked dominant Intellectual disability with pigmentary mosaicism and storage disorder and hemizygous TFE3-related intellectual disability with pigmentary mosaicism. At least 14 variants reported as de novo events in 17 unrelated cases of severe intellectual disability with pigmentary mosaicism and storage disorder-like features (no relevant OMIM or MONDO title as of 16/11/2020).

There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review.; to: Not associated with a relevant phenotype in OMIM, but as a confirmed Gen2Phen gene for X-linked dominant Intellectual disability with pigmentary mosaicism and storage disorder and hemizygous TFE3-related intellectual disability with pigmentary mosaicism. At least 14 variants reported as de novo events in 17 unrelated cases of severe intellectual disability with pigmentary mosaicism and storage disorder-like features (no relevant OMIM or MONDO title as of 16/11/2020).
Intellectual disability v3.542 TFE3 Sarah Leigh Classified gene: TFE3 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.542 TFE3 Sarah Leigh Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review.
Intellectual disability v3.542 TFE3 Sarah Leigh Gene: tfe3 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.541 TFE3 Sarah Leigh changed review comment from: Associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM and as confirmed Gen2Phen gene. At least 14 variants reported as de novo events in 17 unrelated cases of severe intellectual disability with pigmentary mosaicism and storage disorder-like features (no OMIM or MONDO title as of 16/11/2020).

There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review.; to: Not associated with a relevant phenotype in OMIM, but as a confirmed Gen2Phen gene for X-linked dominant Intellectual disability with pigmentary mosaicism and storage disorder and hemizygous TFE3-related intellectual disability with pigmentary mosaicism. At least 14 variants reported as de novo events in 17 unrelated cases of severe intellectual disability with pigmentary mosaicism and storage disorder-like features (no relevant OMIM or MONDO title as of 16/11/2020).

There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review.
Intellectual disability v3.541 TFE3 Sarah Leigh reviewed gene: TFE3: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.541 SCO1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SCO1 were changed from MITOCHONDRIAL COMPLEX IV DEFICIENCY (MT-C4D) to Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency, nuclear type 4, OMIM:619048
Intellectual disability v3.540 SCO1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SCO1 as Green List (high evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.540 SCO1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: This gene should be demoted from Green to Red and will be flagged for evaluation at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag), in view of the recent review by Zornitza Stark. As discussed the phenotype is primarily characterised by lactate acidosis and encephalopathy which should be sufficient indications for diagnostic testing - SCO1 is already Green on relevant metabolic/mitochondrial panels.
Intellectual disability v3.540 SCO1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: sco1 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.539 TFE3 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: TFE3 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.538 TFE3 Sarah Leigh Tag for-review tag was added to gene: TFE3.
Intellectual disability v3.538 SCO1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: SCO1 were set to 0
Intellectual disability v3.537 SCO1 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: SCO1.
Intellectual disability v3.537 EXOC2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: EXOC2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.537 EXOC2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Updating rating from Grey to Amber based on one publication (PMID:32639540) reporting 2 families with EXOC2 variants and variable ID, among other features. Additional cases with a significant ID phenotype are required before inclusion of this gene on a diagnostic panel.
Intellectual disability v3.537 EXOC2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: exoc2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.536 TBC1D2B Arina Puzriakova Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: TBC1D2B.
Intellectual disability v3.536 TBC1D2B Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: TBC1D2B as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.536 TBC1D2B Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Updating rating from Grey to Amber based on one publication (PMID:32623794). Manifestation of ID is variable amongst cases, but is mostly within the mild range. Additional cases would help determine the relevance of ID to the overall disease presentation (added 'watchlist' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.536 TBC1D2B Arina Puzriakova Gene: tbc1d2b has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.535 PAX1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PAX1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.535 PAX1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added and rated Amber by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Updating rating from Grey to Amber based on 2 papers (PMID:29681087 and PMID:23851939) reporting 2 unrelated cases with mild ID.
Intellectual disability v3.535 PAX1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: pax1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.534 ABCA2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: ABCA2 were changed from Intellectual developmental disorder with poor growth and with or without seizures or ataxia, 618808 to Intellectual developmental disorder with poor growth and with or without seizures or ataxia, OMIM:618808; Intellectual developmental disorder with poor growth and with or without seizures or ataxia, MONDO:0032930
Intellectual disability v3.533 ABCA2 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: ABCA2.
Intellectual disability v3.533 ABCA2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: ABCA2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.533 ABCA2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Although not all published cases have a diagnosis of ID (and of those that do, only 1 family with moderate ID), global developmental delay is the most commonly observed features and therefore, this panel may be the most applicable for detecting patients.

Rating Amber, but this will be flagged for review at the next GMS panel update to assess the relevance of the phenotype and determine whether there is sufficient evidence to rate this gene Green (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.533 ABCA2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: abca2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.532 ABCA2 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: ABCA2: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30237576, 29302074, 31047799; Phenotypes: Intellectual developmental disorder with poor growth and with or without seizures or ataxia, OMIM: 618808; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.532 CEP120 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: CEP120.
Intellectual disability v3.532 CEP120 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: CEP120 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.532 CEP120 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Based on the evidence provided, this gene should be promoted to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)

4 unrelated individuals with distinct variants in the CEP120 gene and Joubert syndrome, including a neurological phenotype in all consisting of hypotonia, developmental delay and cognitive impairment (PMID:27208211).
Intellectual disability v3.532 CEP120 Arina Puzriakova Gene: cep120 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.531 NUS1 Eleanor Williams edited their review of gene: NUS1: Added comment: As reported by reviewer Konstantinos Varvagiannis another 2 cases now reported by Den et al 2019 (PMID: 31656175). 2 unrelated Japanese patients with a novel, recurrent, de novo NUS1 variant, who presented with epileptic seizures with involuntary movement, ataxia, intellectual disability and scoliosis. The variant c.691 + 1C > A, creates a new splice donor site resulting in a 91 bp deletion in exon 3.

This now gives a total of 5 families with heterozygous variants in NUS1 and a presentation of developmental delay and epileptic encephalopathy.; Changed publications: 31656175
Intellectual disability v3.531 PET100 Eleanor Williams Classified gene: PET100 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.531 PET100 Eleanor Williams Added comment: Comment on list classification: Leaving this gene rating as amber until the next GMS review, but as reviewer Zornitza Stark notes there are 8 Lebanese familes with the same variant, plus an Asian British family with a similar phenotype and a different variant, plus functional data to support the disease causation, so would recommend Green rating.
Intellectual disability v3.531 PET100 Eleanor Williams Gene: pet100 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.530 PET100 Eleanor Williams Tag for-review tag was added to gene: PET100.
Intellectual disability v3.530 PET100 Eleanor Williams Added comment: Comment on phenotypes: Removing MIM# 220110 as this is associated with variants in SURF1
Intellectual disability v3.530 PET100 Eleanor Williams Phenotypes for gene: PET100 were changed from Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency,220110; Intellectual disability; Complex IV-deficient Leigh syndrome to Intellectual disability; Complex IV-deficient Leigh syndrome; Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency, nuclear type 12 OMIM:619055
Intellectual disability v3.529 PET100 Eleanor Williams Publications for gene: PET100 were set to 26425749; 24462369; 25293719
Intellectual disability v3.528 PET100 Eleanor Williams reviewed gene: PET100: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 24462369, 25293719, 31406627; Phenotypes: Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency, nuclear type 12 OMIM:619055, Leigh syndrome; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.528 PIGH Eleanor Williams Phenotypes for gene: PIGH were changed from Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect, 17; 618010; Hypotonia, moderate developmental delay, and autism, two episodes of febrile seizures to Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect, 17 OMIM:618010; Hypotonia, moderate developmental delay, and autism, two episodes of febrile seizures
Intellectual disability v3.527 PIGH Eleanor Williams Classified gene: PIGH as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.527 PIGH Eleanor Williams Added comment: Comment on list classification: Leaving as amber for now, but this gene should be reviewed at the next GMS update. It is borderline green as there are 5 families reported with DD/ID but only two without epilepsy.
Intellectual disability v3.527 PIGH Eleanor Williams Gene: pigh has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.526 PIGH Eleanor Williams Tag for-review tag was added to gene: PIGH.
Intellectual disability v3.526 PIGH Eleanor Williams reviewed gene: PIGH: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33156547, 29573052, 29603516; Phenotypes: Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect 17 OMIM:618010; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.526 TMEM106B Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: TMEM106B were changed from Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 16 (MIM #617964) to Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 16, OMIM:617964; Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 16, MONDO:0054791
Intellectual disability v3.525 PRKAR1B Ivone Leong Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: PRKAR1B.
Intellectual disability v3.525 PRKAR1B Ivone Leong Classified gene: PRKAR1B as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.525 PRKAR1B Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Based on the provided evidence this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.525 PRKAR1B Ivone Leong Gene: prkar1b has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.524 KCNC3 Catherine Snow Tag for-review tag was added to gene: KCNC3.
Intellectual disability v3.524 KCNC3 Catherine Snow Phenotypes for gene: KCNC3 were changed from Spinocerebellar ataxia 13, OMIM:605259; MONDO:0011529 to Spinocerebellar ataxia 13, OMIM:605259; MONDO:0011529
Intellectual disability v3.523 KCNC3 Catherine Snow Phenotypes for gene: KCNC3 were changed from SPINOCEREBELLAR ATAXIA TYPE 13 (SCA13) to Spinocerebellar ataxia 13, OMIM:605259; MONDO:0011529
Intellectual disability v3.523 KCNC3 Catherine Snow Publications for gene: KCNC3 were set to 32655623; 25756792
Intellectual disability v3.523 KCNC3 Catherine Snow Publications for gene: KCNC3 were set to 0
Intellectual disability v3.522 KCNC3 Catherine Snow reviewed gene: KCNC3: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 32655623; Phenotypes: Spinocerebellar ataxia 13, OMIM:605259, MONDO:0011529; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.522 LSS Eleanor Williams commented on gene: LSS
Intellectual disability v3.522 TMEM106B Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: TMEM106B as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.522 TMEM106B Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is sufficient evidence to rate this gene Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag) in view of 6 cases with the same variant and phenotype, supported by some evidence of altered gene function.

Inclusion on this panel would also cover the hypotonia feature exhibited by most cases in the neonatal period (as ID is a sub-panel of the Hypotonic Infant super panel)
Intellectual disability v3.522 TMEM106B Arina Puzriakova Gene: tmem106b has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.521 TMEM106B Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: TMEM106B were set to 29186371; 29444210; 32595021
Intellectual disability v3.520 TMEM106B Arina Puzriakova Tag missense tag was added to gene: TMEM106B.
Intellectual disability v3.520 TMEM106B Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: TMEM106B.
Intellectual disability v3.520 TMEM106B Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: TMEM106B: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments; Publications: 29186371, 29444210, 30643851, 32595021; Phenotypes: Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 16 OMIM:617964; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.520 AFF3 Sarah Leigh changed review comment from: Not associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM and as probable Gen2Phen gene for Skeletal dysplasia with severe neurological disease. At least 2 variants have been reported in peer reviewed literature, further four variants have been reported in a preprint (July 2019). This preprint has not been published in a peer reviewed (as of 06/08/2020). There are convincing aminal models; to: Not associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM and as probable Gen2Phen gene for Skeletal dysplasia with severe neurological disease. At least 2 variants have been reported in peer reviewed literature, further four variants have been reported in a preprint (July 2019). This preprint has not been published in a peer reviewed (as of 06/08/2020). There are convincing aminal models. If the preprint is peer reviewed and the evidence is relevant, then this gene could be rated green at the next major review (as of 12/11/2020).
Intellectual disability v3.520 ZMYM2 Ivone Leong Classified gene: ZMYM2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.520 ZMYM2 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. This gene is probably associated with a phenotype on Gene2Phenotype. This gene has been given an Amber rating based on the expert review and the evidence provided. As ID is not an identifying part of the phenotype and not all affected individuals had ID, this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.520 ZMYM2 Ivone Leong Gene: zmym2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.519 AFF3 Sarah Leigh Tag for-review tag was added to gene: AFF3.
Intellectual disability v3.519 AFF3 Sarah Leigh changed review comment from: Not associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM and as probable Gen2Phen gene for Skeletal dysplasia with severe neurological disease. At least 2 variants have been reported in peer reviewed literature, further four variants have been reported in a preprint (July 2019). This preprint has not been published in a peer reviewed (as of 06/08/2020). There are confvincing aminal models; to: Not associated with relevant phenotype in OMIM and as probable Gen2Phen gene for Skeletal dysplasia with severe neurological disease. At least 2 variants have been reported in peer reviewed literature, further four variants have been reported in a preprint (July 2019). This preprint has not been published in a peer reviewed (as of 06/08/2020). There are convincing aminal models
Intellectual disability v3.519 WNT5A Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: WNT5A
Intellectual disability v3.519 WFS1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: WFS1 were changed from to Wolfram syndrome 1, 222300; Wolfram-like syndrome, autosomal dominant, 614296
Intellectual disability v3.518 WFS1 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: WFS1 was changed from to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.517 WFS1 Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: WFS1
Intellectual disability v3.517 MAPRE2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: MAPRE2 were changed from Circumferential Skin Creases Kunze Type to Symmetric circumferential skin creases, congenital, 2, 616734
Intellectual disability v3.516 MAPRE2 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: MAPRE2 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.515 MAPRE2 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: MAPRE2 was changed from BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic (but BIALLELIC mutations cause a more SEVERE disease form), autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.514 MAPRE2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: MAPRE2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.514 MAPRE2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There are sufficient cases to promote this gene rating to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag). Also not all patients present other associated features for which this gene is on a panel (e.g. Clefting, Structural eye disease) and so ID should be a sufficient indication for detecting these cases.
Intellectual disability v3.514 MAPRE2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: mapre2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.513 MAPRE2 Arina Puzriakova edited their review of gene: MAPRE2: Changed mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic (but BIALLELIC mutations cause a more SEVERE disease form), autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.513 MAPRE2 Arina Puzriakova edited their review of gene: MAPRE2: Changed mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.513 MAPRE2 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: MAPRE2.
Intellectual disability v3.513 MAPRE2 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: MAPRE2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26637975, 31903734, 31502381; Phenotypes: Symmetric circumferential skin creases, congenital, 2, 616734; Mode of inheritance: BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.513 MAP1B Arina Puzriakova Deleted their comment
Intellectual disability v3.513 MAP1B Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: MAP1B as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.513 MAP1B Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Maintaining Amber rating as although cognitive impairment is reported in multiple (but not all) cases, often this is mild and not sufficient for a clinical diagnosis of ID. Affected individuals are more likely to be assessed in view of the brain malformations - MAP1B will be added to the 'Malformations of cortical development' panel.
Intellectual disability v3.513 MAP1B Arina Puzriakova Gene: map1b has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.512 MAP1B Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: MAP1B were changed from Intellectual disability; No OMIM number to Periventricular nodular heterotopia 9, 618918
Intellectual disability v3.511 MAP1B Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: MAP1B were set to 30150678; 29738522
Intellectual disability v3.510 MAP1B Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: MAP1B: Only one homozygous case identified in a screening study of a congenital microcephaly cohort. Other features included hypochromic microcytic anaemia, lymphocytic colitis, retinal coloboma, dysmorphic features, and normal brain MRI. As this is only considered a candidate variant and the phenotype is not compatible with other monoallelic reports, the evidence is currently insufficient for a disease association with biallelic variants (PMID:30214071)
Intellectual disability v3.510 MAP1B Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: MAP1B: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30150678, 29738522, 30214071, 31317654; Phenotypes: Periventricular nodular heterotopia 9, 618918; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.510 SPTBN4 Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: SPTBN4: Review by Helen Brittain (Genomics England Clinical Team): the phenotype is characterised by marked hypotonia in infancy and developmental delay / ID. Adding as Green to the ID panel would therefore cover both of these GMS indications (as the Hypotonic Infant super panel has the ID panel as a sub-panel).
Intellectual disability v3.510 HDAC4 Sarah Leigh changed review comment from: There are many cases of 2q37.3 terminal region (includes HDAC4) loss in PMID 30848064, however, there are only two intragenic variants in HDAC4, with a rating of VUS and as such this gene should be rated as amber.; to: There are many cases of 2q37.3 terminal region (includes HDAC4) loss in PMID 30848064, however, there are only two intragenic variants in HDAC4, with a rating of VUS.
This gene should be rated as amber at the next major review.
Intellectual disability v3.510 HDAC4 Sarah Leigh Tag for-review tag was added to gene: HDAC4.
Intellectual disability v3.510 HDAC4 Sarah Leigh changed review comment from: There are many cases of 2q37.3 terminal region (includes HDAC4) loss in PMID 30848064, however, there are only two intragenic variants in HDAC4, with a rating of VUS and as such the this gene should be rated as amber.; to: There are many cases of 2q37.3 terminal region (includes HDAC4) loss in PMID 30848064, however, there are only two intragenic variants in HDAC4, with a rating of VUS and as such this gene should be rated as amber.
Intellectual disability v3.510 HDAC4 Sarah Leigh reviewed gene: HDAC4: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30848064; Phenotypes: Chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome 600430; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.510 ISCA-37394-Loss Sarah Leigh reviewed Region: ISCA-37394-Loss: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 30848064; Phenotypes: Chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome 600430; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.510 ZFHX4 Zornitza Stark edited their review of gene: ZFHX4: Changed rating: GREEN
Intellectual disability v3.510 ZFHX4 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: ZFHX4: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33057194, 24038936; Phenotypes: Developmental disorders, intellectual disability, dysmorphic features; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.510 UPF1 Zornitza Stark gene: UPF1 was added
gene: UPF1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: UPF1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: UPF1 were set to 33057194
Phenotypes for gene: UPF1 were set to Developmental disorders
Review for gene: UPF1 was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 33057194 - Has been identified as a gene with significant de novo enrichment in a large trio study from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. 16 de novo variants (1 frameshift, 11 missense, 4 synonymous) identified in ~10,000 cases with developmental disorders (no other phenotype info provided, hence Amber rating).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 U2AF2 Zornitza Stark gene: U2AF2 was added
gene: U2AF2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: U2AF2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: U2AF2 were set to 33057194
Phenotypes for gene: U2AF2 were set to Developmental disorders
Review for gene: U2AF2 was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 33057194 - Has been identified as a gene with significant de novo enrichment in a large trio study from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. 10 de novo variants (1 in-frame, 8 missense, 1 synoymous) identified in ~10,000 cases with developmental disorders (no other phenotype info provided, hence Amber rating).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 TCF7L2 Zornitza Stark gene: TCF7L2 was added
gene: TCF7L2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: TCF7L2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: TCF7L2 were set to 33057194
Phenotypes for gene: TCF7L2 were set to Developmental disorders
Review for gene: TCF7L2 was set to AMBER
Added comment: A diabetes susceptibility locus associated with common SNVs, see OMIM for details.

PMID: 33057194 - Has been identified as a gene with significant de novo enrichment in a large trio study from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. 12 de novo variants (2 frameshift, 6 missense, 1 splice acceptor, 2 stopgain, 1 synonymous) identified in ~10,000 cases with developmental disorders (no other phenotype info provided, hence Amber rating).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 SRRM2 Zornitza Stark gene: SRRM2 was added
gene: SRRM2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: SRRM2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: SRRM2 were set to 33057194
Phenotypes for gene: SRRM2 were set to Developmental disorders
Review for gene: SRRM2 was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 33057194 - Has been identified as a gene with significant de novo enrichment in a large trio study from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. 28 de novo variants (11 frameshift, 7 missense, 1 splice acceptor, 5 stopgain, 4 synonymous) identified in ~10,000 cases with developmental disorders (no other phenotype info provided hence Amber rating).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 SPEN Zornitza Stark gene: SPEN was added
gene: SPEN was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: SPEN was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: SPEN were set to 33057194
Phenotypes for gene: SPEN were set to Developmental disorders
Review for gene: SPEN was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 33057194 - Has been identified as a gene with significant de novo enrichment in a large trio study from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. 25 de novo variants (6 frameshift, 1 in-frame, 7 missense, 8 stopgain, 3 synonymous) identified in ~10,000 cases with developmental disorders (no other phenotype info provided, hence Amber rating).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 SATB1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SATB1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33057194; Phenotypes: Developmental disorders; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability v3.510 RAB14 Zornitza Stark gene: RAB14 was added
gene: RAB14 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: RAB14 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: RAB14 were set to 33057194
Phenotypes for gene: RAB14 were set to Developmental disorders
Review for gene: RAB14 was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 33057194 - Has been identified as a gene with significant de novo enrichment in a large trio study from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. 8 de novo variants (1 in-frame, 7 missense) identified in ~10,000 cases with developmental disorders (no other phenotype info provided hence Amber rating).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 PSMC5 Zornitza Stark gene: PSMC5 was added
gene: PSMC5 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: PSMC5 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: PSMC5 were set to 33057194
Phenotypes for gene: PSMC5 were set to Developmental disorders
Review for gene: PSMC5 was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 33057194 - Has been identified as a gene with significant de novo enrichment in a large trio study from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. 10 de novo variants (1 in-frame, 9 missense) identified in ~10,000 cases with developmental disorders (no other phenotype info provided hence Amber rating).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 MSL2 Zornitza Stark gene: MSL2 was added
gene: MSL2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: MSL2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: MSL2 were set to 31332282; 33057194
Phenotypes for gene: MSL2 were set to Developmental disorders; autism
Review for gene: MSL2 was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 33057194 - Has been identified as a gene with significant de novo enrichment in a large trio study from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. 13 de novo variants (9 frameshift, 4 missense) identified in ~10,000 cases with developmental disorders (no other phenotype info provided hence Amber rating).
PMID: 31332282 - candidate gene in a single autism study, with recurrent de novo variants in a potential oligogenic model
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 MMGT1 Zornitza Stark gene: MMGT1 was added
gene: MMGT1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: MMGT1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: MMGT1 were set to 33057194
Phenotypes for gene: MMGT1 were set to Developmental disorders
Review for gene: MMGT1 was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 33057194 - Has been identified as a gene with significant de novo enrichment in a large trio study from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. 3 de novo missense identified in ~10,000 cases with developmental disorders (no other phenotype info provided hence Amber rating).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 HNRNPD Zornitza Stark gene: HNRNPD was added
gene: HNRNPD was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: HNRNPD was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: HNRNPD were set to 33057194
Phenotypes for gene: HNRNPD were set to Developmental disorders
Review for gene: HNRNPD was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 33057194 - Has been identified as a gene with significant de novo enrichment in a large trio study from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. 8 de novo variants (5 frameshift, 1 missense, 1 splice acceptor, 1 synonymous) identified in ~10,000 cases with developmental disorders (no other phenotype info provided hence Amber rating).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 GIGYF1 Zornitza Stark gene: GIGYF1 was added
gene: GIGYF1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: GIGYF1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: GIGYF1 were set to 33057194
Phenotypes for gene: GIGYF1 were set to Developmental disorder
Review for gene: GIGYF1 was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 33057194 - Has been identified as a gene with significant de novo enrichment in a large trio study from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. 14 de novo variants (4 frameshift, 5 missense, 1 splice donor, 3 stopgain, 1 synonymous) identified in ~10,000 cases with developmental disorders (no other phenotype info provided hence Amber rating).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 FOXP4 Zornitza Stark gene: FOXP4 was added
gene: FOXP4 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: FOXP4 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: FOXP4 were set to 33110267
Phenotypes for gene: FOXP4 were set to Neurodevelopmental disorder; multiple congenital abnormalities
Review for gene: FOXP4 was set to AMBER
Added comment: This gene is a little bit difficult to place, may be Green on Fetal Anomalies panel?

Eight unrelated individuals reported, seven de novo missense, and one individual with a truncating variant. Detailed phenotypic information available on 6. Overlapping features included speech and language delays, growth abnormalities, congenital diaphragmatic hernia (2/6), cervical spine abnormalities, and ptosis. Intellectual disability described as mild in 2, some had normal intellect despite the early speech and language delays, hence Amber rating here.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 DHX32 Zornitza Stark gene: DHX32 was added
gene: DHX32 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: DHX32 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: DHX32 were set to 32989326
Phenotypes for gene: DHX32 were set to Intellectual disability, spastic diplegia, dystonia, brain abnormalities
Review for gene: DHX32 was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 32989326 - Large cohort study of cerebral palsy cases identified two de novo variants in two unrelated patients with intellectual disability, one with spastic diplegia, and the other characterised as generalised dystonia. Brain abnormalities were identified also.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 FBXO31 Zornitza Stark edited their review of gene: FBXO31: Changed phenotypes: Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 45, MIM#615979, Intellectual disability, spasticity, autosomal dominant
Intellectual disability v3.510 FBXO31 Zornitza Stark gene: FBXO31 was added
gene: FBXO31 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: FBXO31 was set to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: FBXO31 were set to 24623383; 32989326
Phenotypes for gene: FBXO31 were set to Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 45, MIM#615979; Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant
Review for gene: FBXO31 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Bi-allelic variants: Single consanguineous family reported with homozygous truncating variant, limited functional evidence.

Mono-allelic variants: 2 unrelated probands reported as part of a 'cerebral palsy' cohort harbouring the same de novo missense variant (p.Asp334Asn). The variant affects the cyclin D interaction site, leading to an apparent gain of function of cyclin D degradation, supported by Western blots from patient fibroblasts which showed decreased cyclin D expression.

Patient phenotypes: Spastic diplegia, with esotropia, ID, dysarthria, mixed receptive/expressive language disorder, ADHD, cleft palate, intestinal malrotation and midgut volvulus (patient 1); Spastic paraplegia with ventricular dilation and thin corpus callosum, ID, attention deficit, anxiety, language impairments, strabismus, severe constipation (patient 2).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 AP2S1 Zornitza Stark gene: AP2S1 was added
gene: AP2S1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: AP2S1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: AP2S1 were set to 33057194
Phenotypes for gene: AP2S1 were set to Developmental disorder
Review for gene: AP2S1 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Established hypercalcaemia gene. PMID: 33057194 - Has been identified as a gene with significant de novo enrichment in a large trio developmental disorder study. 5 de novo missense identified in ~10,000 cases with developmental disorders (no other phenotype info provided, hence Amber rating).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 ARHGAP35 Zornitza Stark gene: ARHGAP35 was added
gene: ARHGAP35 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: ARHGAP35 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: ARHGAP35 were set to 33057194
Phenotypes for gene: ARHGAP35 were set to Developmental disorder
Review for gene: ARHGAP35 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Has been identified as a gene with significant de novo enrichment in a large trio developmental disorder study. 16 de novo variants (3 frameshift, 2 in-frame, 10 missense, 1 stopgain) identified in ~10,000 cases with developmental disorders (no other phenotype info provided, hence Amber rating).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 ATP6V0A1 Zornitza Stark gene: ATP6V0A1 was added
gene: ATP6V0A1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: ATP6V0A1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: ATP6V0A1 were set to 30842224; 33057194
Phenotypes for gene: ATP6V0A1 were set to Developmental disorder; Rett syndrome-like
Review for gene: ATP6V0A1 was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 33057194 - Has been identified as a gene with significant de novo enrichment in a large trio developmental disorder study. 11 de novo missense identified in ~10,000 cases with developmental disorders (no other phenotype info provided hence Amber rating).
PMID: 30842224 - identified a de novo missense variant in a single individual with atypical Rett syndrome phenotype
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 DDX23 Zornitza Stark gene: DDX23 was added
gene: DDX23 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: DDX23 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: DDX23 were set to 33057194
Phenotypes for gene: DDX23 were set to Developmental disorder
Review for gene: DDX23 was set to AMBER
Added comment: PMID: 33057194 - Has been identified as a gene with significant de novo enrichment in a large trio developmental disorder study. 6 de novo missense identified in ~10,000 cases with developmental disorders (rated Amber as no other phenotype info provided).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.510 NUDT2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: NUDT2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.510 NUDT2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: This gene should be promoted to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag). There are now at least 2 biallelic variants reported in 6 families - 3 of which present GDD and ID, while the remaining had delay but borderline intelligence.
Intellectual disability v3.510 NUDT2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: nudt2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.509 NUDT2 Arina Puzriakova Tag founder-effect was removed from gene: NUDT2.
Tag for-review tag was added to gene: NUDT2.
Intellectual disability v3.509 NUDT2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: NUDT2 were changed from Muscular hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; no OMIM number to Muscular hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Polyneuropathy; no OMIM number
Intellectual disability v3.508 NUDT2 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: NUDT2 were set to 27431290; 30059600
Intellectual disability v3.507 NUDT2 Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: NUDT2
Intellectual disability v3.507 NEMF Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: NEMF as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.507 NEMF Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Rating Amber but there is sufficient evidence to promote to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.507 NEMF Arina Puzriakova Gene: nemf has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.506 NEMF Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: NEMF were set to 32934225
Intellectual disability v3.505 NEMF Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on mode of inheritance: Set MOI to 'Biallelic' as currently only 1 case (total 14) with a monoallelic variant described but with normal intellectual development.
Intellectual disability v3.505 NEMF Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: NEMF was changed from BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.504 NEMF Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: NEMF.
Intellectual disability v3.504 NEMF Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: NEMF: At least 14 unrelated families reported with variants in NEMF (13 biallelic, 1 monoallelic). GDD/ID is reported in all but 2 cases (USA1 and USA3 in PMID: 32934225) albeit mostly within the mild range. Nonetheless, there are sufficient cases with moderate-severe ID to warrant a Green rating on this panel. Some cases also do not present all other features associated with NEMF variants (e.g. neuropathy) providing further support for inclusion.
Intellectual disability v3.504 NEMF Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: NEMF: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 27431290, 33048237; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.504 SETD1A Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SETD1A were changed from Schizophrenia; developmental disorder; Intellectual disability to Neurodevelopmental disorder with speech impairment and dysmorphic facies, 619056; Epilepsy, early-onset, with or without developmental delay, 618832
Intellectual disability v3.503 SETD1A Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: SETD1A were set to 28135719; 26974950; 31197650
Intellectual disability v3.502 SETD1A Arina Puzriakova Tag watchlist was removed from gene: SETD1A.
Intellectual disability v3.502 SETD1A Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: SETD1A
Intellectual disability v3.502 SETD1A Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: SETD1A.
Intellectual disability v3.502 JARID2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: JARID2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.502 ARID2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on publications: Added new publication (Kang et al. 2020) reviewing phenotypes of patients with ARID2 variants, and supporting the current Green rating on this panel.
Intellectual disability v3.502 ARID2 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: ARID2 were set to 28124119; 26238514
Intellectual disability v3.501 ARID2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: ARID2 were changed from Coffin-Siris syndrome-like phenotype to Coffin-Siris syndrome 6, 617808; ARID2-Coffin-Siris like disorder
Intellectual disability v3.500 JARID2 Zornitza Stark gene: JARID2 was added
gene: JARID2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: JARID2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: JARID2 were set to 23294540; 33077894
Phenotypes for gene: JARID2 were set to Intellectual disability
Review for gene: JARID2 was set to GREEN
gene: JARID2 was marked as current diagnostic
Added comment: 13 individuals reported recently, note CNVs common but LOF sequence variants identified too.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.500 NUDT2 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: NUDT2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 27431290, 30059600, 33058507; Phenotypes: Muscular hypotonia, Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Polyneuropathy; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal; Current diagnostic: yes
Intellectual disability v3.500 AGAP1 Zornitza Stark gene: AGAP1 was added
gene: AGAP1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: AGAP1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Publications for gene: AGAP1 were set to 31700678; 25666757; 30472483
Phenotypes for gene: AGAP1 were set to Cerebral palsy
Review for gene: AGAP1 was set to AMBER
Added comment: Two individuals reported with de novo variants in this gene and a CP phenotype. Rare variants over-represented in a case-control study. Supportive zebrafish model. Another individual with a deletion (+1 other gene) reported with ID and autism. This seems the most appropriate panel?
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.500 PRKAR1B Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: PRKAR1B was added
gene: PRKAR1B was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: PRKAR1B was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: PRKAR1B were set to https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.10.20190314; 25414040
Phenotypes for gene: PRKAR1B were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autism; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Aggressive behavior; Abnormality of movement; Upslanted palpebral fissure
Penetrance for gene: PRKAR1B were set to unknown
Review for gene: PRKAR1B was set to AMBER
Added comment: Please consider inclusion of this gene with amber rating pending publication of the preprint and/or additional evidence.

Marbach et al. (2020 - medRxiv : https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.10.20190314 - last author : C. Schaaf) report 6 unrelated individuals with heterozygous missense PRKAR1B variants.

All presented formal ASD diagnosis (6/6), global developmental delay (6/6) and intellectual disability (all - formal evaluations were lacking though). Additional features included neurologic anomalies (movement disorders : dyspraxia, apraxia, clumsiness in all, with tremor/dystonia or involuntary movements as single occurrences). Three displayed high pain tolerance. Regression in speech was a feature in two. Additional behavior anomalies included ADHD (4-5/6) or aggression (3/6). There was no consistent pattern of malformations, physical anomalies or facial features (with the exception of uplsanted palpebral fissures reported in 4).

3 different missense variants were identified (NM_00116470:c.1003C>T - p.Arg335Trp, c.586G>A - p.Glu196Lys, c.500_501delAAinsTT - p.Gln167Leu) with Arg355Trp being a recurrent one within this cohort (4/6 subjects). A possible splicing effect may apply for the MNV. All variants are absent from gnomAD and the SNVs had CADD scores > 24.

In all cases were parental samples were available (5/6), the variant had occurred as a de novo event.

Protein kinase A (PKA) is a tetrameric holoenzyme formed by the association of 2 catalytic (C) subunits with a regulatory (R) subunit dimer. Activation of PKA is achieved through binding of 2 cAMP molecules to each R-subunit, and unleashing(/dissociation) of C-subunits to engage substrates. PRKACA/B genes encode the Cα- and Cβ-subunits while the 4 functionally non-redundant regulatory subunits are encoded by PRKAR1A/1B/2A/2B genes. As the authors comment, the RIβ subunit is primarily expressed in brain with higher expression in cortex and hypothalamus.

The functional consequences of the variants at cellular level were not studied.

Previous studies have demonstrated that downregulation of RIβ in murine hippocampal cultures, reduced phosphorylation of CREB, a transcription factor involved in long-term memory formation. The authors speculate that a similar effect on cAMP/PKA/CREB cascade may mediate the cognitive effects in humans. RIβ deficient mice also display diminished nociceptive pain, similar to the human phenotype. [Several refs provided].

The authors cite the study by Kaplanis et al (2020 - PMID: 33057194), where in a large sample of 31,058 trio exomes of children with developmental disorders, PRKAR1B was among the genes with significant enrichment for de novo missense variants. [The gene has a pLI score of 0.18 in gnomAD / o/e = 0.26 - so pLoF variants may not be deleterious].

Please note that a specific PRKAR1B variant (NM_002735.2:c.149T>G - p.Leu50Arg) has been previous reported to segregate with a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dementia and/or parkinsonism within a large pedigree with 12 affected individuals [Wong et al 2014 - PMID: 25414040].
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.500 MPP5 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: MPP5 was added
gene: MPP5 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: MPP5 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: MPP5 were set to 33073849
Phenotypes for gene: MPP5 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Delayed speech and language development; Developmental regression; Behavioral abnormality
Penetrance for gene: MPP5 were set to unknown
Review for gene: MPP5 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Sterling et al (2020 - PMID: 33073849) provide information on the phenotype of 3 individuals with de novo MPP5 variants.

Common features included global developmental delay, intellectual disability (3/3 - severe in 2/3), speech delay/regression (the latter in at least 2) and behavioral abnormalities. Variable other features were reported, among others microcephaly (1/3), abnormal vision (1/3 : CVI, retinal dystrophy, nystagmus), brain MRI abnormalities (2/3), late-onset seizures (1/3). These subjects displayed variable and non-specific dysmorphic features.

All were investigated by exome sequencing (previous tests not mentioned).

One subject was found to harbor a de novo mosaic (5/25 reads) stopgain variant, further confirmed by Sanger sequencing [NM_022474.4:c.1555C>T - p.(Arg519Ter). The specific variant is reported once in gnomAD (1/251338). Two de novo missense variants were identified in the remaining individuals [c.1289A>G - p.Glu430Gly / c.974A>C - p.His325Pro).

All variants had in silico predictions in favor of a deleterious effect (CADD score >24).

The authors comment that MPP5 encodes an apical complex protein with asymmetric localization to the apical side of polarized cells. It is expressed in brain, peripheral nervous system and other tissues. MPP5 is a member of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase family of proteins (MAGUK, p55 subfamily), determining cell polarity at tight junctions.

Previous animal models suggest that complete Mpp5(Pals1) KO in mice leads to near absence of cerebral cortical neurons. Htz KO mice display reduction in size of cerebral cortex and hippocampus. The gene is expressed in proliferating cell populations of cerebellum and important for establishment cerebellar architecture. Conditional KO of Mpp5(Pals1) in retinal progenitor cells mimics the retinal pathology observed in LCA. [Several refs. provided]

The authors studied a heterozygous CNS-specific Mpp5 KO mouse model. These mice presented microcephaly, decreased cerebellar volume and cortical thickness, decreased ependymal cells and Mpp5 at the apical surface of cortical vertrical zone. The proportion of cortical cells undergoing apoptotic cell death was increased. Mice displayed behavioral abnormalities (hyperactivity) and visual deficits, with ERG traces further suggesting retinal blindness.

Overall the mouse model was thought to recapitulate the behavioral abnormalities observed in affected subjects as well as individual rare features such as microcephaly and abnormal vision.

Haploinsufficiency (rather than a dominant negative effect) is favored as the underlying disease mechanism. This is also in line with a dose dependent effect observed in mice.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.500 CEP120 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: CEP120 were changed from Joubert syndrome 31 (MIM 617761); Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 13 with or without polydactyly (MIM 616300) to Joubert syndrome 31 (617761); Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 13 with or without polydactyly (616300)
Intellectual disability v3.499 METTL5 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: METTL5 were changed from Autosomal-Recessive Intellectual Disability and Microcephaly; Delayed speech and language development; Intellectual disability; Microcephaly; Behavioral abnormality to Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 72, 618665
Intellectual disability v3.498 METTL5 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: METTL5.
Intellectual disability v3.498 METTL5 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: METTL5: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 29302074, 31564433; Phenotypes: Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 72, 618665; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.498 MFSD2A Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: MFSD2A as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.498 MFSD2A Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is sufficient evidence for this gene to be rated Green at the next GMS panel update.
Intellectual disability v3.498 MFSD2A Arina Puzriakova Gene: mfsd2a has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.497 MFSD2A Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: MFSD2A were changed from NA to Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain imaging abnormalities, 616486
Intellectual disability v3.496 MFSD2A Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: MFSD2A were set to
Intellectual disability v3.495 MFSD2A Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: MFSD2A was changed from Unknown to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.494 MFSD2A Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: MFSD2A.
Intellectual disability v3.494 MFSD2A Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: MFSD2A: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26005868, 26005865, 29302074, 30043326, 32572202; Phenotypes: Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive microcephaly, spasticity, and brain imaging abnormalities, 616486; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.494 NPHP3 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: NPHP3 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.493 NPHP3 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: NPHP3 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.493 NPHP3 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Kept rating Amber as affected individuals are more likely to be assessed under renal and ciliopathy panels, for which this gene is already Green.
Intellectual disability v3.493 NPHP3 Arina Puzriakova Gene: nphp3 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.492 NPHP3 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: NPHP3: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Nephronophthisis 3, 604387, Renal-hepatic-pancreatic dysplasia 1, 208540, Meckel syndrome 7, 267010; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.492 ZIC1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: ZIC1 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.491 ZIC1 Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Associated with phenotype in OMIM, and a 'confirmed' gene for Craniosynostosis 6 in Gene2Phenotype.

At least 5 variants reported in 6 unrelated families with intellectual disability (2 mild, 1 moderate, 2 moderate-severe, 1 severe) among other variable CNS abnormalities including craniosynostosis, callosal dysgenesis, anomaly in cerebellar hemispheres, vermis and pons, spinal dysraphism, as well as skull abnormalities not associated with craniosynostosis.

; to: Associated with phenotype in OMIM, and a 'confirmed' gene for Craniosynostosis 6 in Gene2Phenotype.

At least 5 variants reported in 6 unrelated families with intellectual disability (2 mild, 1 moderate, 2 moderate-severe, 1 severe) among other variable CNS abnormalities including craniosynostosis, callosal dysgenesis, anomaly in cerebellar hemispheres, vermis and pons, spinal dysraphism, as well as skull abnormalities not associated with craniosynostosis.

Predicted that both gain- and loss-of-function variants can be deleterious.
Intellectual disability v3.491 ZIC1 Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Associated with phenotype in OMIM, and a 'confirmed' gene for Craniosynostosis 6 in Gene2Phenotype.

At least 5 variants reported in 6 unrelated families with craniosynostosis and associated variable intellectual disability (2 mild, 1 moderate, 2 moderate-severe, 1 severe); to: Associated with phenotype in OMIM, and a 'confirmed' gene for Craniosynostosis 6 in Gene2Phenotype.

At least 5 variants reported in 6 unrelated families with intellectual disability (2 mild, 1 moderate, 2 moderate-severe, 1 severe) among other variable CNS abnormalities including craniosynostosis, callosal dysgenesis, anomaly in cerebellar hemispheres, vermis and pons, spinal dysraphism, as well as skull abnormalities not associated with craniosynostosis.

Intellectual disability v3.491 ZIC1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: ZIC1 were changed from CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS 6 to Structural brain anomalies with impaired intellectual development and craniosynostosis, 618736; ?Craniosynostosis 6, 616602
Intellectual disability v3.490 ZIC1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: ZIC1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.490 ZIC1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is sufficient evidence for this gene to be rated Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.490 ZIC1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: zic1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.489 ZIC1 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: ZIC1.
Intellectual disability v3.489 ZIC1 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: ZIC1: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments; Publications: 26340333, 30391508; Phenotypes: ?Craniosynostosis 6, 616602, Structural brain anomalies with impaired intellectual development and craniosynostosis, 618736; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.489 ZNF335 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: ZNF335 were set to 23178126
Intellectual disability v3.488 ZNF335 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: ZNF335 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.488 ZNF335 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.488 ZNF335 Arina Puzriakova Gene: znf335 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.487 ZNF335 Arina Puzriakova Tag watchlist was removed from gene: ZNF335.
Tag for-review tag was added to gene: ZNF335.
Intellectual disability v3.487 ZNF335 Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: ZNF335: Removed 'watchlist' tag as there are now sufficient cases to support a gene-disease association, and for this gene to be rated Green.
Intellectual disability v3.487 ZNF335 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: ZNF335: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 23178126, 27540107, 29652087, 30500859, 31187448; Phenotypes: Microcephaly 10, primary, autosomal recessive, 615095; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.487 ZNF335 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: ZNF335 were changed from ?Microcephaly 10, primary, autosomal recessive, 615095; developmental delay; intellectual disability to Microcephaly 10, primary, autosomal recessive, 615095
Intellectual disability v3.486 ZNF335 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: ZNF335 was changed from Unknown to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.485 ZNF148 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: ZNF148: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 27964749; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, absent or hypoplastic corpus callosum, and dysmorphic facies, 617260; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.485 KIF21B Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: KIF21B as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.485 KIF21B Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Rating Amber, but should be promoted to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.485 KIF21B Arina Puzriakova Gene: kif21b has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.484 KIF21B Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: KIF21B.
Intellectual disability v3.484 KIF21B Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: KIF21B
Intellectual disability v3.484 COX6B1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: COX6B1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 18499082, 24781756; Phenotypes: Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency, nuclear type 7, MIM# 619051; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.484 SCO1 Zornitza Stark reviewed gene: SCO1: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 11013136, 19295170, 31352446, 23878101; Phenotypes: Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency, nuclear type 4, MIM# 619048; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.484 PRKACB Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: PRKACB was added
gene: PRKACB was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: PRKACB was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: PRKACB were set to 33058759
Phenotypes for gene: PRKACB were set to Postaxial hand polydactyly; Postaxial foot polydactyly; Common atrium; Atrioventricular canal defect; Narrow chest; Abnormality of the teeth; Intellectual disability
Penetrance for gene: PRKACB were set to unknown
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: PRKACB was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Review for gene: PRKACB was set to AMBER
Added comment: ID was a feature in 2/4 individuals with PRKACB pathogenic variant reported to date.

Please consider inclusion of PRKACB (and PRKACA) in other relevant gene panels e.g. for polydactyly, congenital heart defects. The disorder may be considered in the DD of ciliopathies.

-----


Palencia-Campos et al (2020 - PMID: 33058759) report on the phenotype of 3 individuals heterozygous for PRKACA and 4 individuals heterozygous for PRKACB pathogenic variants.

The most characteristic features in all individuals with PRKACA/PRKACB mutation, included postaxial polydactyly of hands (6/7 bilateral, 1/7 unilateral) and feet (4/7 bilateral, 1/7 unilateral), brachydactyly and congenital heart defects (CHD 5/7) namely a common atrium or AVSD. Two individuals with PRKACA variant who did not have CHD had offspring with the same variant and an AVSD.

Other variably occurring features included short stature, limbs, narrow chest, abnormal teeth, oral frenula, nail dysplasia. One individual with PRKACB variant presented tumors.

Intellectual disability was reported in 2/4 individuals with PRKACB variant (1/4: mild, 1/4: severe). The 3 individuals with PRKACA variant did not present ID.

As the phenotype was overall suggestive of Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (or the allelic Weyers acrofacial dysostosis), although these diagnoses were ruled out following analysis of EVC and EVC2 genes.

WES was carried out in all.

PRKACA : A single heterozygous missense variant was identified in 3 individuals from 3 families (NM_002730.4:c.409G>A / p.Gly137Arg) with 1 of the probands harboring the variant in mosaic state (28% of reads) and having 2 similarly affected offspring. The variant was de novo in one individual and inherited in a third one having a similarly affected fetus (narrow thorax, postaxial polyd, AVSD).

PRKACB : 4 different variants were identified (NM_002731.3: p.His88Arg/Asn, p.Gly235Arg, c.161C>T - p.Ser54Leu). One of the individuals was mosaic for the latter variant, while in all other cases the variant had occurred de novo.

Protein kinase A (PKA) is a tetrameric holoenzyme formed by the association of 2 catalytic (C) subunits with a regulatory (R) subunit dimer. Activation of PKA is achieved through binding of 2 cAMP molecules to each R-subunit, and unleashing(/dissociation) of C-subunits to engage substrates. PRKACA/B genes encode the Cα- and Cβ-subunits while the 4 functionally non-redundant regulatory subunits are encoded by PRKAR1A/1B/2A/2B genes.

The authors provide evidence that the variants confer increased sensitivity of PKA holoenzymes to activation by cAMP (compared to wt).

By performing ectopic expression of wt or mt PRKACA/B (variants studied : PRKACA p.Gly137Arg / PRKACB p.Gly235Arg) in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, the authors demonstrate that inhibition of hedgehog signaling likely underlyies the developmental defects observed in affected individuals.

As for PRKACA, the authors cite another study where a 31-month old female with EvC syndrome diagnosis was found to harbor the aforementioned variant (NM_001304349.1:c.637G>A:p.Gly213Arg corresponding to NM_002730.4:c.409G>A / p.Gly137Arg) as a de novo event. Without additional evidence at the time, the variant was considered to be a candidate for this subject's phenotype (Monies et al 2019 – PMID: 31130284).
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.484 FA2H Sarah Leigh Tag for-review tag was added to gene: FA2H.
Intellectual disability v3.484 FA2H Sarah Leigh reviewed gene: FA2H: Rating: RED; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.484 CDH2 Sarah Leigh Phenotypes for gene: CDH2 were changed from Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Abnormality of neuronal migration; Bimanual synkinesia; Duane anomaly; Abnormality of cardiovascular system; Abnormality of the eye; Abnormality of the genital system; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability to Agenesis of corpus callosum, cardiac, ocular, and genital syndrome 618929
Intellectual disability v3.483 CDH2 Sarah Leigh Tag for-review tag was added to gene: CDH2.
Intellectual disability v3.483 CDH2 Sarah Leigh reviewed gene: CDH2: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: None
Intellectual disability v3.483 SCN8A Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: SCN8A.
Intellectual disability v3.483 SCN8A Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: SCN8A
Intellectual disability v3.483 PIGP Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: PIGP.
Intellectual disability v3.483 PIGP Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PIGP as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.483 PIGP Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.483 PIGP Arina Puzriakova Gene: pigp has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.482 PUM1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PUM1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.482 PUM1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.482 PUM1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: pum1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.481 PUM1 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: PUM1.
Intellectual disability v3.481 RALGAPA1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: RALGAPA1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.481 RALGAPA1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.481 RALGAPA1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: ralgapa1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.480 RALGAPA1 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: RALGAPA1.
Intellectual disability v3.480 RARS Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: RARS as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.480 RARS Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.480 RARS Arina Puzriakova Gene: rars has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.479 RARS Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: RARS.
Intellectual disability v3.479 RNF113A Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: RNF113A as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.479 RNF113A Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.479 RNF113A Arina Puzriakova Gene: rnf113a has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.478 RNF113A Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: RNF113A.
Intellectual disability v3.478 RNF13 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: RNF13 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.478 RNF13 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.478 RNF13 Arina Puzriakova Gene: rnf13 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.477 RNF13 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: RNF13.
Intellectual disability v3.477 GAD1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: GAD1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.477 GAD1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.477 GAD1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: gad1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.476 GAD1 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: GAD1.
Intellectual disability v3.476 CEP55 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: CEP55 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.476 CEP55 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.476 CEP55 Arina Puzriakova Gene: cep55 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.475 CEP55 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: CEP55.
Intellectual disability v3.475 CTU2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: CTU2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.475 CTU2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.475 CTU2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: ctu2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.474 CTU2 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: CTU2.
Intellectual disability v3.474 ALG9 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: ALG9 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.474 ALG9 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.474 ALG9 Arina Puzriakova Gene: alg9 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.473 ALG9 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: ALG9.
Intellectual disability v3.473 EXT2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: EXT2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.473 EXT2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.473 EXT2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: ext2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.472 EXT2 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: EXT2.
Intellectual disability v3.472 PTRHD1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PTRHD1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.472 PTRHD1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.472 PTRHD1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: ptrhd1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.471 PTRHD1 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: PTRHD1.
Intellectual disability v3.471 TRAPPC4 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: TRAPPC4 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.471 TRAPPC4 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.471 TRAPPC4 Arina Puzriakova Gene: trappc4 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.470 TRAPPC4 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: TRAPPC4.
Intellectual disability v3.470 UGP2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: UGP2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.470 UGP2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.470 UGP2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: ugp2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.469 CXorf56 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: CXorf56 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.469 CXorf56 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.469 CXorf56 Arina Puzriakova Gene: cxorf56 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.468 KAT8 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: KAT8 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.468 KAT8 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.468 KAT8 Arina Puzriakova Gene: kat8 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.467 SLC5A6 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SLC5A6 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.467 SLC5A6 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.467 SLC5A6 Arina Puzriakova Gene: slc5a6 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.466 SNX27 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SNX27 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.466 SNX27 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating from Green to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.466 SNX27 Arina Puzriakova Gene: snx27 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.465 UGP2 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: UGP2.
Intellectual disability v3.465 CXorf56 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: CXorf56.
Intellectual disability v3.465 KAT8 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: KAT8.
Intellectual disability v3.465 SLC5A6 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: SLC5A6.
Intellectual disability v3.465 SNX27 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: SNX27.
Intellectual disability v3.465 WNT1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: WNT1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.465 WNT1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.465 WNT1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: wnt1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.464 WNT1 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: WNT1.
Intellectual disability v3.464 PIGK Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: PIGK as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.464 PIGK Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.464 PIGK Arina Puzriakova Gene: pigk has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.463 PIGK Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: PIGK.
Intellectual disability v3.463 HSPG2 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: HSPG2 were changed from Schwartz-Jampel syndrome, type 1, 255800; Dyssegmental dysplasia, Silverman-Handmaker type, 224410 to Schwartz-Jampel syndrome, type 1, 255800
Intellectual disability v3.462 KDM3B Ivone Leong commented on gene: KDM3B
Intellectual disability v3.462 KCNMA1 Ivone Leong Publications for gene: KCNMA1 were set to 15937479; 31427379; 31152168; 27567911
Intellectual disability v3.461 KCNK4 Ivone Leong Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: KCNK4.
Intellectual disability v3.461 KCNK4 Ivone Leong commented on gene: KCNK4: As the 2 unrelated patients who have the same de novo variants have severe ID/DD and 3rd patient has low average ID, this gene will be kept as Amber until further evidence is available. Watchlist tag has been added as well.
Intellectual disability v3.461 IQSEC1 Ivone Leong Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: IQSEC1.
Intellectual disability v3.461 LMBRD2 Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: There is a sufficient number of unrelated cases to rate this gene GREEN at the next major review.; to: Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Rating Amber but there is a sufficient number of unrelated cases with the relevant phenotype to rate this gene GREEN at the next major review.
Intellectual disability v3.461 KCNK4 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: KCNK4 were changed from Neurodevelopmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Gingival overgrowth; Hypertrichosis to Facial dysmorphism, hypertrichosis, epilepsy, intellectual/developmental delay, and gingival overgrowth syndrome, 618381
Intellectual disability v3.460 IQSEC1 Ivone Leong commented on gene: IQSEC1
Intellectual disability v3.460 IQSEC1 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: IQSEC1 were changed from Central hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Behavioral abnormality; Short stature to Central hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Behavioral abnormality; Short stature; Intellectual developmental disorder with short stature and behavioral abnormalities, 618687
Intellectual disability v3.459 ALG14 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: ALG14 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.459 ALG14 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Changed rating to Amber so that Green genes on this panel reflect the NHS signed-off version. This will be reviewed at the next GMS panel update.
Intellectual disability v3.459 ALG14 Arina Puzriakova Gene: alg14 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.458 XYLT1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: XYLT1 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.457 XYLT1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: XYLT1 were changed from {Pseudoxanthoma elasticum, modifier of severity of}, 264800; Desbuquois dysplasia 2, 615777 to Desbuquois dysplasia 2, 615777
Intellectual disability v3.456 XYLT1 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: XYLT1: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: ; Phenotypes: Desbuquois dysplasia 2, 615777; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.456 XYLT1 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: XYLT1.
Intellectual disability v3.456 CSNK1G1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis reviewed gene: CSNK1G1: Rating: AMBER; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 33009664; Phenotypes: Global developmental delay, Intellectual disability, Autism, Seizures, Abnormality of the face, Abnormality of limbs; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.456 LMNB2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: LMNB2 was added
gene: LMNB2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: LMNB2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Publications for gene: LMNB2 were set to 33033404
Phenotypes for gene: LMNB2 were set to Congenital microcephaly; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability
Penetrance for gene: LMNB2 were set to Complete
Mode of pathogenicity for gene: LMNB2 was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Review for gene: LMNB2 was set to GREEN
Added comment: Parry et al (2020 - PMID: 33033404) in a study to identify novel microcephaly genes using the DDD and 100k genomes project (100kGP) patient cohort, report on the phenotype of 13 individuals with heterozygous variant in LMNB1 (N=7) and LMNB2 (N=6).

LMNB1 : The authors identified 3 recurrent variants (c.97A>G - p.Lys33Glu (3), c.97_99del - p.Lys33del (2) , c.269G>C - p.Arg90Pro (2) / NM_005573.4) in seven individuals (3 from the DDD study, 4 from the 100kGP). In all cases were segregation studies were possible, the variant had occurred as a de novo event.

LMNB2 : 4 individuals from the DDD cohort and 1 from the 100kGP were found to harbor the same missense SNV (NM_032737.4:c.1192G>A, p.Glu398Lys). The variant had occurred de novo in 3 subjects and was inherited from a mosaic - unaffected - parent in a further case. Another individual was found to harbor c.160A>C - p.Asn54His.

LMNB1/2 common phenotypes :
All cases had congenital microcephaly (OFC -5.85 +/- 1.14 SD) apart from one individual, without history of IUGR or postnatally abnormal height (the latter in most).

Neuroimaging suggested structurally normal brain without abnormal migration. Gyral simplification / global reduction in white matter / increased extra axial spaces / enlarged ventricles were reported in 2.

LMNB1 - Global developmental delay was a feature in all (mild to severe) with some having occasional words at 7y (P3), absent speech (P9 - age category 5-10y) or ID not further specified (P13).

LMNB2 - DD was a feature in all 6 subjects (5/6 moderate to severe - 1/6 GDD). 5/6 were 10y or older with language (in 3 language not achieved) and motor deficits (walking not achieved in 1/6 - occurred at the age of 6y in 1/6).

Facial features were not consistent nor suggestive of a syndromic diagnosis (sloping forehead in some).

Overall, as the authors comment, the phenotype corresponded to a severe nonsyndromic microcephaly (although additional features were reported in some).

Animal model:
Microcephaly is supported by Lmnb1 ko mouse model. Lmnb1/2 ko mice however display migration defects, while Lmnb2 ko mice do not have reduced size at birth. Heterozygous Lmnb1 mice do not present microcephaly. It is suggested that while animal models support a similar (to the human) phenotype the underlying mechanism is different.

Variant effect :
variants were shown to affect highly conserved residues within the lamin a-helical rod-domain. As affected residues are conserved in LMNA, modelling with available LMNA PDB structures, suggested disrupted interactions required for higher-order assembly of lamin filaments.

Recurrence of specific variants at specific residues, absence of pLoF ones, the htz mouse Lmnb1 phenotype (absence of microcephaly) and the proposed mechanism (perturbation of complex formation) suggest a gain-of-function/dominant-negative effect rather than happloinsufficiency.

[Please also note the additional OMIM phenotypes for LMNB1 / LMNB2 - not here reviewed]
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.456 LMNB1 Konstantinos Varvagiannis edited their review of gene: LMNB1: Added comment: There is an additional report on LMBN1/2-associated phenotypes supporting green rating of the gene in the current panel.

Parry et al (2020 - PMID: 33033404) in a study to identify novel microcephaly genes using the DDD and 100k genomes project (100kGP) patient cohort, report on the phenotype of 13 individuals with heterozygous variant in LMNB1 (N=7) and LMNB2 (N=6).

LMNB1 : The authors identified 3 recurrent variants (c.97A>G - p.Lys33Glu (3), c.97_99del - p.Lys33del (2) , c.269G>C - p.Arg90Pro (2) / NM_005573.4) in seven individuals (3 from the DDD study, 4 from the 100kGP). In all cases were segregation studies were possible, the variant had occurred as a de novo event.

LMNB2 : 4 individuals from the DDD cohort and 1 from the 100kGP were found to harbor the same missense SNV (NM_032737.4:c.1192G>A, p.Glu398Lys). The variant had occurred de novo in 3 subjects and was inherited from a mosaic - unaffected - parent in a further case. Another individual was found to harbor c.160A>C - p.Asn54His.

LMNB1/2 common phenotypes :
All cases had congenital microcephaly (OFC -5.85 +/- 1.14 SD) appart from one individual, without history of IUGR or postnatally abnormal height (the latter in most).

Neuroimaging suggested structurally normal brain without abnormal migration. Gyral simplification / global reduction in white matter / increased extra axial spaces / enlarged ventricles were reported in 2.

LMNB1 - Global developmental delay was a feature in all (mild to severe) with some having occasional words at 7y (P3), absent speech (P9 - age category 5-10y) or ID not further specified (P13).

LMNB2 - DD was a feature in all 6 subjects (5/6 moderate to severe - 1/6 GDD). 5/6 were 10y or older with language (in 3 language not achieved) and motor deficits (walking not achieved in 1/6 - occured at the age of 6y in 1/6).

Facial features were not consistent nor suggestive of a syndromic diagnosis (sloping forehead in some).

Overall, as the authors comment, the phenotype corresponded to a severe nonsyndromic microcephaly (although additional features were reported in some).

Animal model:
Microcephaly is supported by Lmnb1 ko mouse model. Lmnb1/2 ko mice however display migration defects, while Lmnb2 ko mice do not have reduced size at birth. Heterozygous Lmnb1 mice do not present microcephaly. It is suggested that while animal models support a similar (to the human) phenotype the underlying mechanism is different.

Variant effect :
variants were shown to affect highly conserved residues within the lamin a-helical rod-domain. As affected residues are conserved in LMNA, modelling with available LMNA PDB structures, suggested disrupted interactions required for higher-order assembly of lamin filaments.

Recurrence of specific variants at specific residues, absence of pLoF ones, the htz mouse Lmnb1 phenotype (absence of microcephaly) and the proposed mechanism (perturbation of complex formation) suggest a gain-of-function/dominant-negative effect rather than happloinsufficiency.

[Please also note the additional OMIM phenotypes for LMNB1 / LMNB2 - not here reviewed]; Changed publications: 32910914, 33033404
Intellectual disability v3.456 CNPY3 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: CNPY3 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.456 CNPY3 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: New gene added and reviewed by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Although there are sufficient cases to support a gene-disease association, this disorder is mainly characterised by severe epileptic encephalopathy and ID manifests secondarily to seizures.

Rating Amber, but this may be reviewed if new evidence emerges indicating that neurodevelopmental impairment precedes onset of seizures.
Intellectual disability v3.456 CNPY3 Arina Puzriakova Gene: cnpy3 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.455 HSPG2 Ivone Leong Publications for gene: HSPG2 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.454 USP7 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: USP7 were set to 30679821; 26365382; 19946331
Intellectual disability v3.453 USP7 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: USP7 were changed from Intellectual disability, autism, epilepsy, aggressive behaviour, hypotonia, and hypogonadism to Hao-Fountain syndrome, 616863
Intellectual disability v3.452 USP7 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: USP7 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.452 USP7 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Based on published evidence and expert reviews, this gene should be promoted from Amber to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.452 USP7 Arina Puzriakova Gene: usp7 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.451 USP7 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: USP7.
Intellectual disability v3.451 USP7 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: USP7: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 26365382, 30679821, 33012787; Phenotypes: Hao-Fountain syndrome, 616863; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.451 STT3A Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: STT3A as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.451 STT3A Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence to support a gene-disease association, and so STT3A should be promoted from Amber to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).

ID/DD reported in all cases (at least 7 individuals from 3 unrelated families, with 2 different homozygous variants in STT3A)
Intellectual disability v3.451 STT3A Arina Puzriakova Gene: stt3a has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.450 STT3A Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: STT3A
Intellectual disability v3.450 STT3A Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: STT3A were changed from ?Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Iw, 615596; developmental delay; intellectual disability to Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type Iw, 615596
Intellectual disability v3.449 STT3A Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: STT3A were set to 28424003; 23842455
Intellectual disability v3.448 STT3A Arina Puzriakova Tag watchlist was removed from gene: STT3A.
Tag for-review tag was added to gene: STT3A.
Intellectual disability v3.448 CARS2 Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: Kept rating Amber as developmental regression and progressive cognitive decline appear secondary to seizures, which represent the key phenotypic feature of this disorder.

This gene is Green on the Inborn errors of metabolism (v2.2) panel, a component the Epilepsy super panel, which should be a sufficient route for detecting these cases.; to: Comment on list classification: Kept rating Amber as developmental regression and progressive cognitive decline appear secondary to seizures, which represent the key phenotypic feature of this disorder.

This gene is Green on Inborn errors of metabolism (v2.3) and has been added to the Genetic epilepsy syndromes (v2.176) panel, which should be sufficient routes for detecting these cases.
Intellectual disability v3.448 TRPM3 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: TRPM3 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.448 TRPM3 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Excluding the individual harbouring a VUS, 8 unrelated individuals with ID and the same p.Val837Met variant have been reported (PMID:31278393, 32439617). Also now available is functional data demonstrating variants render the channel overactive.

With addition of the recent publications, there is enough evidence to support a Green rating on this panel. Therefore added 'for-review' tag, for reassessment at next GMS panel update.
Intellectual disability v3.448 TRPM3 Arina Puzriakova Gene: trpm3 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.447 TRPM3 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: TRPM3 were set to 31278393
Intellectual disability v3.446 TRPM3 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: TRPM3.
Intellectual disability v3.446 TRPM3 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: TRPM3: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments; Publications: 32439617, 32343227, 32427099; Phenotypes: ; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.446 FGF14 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: FGF14 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.446 FGF14 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Cognitive impairment has been reported in several patients, mostly mild but few cases with moderate deficits have also been described. However, the phenotype is mainly characterised by ataxia which would be the expected CI for diagnostic testing - FGF14 is already Green on Ataxia panels.

The utility of calling variants in this gene in a cohort of ID patients without the ataxic component is unlikely to be of benefit, and therefore the rating has been kept Amber on this panel.
Intellectual disability v3.446 FGF14 Arina Puzriakova Gene: fgf14 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.445 FGF14 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: FGF14 were set to 15470364
Intellectual disability v3.444 FDFT1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: FDFT1 were changed from Profound global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Cortical visual impairment; Abnormality of the skin; Abnormality of the face to Squalene synthase deficiency, 618156
Intellectual disability v3.443 FDFT1 Arina Puzriakova Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: FDFT1.
Intellectual disability v3.443 DENND5A Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: DENND5A were changed from EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY to Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 49 617281
Intellectual disability v3.442 DENND5A Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: DENND5A as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.442 DENND5A Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Kept rating Amber as disorder is mainly characterised by severe early-infantile encephalopathy, and cognitive arrest appears secondary to the onset of seizures.

This gene is Green on the Genetic epilepsy syndromes (v2.170) panel, which should be a sufficient route for detecting cases.
Intellectual disability v3.442 DENND5A Arina Puzriakova Gene: dennd5a has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.441 CEP104 Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Four related cases reported (PMID:26477546 and 31625690). Moderate-severe ID recorded in two patients and was formally assessed in the remaining two due to young age. However, significant DD was noted in both and in line with the diagnosis of Joubert, it can be anticipated that their presentation is within the scope of this panel.; to: Four unrelated cases reported (PMID:26477546 and 31625690). Moderate-severe ID recorded in two patients and was formally assessed in the remaining two due to young age. However, significant DD was noted in both and in line with the diagnosis of Joubert, it can be anticipated that their presentation is within the scope of this panel.
Intellectual disability v3.441 CEP104 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: CEP104 were changed from JOUBERT SYNDROME to Joubert syndrome 25, 616781
Intellectual disability v3.440 CEP104 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: CEP104 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.439 CEP104 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: CEP104 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.439 CEP104 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: There is sufficient evidence to support a Green rating on this panel, and so this gene will be flagged for review at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag)
Intellectual disability v3.439 CEP104 Arina Puzriakova Gene: cep104 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.438 CEP104 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: CEP104.
Intellectual disability v3.438 CEP104 Arina Puzriakova edited their review of gene: CEP104: Added comment: Four related cases reported (PMID:26477546 and 31625690). Moderate-severe ID recorded in two patients and was formally assessed in the remaining two due to young age. However, significant DD was noted in both and in line with the diagnosis of Joubert, it can be anticipated that their presentation is within the scope of this panel.; Changed publications: 26477546, 31625690
Intellectual disability v3.438 CEP104 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: CEP104: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 31625690; Phenotypes: Joubert syndrome 25, 616781; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.438 CACNA2D2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: CACNA2D2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.438 CACNA2D2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Kept rating Amber as severe GDD is a neurodegenerative manifestation that is secondary to the onset of seizures, which represent the key phenotypic feature of this disorder.

This gene is Green on the Genetic epilepsy syndromes (v2.170) panel, which should be a sufficient route for detecting these cases.
Intellectual disability v3.438 CACNA2D2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: cacna2d2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.437 CARS2 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: CARS2 were set to 25787132
Intellectual disability v3.436 CARS2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: CARS2 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.436 CARS2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Kept rating Amber as developmental regression and progressive cognitive decline appear secondary to seizures, which represent the key phenotypic feature of this disorder.

This gene is Green on the Inborn errors of metabolism (v2.2) panel, a component the Epilepsy super panel, which should be a sufficient route for detecting these cases.
Intellectual disability v3.436 CARS2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: cars2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.435 C2CD3 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: C2CD3 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.435 C2CD3 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Despite phenotypic diversity among cases with C2CD3 variants, ID/DD is consistently reported in living patients.

Therefore, this gene could be promoted from Amber to Green at the next GMS panel update (added 'for-review' tag).
Intellectual disability v3.435 C2CD3 Arina Puzriakova Gene: c2cd3 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.434 C2CD3 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: C2CD3 were changed from ?Orofaciodigital syndrome XIV 615948 to Orofaciodigital syndrome XIV, 615948; Joubert-related disorder
Intellectual disability v3.433 C2CD3 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: C2CD3 were set to 27094867; 24997988
Intellectual disability v3.432 C2CD3 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: C2CD3.
Intellectual disability v3.432 C2CD3 Arina Puzriakova edited their review of gene: C2CD3: Changed publications: 24997988, 26092869, 26477546, 27094867, 30097616
Intellectual disability v3.432 C2CD3 Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: - PMID: 24997988 (2014) - Two unrelated cases with OFD syndrome and biallelic variants (p.Arg62* and p.Cys1029Gly; p.Ala1304Valfs*3, respectively) in C2CD3. In a 4-year-old male, additional manifestations included severe microcephaly (-5 SD), severe ID, micropenis, and brain malformations including Molar Tooth Sign. In the second patient, a terminated foetus, severe microcephaly (-4 SD) was combined with canonical OFD symptoms, but assessment of ID was not possible. No functional studies of the variants; however, some data supporting a role of C2CD3 in cilium assembly and function.

- PMID: 26092869 (2015) - Two unrelated individuals with biallelic variants in C2CD3. Clinical details are limited but both had features of Joubert syndrome (as JBTS screening study), as well as oral features including oral frenulae and/or cleft palate. No report on ID status, but could possibly be present in view of the JBTS diagnosis. One patient also harboured biallelic variants in TTC21B.

- PMID: 26477546 (2015) - Compound het variants identified in two affected sibs with a classic form of JBTS and severe GDD but without any extraneural manifestations, as described in previous cases.

- PMID: 27094867 (2016) - Two sibling fetuses with skeletal dysplasia, brain malformations but no microcephaly, in association with compound het variants in C2CD3. Due to termination of pregnancies, ID status could not be established. Analysis of patient-derived fibroblasts showed impaired cilium assembly.

- PMID: 30097616 (2018) - Four individuals from three unrelated families with different biallelic variants in C2CD3. Each family exhibited distinct clinical phenotypes and severity of disease:
Family 1: two sibs with a diagnosis of OFD including polydactyly, cleft palate and/or incomplete cleft lip, microcephaly, brain malformations and bilateral colobomas. GDD was noted in both sibs.
Family 2: fetus with occipital encephalocele and a ventricular septal defect. Similar abnormalities were identified in another sib (also a terminated fetus), but DNA analysis was not performed on the latter.
Family 3: one male with various fetal anomalies, and subsequent diagnosis of JBTS following identification of consistent findings on brain MRI. Other features included DD and bilateral retina colobomas.; to: - PMID: 24997988 (2014) - Two unrelated cases with OFD syndrome and biallelic variants (p.Arg62* and p.Cys1029Gly; p.Ala1304Valfs*3, respectively) in C2CD3. In a 4-year-old male, additional manifestations included severe microcephaly (-5 SD), severe ID, micropenis, and brain malformations including Molar Tooth Sign. In the second patient, a terminated foetus, severe microcephaly (-4 SD) was combined with canonical OFD symptoms, but assessment of ID was not possible. No functional studies of the variants; however, some data supporting a role of C2CD3 in cilium assembly and function.

- PMID: 26092869 (2015) - Two unrelated individuals with biallelic variants in C2CD3. Clinical details are limited but both had features of Joubert syndrome (as JBTS screening study), as well as oral features including oral frenulae and/or cleft palate. No report on ID status, but could possibly be present in view of the JBTS diagnosis. One patient also harboured biallelic variants in TTC21B.

- PMID: 26477546 (2015) - Compound het variants identified in two affected sibs with a classic form of JBTS and severe GDD but without any extraneural manifestations, as described in previous cases.

- PMID: 27094867 (2016) - Two sibling fetuses with skeletal dysplasia, brain malformations but no microcephaly, in association with compound het variants in C2CD3. Due to termination of pregnancies, ID status could not be established. Analysis of patient-derived fibroblasts showed impaired cilium assembly.

- PMID: 30097616 (2018) - Four individuals from three unrelated families with different biallelic variants in C2CD3. Each family exhibited distinct clinical phenotypes and severity of disease:
Family 1: two sibs with a diagnosis of OFD including polydactyly, cleft palate and/or incomplete cleft lip, microcephaly, brain malformations and bilateral colobomas. GDD was noted in both sibs.
Family 2: fetus with encephalocele and a ventricular septal defect. Similar abnormalities were identified in a sib (also a terminated fetus), but DNA analysis was not performed on the latter.
Family 3: one male with various fetal anomalies, and subsequent diagnosis of JBTS following identification of consistent findings on brain MRI. Other features included DD and bilateral retina colobomas.
Intellectual disability v3.432 C2CD3 Arina Puzriakova reviewed gene: C2CD3: Rating: ; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 24997988, 26092869, 26477546, 27094867; Phenotypes: Orofaciodigital syndrome XIV, 615948, Joubert-related disorder; Mode of inheritance: BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual disability v3.432 BCORL1 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: BCORL1 were changed from Intellectual disability, developmental delay and dysmorphism; Behavioral abnormality to Shukla-Vernon syndrome, 301029
Intellectual disability v3.431 BCORL1 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: BCORL1 were set to 24123876; 24896178; 26350204; 30941876
Intellectual disability v3.430 BCORL1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: BCORL1 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.430 BCORL1 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Kept rating Amber in line with the previous review by Rebecca Foulger. Severe ID only exhibited by 2/4 families. No additional papers recently published.
Intellectual disability v3.430 BCORL1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: bcorl1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.429 MPV17 Ivone Leong Classified gene: MPV17 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.429 MPV17 Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: Promoted from Red to Amber. While there are enough cases to support a gene-disease association, ID is part of a broader phenotype for this disorder. Affected individuals will more likely be assessed under mitchondrial panels. This gene is green in Mitochondrial liver disease, inborn errors of metabolism, possible mitochondrial disorder - nuclear genes and mitochondrial disorders panels.
Intellectual disability v3.429 MPV17 Ivone Leong Gene: mpv17 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.428 MPV17 Ivone Leong Phenotypes for gene: MPV17 were changed from Gene2Phenotype confirmed gene with ID HPO to Gene2Phenotype confirmed gene with ID HPO; Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 6 (hepatocerebral type), 256810
Intellectual disability v3.427 MPV17 Ivone Leong Publications for gene: MPV17 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.426 LAS1L Ivone Leong changed review comment from: Comment on list classification: Based on the expert reviews and available evidence, this gene has been promoted from Red to Amber. As the ID severity in the second case in (PMID: 25644381) is unknown and the variant in 1 case reported by (PMID: 26358559) is predicted to be benign. Until there is further evidence this gene has been given an Amber rating.; to: Comment on list classification: Based on the expert reviews and available evidence, this gene has been promoted from Red to Amber. This gene is listed in OMIM and Gene2Phenotype with a relevant phenotype. In Gene2Phenotype it has been classified as probable course for the phenotype. As the ID severity in the second case in (PMID: 25644381) is unknown and the variant in 1 case reported by (PMID: 26358559) is predicted to be benign. Until there is further evidence this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.426 LAS1L Ivone Leong Classified gene: LAS1L as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.426 LAS1L Ivone Leong Added comment: Comment on list classification: Based on the expert reviews and available evidence, this gene has been promoted from Red to Amber. As the ID severity in the second case in (PMID: 25644381) is unknown and the variant in 1 case reported by (PMID: 26358559) is predicted to be benign. Until there is further evidence this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Intellectual disability v3.426 LAS1L Ivone Leong Gene: las1l has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.425 LAS1L Ivone Leong Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: LAS1L.
Intellectual disability v3.425 NUP214 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: NUP214.
Intellectual disability v3.425 TINF2 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: TINF2 were changed from Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 3 613990 to Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 3, 613990; Revesz syndrome, 268130
Intellectual disability v3.424 HDAC4 Sarah Leigh Publications for gene: HDAC4 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.423 TINF2 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: TINF2 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.423 TINF2 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Although DD can be a feature, the condition is expected to present in a syndromic manner with cytopenia, cerebellar hypoplasia and retinopathy representing key characteristics. It is expected that these indications should be sufficient for detecting cases - TINF2 is already Green on the relevant panels.

Calling variants in this gene in a cohort of ID patients is therefore unlikely to be of benefit and so the rating has been kept Red.
Intellectual disability v3.423 TINF2 Arina Puzriakova Gene: tinf2 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.421 ZMPSTE24 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to ZMPSTE24.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 ZIC3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to ZIC3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 XPC Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to XPC.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 WRAP53 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to WRAP53.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 WNT7A Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to WNT7A.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 WNT3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to WNT3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 WNT10B Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to WNT10B.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 WDR35 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to WDR35.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 WDR34 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to WDR34.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 WDR19 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to WDR19.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 VSX2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to VSX2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 UVSSA Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to UVSSA.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 USB1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to USB1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 UROS Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to UROS.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 UGT1A1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to UGT1A1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TYRP1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TYRP1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TYR Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TYR.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TXNL4A Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TXNL4A.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TUBA8 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TUBA8.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TSHR Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TSHR.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TRPV4 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TRPV4.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TRPS1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TRPS1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TRPM1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TRPM1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TRIP11 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TRIP11.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TRAPPC2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TRAPPC2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TP63 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TP63.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TMPRSS6 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TMPRSS6.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TMEM126B Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TMEM126B.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TGFB3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TGFB3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TGFB2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TGFB2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TEK Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TEK.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TCF12 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TCF12.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TBXAS1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TBXAS1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TBX5 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TBX5.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TBX4 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TBX4.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TBX3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TBX3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TBX22 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TBX22.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TBX20 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TBX20.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TBX15 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TBX15.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 TAB2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to TAB2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 STAR Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to STAR.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 SRY Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to SRY.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 SPEG Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to SPEG.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 SPAG1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to SPAG1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 SOX17 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to SOX17.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 SMCHD1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to SMCHD1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 SCN4A Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to SCN4A.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 RUNX2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to RUNX2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 RSPO4 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to RSPO4.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 RSPH3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to RSPH3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 RSPH1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to RSPH1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 RPS19 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to RPS19.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 RPGRIP1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to RPGRIP1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 RPE65 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to RPE65.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 ROBO3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to ROBO3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 RETREG1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to RETREG1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 PGM1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to PGM1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 PDE6G Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to PDE6G.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 PAX9 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to PAX9.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 PAX3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to PAX3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 PAPSS2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to PAPSS2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 OTULIN Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to OTULIN.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 OTOGL Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to OTOGL.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 ORC6 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to ORC6.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 NRXN2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to NRXN2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 NR5A1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to NR5A1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 NR2F2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to NR2F2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 NPR2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to NPR2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 NPHS1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to NPHS1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 NPHP4 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to NPHP4.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 NOTCH2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to NOTCH2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 NOG Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to NOG.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 NODAL Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to NODAL.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 NMNAT1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to NMNAT1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 NKX3-2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to NKX3-2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 NEK1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to NEK1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 MYO5B Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to MYO5B.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 MYH9 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to MYH9.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 MYH8 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to MYH8.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 MYH6 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to MYH6.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 MSX2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to MSX2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 MSX1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to MSX1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 MNX1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to MNX1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 MMP13 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to MMP13.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 MFRP Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to MFRP.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 MESP2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to MESP2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 MC2R Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to MC2R.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 MATN3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to MATN3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 MAP3K1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to MAP3K1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 LTBP3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to LTBP3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 LTBP2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to LTBP2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 LRRC6 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to LRRC6.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 LRP4 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to LRP4.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 LMX1B Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to LMX1B.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 LMNA Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to LMNA.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 LHX4 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to LHX4.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 LHX3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to LHX3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 LFNG Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to LFNG.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 LEMD3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to LEMD3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 LDB3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to LDB3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 KLHL40 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to KLHL40.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 KLF1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to KLF1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 KIT Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to KIT.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 KIRREL3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to KIRREL3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 KIF22 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to KIF22.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 KCTD1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to KCTD1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 KCNQ1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to KCNQ1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 KCND3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to KCND3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 KBTBD13 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to KBTBD13.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 JAK3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to JAK3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 JAGN1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to JAGN1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 JAG1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to JAG1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 IRF6 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to IRF6.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 INPPL1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to INPPL1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 IMPAD1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to IMPAD1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 IL11RA Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to IL11RA.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 IHH Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to IHH.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 IGF2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to IGF2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 IFT80 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to IFT80.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 IFT122 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to IFT122.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 IFITM5 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to IFITM5.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 HYDIN Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to HYDIN.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 HYAL1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to HYAL1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 HSF4 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to HSF4.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 HSD3B7 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to HSD3B7.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 HR Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to HR.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 HPSE2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to HPSE2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 HPS1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to HPS1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 HPGD Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to HPGD.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 HOXD13 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to HOXD13.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 HOXC13 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to HOXC13.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 HOXA13 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to HOXA13.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 HNF4A Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to HNF4A.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 HMGCS2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to HMGCS2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GUCY2C Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GUCY2C.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GRM6 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GRM6.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GRHL3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GRHL3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GPR179 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GPR179.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GNAI3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GNAI3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GLMN Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GLMN.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GLE1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GLE1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GJA8 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GJA8.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GJA3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GJA3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GJA1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GJA1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GHR Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GHR.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GDF6 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GDF6.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GDF5 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GDF5.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GATA4 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GATA4.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GATA2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GATA2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GAS8 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GAS8.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GALK1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GALK1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 GAA Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to GAA.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FZD6 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FZD6.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FYCO1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FYCO1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FXN Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FXN.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FTL Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FTL.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FOXN1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FOXN1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FOXF1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FOXF1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FOXE3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FOXE3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FOXE1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FOXE1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FOXC2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FOXC2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FOXC1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FOXC1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FLT4 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FLT4.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FLNB Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FLNB.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FKBP14 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FKBP14.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FHL1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FHL1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FGF3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FGF3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FGF10 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FGF10.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FBXW4 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FBXW4.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FBP1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FBP1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FBN1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FBN1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FAM20A Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FAM20A.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 FAM161A Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to FAM161A.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 EYA1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to EYA1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 EVC2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to EVC2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 EVC Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to EVC.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 ERF Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to ERF.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 ERCC4 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to ERCC4.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 EOGT Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to EOGT.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 ENPP1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to ENPP1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 EDNRA Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to EDNRA.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 EDA Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to EDA.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 ECEL1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to ECEL1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 DYNC2H1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to DYNC2H1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 DVL1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to DVL1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 DSTYK Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to DSTYK.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 DSPP Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to DSPP.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 DNAAF4 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to DNAAF4.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 DNAAF3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to DNAAF3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 DMP1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to DMP1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 DLL4 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to DLL4.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 DLL3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to DLL3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 DDB2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to DDB2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 DCC Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to DCC.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CYP1B1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CYP1B1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CTSK Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CTSK.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CTSF Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CTSF.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CTNS Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CTNS.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CRYGD Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CRYGD.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CRYBB3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CRYBB3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CRYBB2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CRYBB2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CRYBB1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CRYBB1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CRYBA1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CRYBA1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CRYAA Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CRYAA.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CRX Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CRX.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CRB1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CRB1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 COMP Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to COMP.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 COL9A3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to COL9A3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 COL9A2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to COL9A2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 COL9A1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to COL9A1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 COL6A1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to COL6A1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 COL4A4 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to COL4A4.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 COL4A3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to COL4A3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 COL2A1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to COL2A1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 COL1A1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to COL1A1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 COL18A1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to COL18A1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 COL11A1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to COL11A1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 COL10A1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to COL10A1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CLDN19 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CLDN19.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CLCN7 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CLCN7.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CIB2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CIB2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CHUK Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CHUK.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CHSY1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CHSY1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CHST3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CHST3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CHRNG Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CHRNG.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CHRDL1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CHRDL1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CHM Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CHM.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CDH3 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CDH3.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CDH23 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CDH23.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CCT5 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CCT5.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CCNO Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CCNO.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CCDC65 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CCDC65.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CCDC40 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CCDC40.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CCDC114 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CCDC114.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 CCDC103 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to CCDC103.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 C4orf26 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to C4orf26.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 C2orf71 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to C2orf71.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 C19orf12 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to C19orf12.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 BMPR1B Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to BMPR1B.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 BMPER Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to BMPER.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 BICD2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to BICD2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 BHLHA9 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to BHLHA9.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 BGN Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to BGN.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 BFSP2 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to BFSP2.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 ATP6V1B1 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to ATP6V1B1.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.421 ARHGEF6 Arina Puzriakova Source Expert Review Red was added to ARHGEF6.
Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.420 ITFG2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: ITFG2 was added
gene: ITFG2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: ITFG2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: ITFG2 were set to 28397838; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41525-020-00150-z
Phenotypes for gene: ITFG2 were set to Neurodevelopmental abnormality; Intellectual disability; Developmental regression; Ataxia
Penetrance for gene: ITFG2 were set to Complete
Review for gene: ITFG2 was set to AMBER
Added comment: ITFG2 was suggested to be a candidate gene for autosomal recessive ID in the study by Harripaul et al (2018 - PMID: 28397838). The authors performed microarray and exome sequencing in 192 consanguineous families and identified a homozygous ITGF2 stopgain variant (NM_018463.3:c.472G>T / p.Glu158*) along with 3 additional variants segregating with ID within an investigated family (PK51).

Cheema et al (2020 - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41525-020-00150-z) report briefly on a male, born to consanguineous parents presenting with NDD, seizures, regression and ataxia. There was a similarly affected female sibling. Evaluation of ROH revealed a homozygous ITFG2 nonsense variant [NM_018463.3:c.361C>T / p.(Gln121*)]. Families in this study were investigated by trio WES or WGS.

Evaluation of data of the same lab revealed 3 additional unrelated subjects with overlapping phenotypes, notably NDD and ataxia. These individuals were - each - homozygous for pLoF variants [NM_018463.3:c.848-1G>A; NM_018463.3:c.704dupC, p.(Ala236fs), NM_018463.3:c.1000_1001delAT, p.(Ile334fs)].

As discussed in OMIM, ITFG2 encodes a subunit of the KICSTOR protein complex, having a role in regulating nutrient sensing by MTOR complex-1 (Wolfson et al 2017 - PMID : 28199306).

Please consider inclusion in the ID panel with amber rating, pending further details.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.420 USP7 Konstantinos Varvagiannis edited their review of gene: USP7: Changed publications: 26365382, 19946331, 33012787
Intellectual disability v3.420 USP7 Konstantinos Varvagiannis changed review comment from: Please consider also PMID : 33012787 for Green rating (several cases reported).; to: Please consider also PMID : 33012787 for Green rating (several cases reported to date).
Intellectual disability v3.420 USP7 Konstantinos Varvagiannis commented on gene: USP7: Please consider also PMID : 33012787 for Green rating (several cases reported).
Intellectual disability v3.420 SHMT2 Konstantinos Varvagiannis gene: SHMT2 was added
gene: SHMT2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature
Mode of inheritance for gene: SHMT2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Publications for gene: SHMT2 were set to 33015733
Phenotypes for gene: SHMT2 were set to Congenital microcephaly; Infantile axial hypotonia; Spastic paraparesis; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Abnormal cortical gyration; Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy; Abnormality of the face; Proximal placement of thumb; 2-3 toe syndactyly
Penetrance for gene: SHMT2 were set to Complete
Review for gene: SHMT2 was set to GREEN
Added comment: García‑Cazorla et al. (2020 - PMID: 33015733) report 5 individuals (from 4 families) with a novel brain and heart developmental syndrome caused by biallelic SHMT2 pathogenic variants.

All affected subjects presented similar phenotype incl. microcephaly at birth (5/5 OFC < -2 SD though in 2/5 cases N OFC was observed later), DD and ID (1/5 mild-moderate, 1/5 moderate, 3/5 severe), motor dysfunction in the form of spastic (5/5) paraparesis, ataxia/dysmetria (3/4), intention tremor (in 3/?) and/or peripheral neuropathy (2 sibs). They exhibited corpus callosum hypoplasia (5/5) and perisylvian microgyria-like pattern (4/5). Cardiac problems were reported in all, with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in 4/5 (from 3 families) and atrial-SD in the 5th individual (1/5). Common dysmorphic features incl. long palpebral/fissures, eversion of lateral third of lower eylids, arched eyebrows, long eyelashes, thin upper lip, short Vth finger, fetal pads, mild 2-3 toe syndactyly, proximally placed thumbs.

Biallelic variants were identified following exome sequencing in all (other investigations not mentioned). Identified variants were in all cases missense SNVs or in-frame del, which together with evidence from population databases and mouse model might suggest a hypomorphic effect of variants and intolerance/embryonic lethality for homozygous LoF ones.

SHMT2 encodes the mitohondrial form of serine hydroxymethyltransferase. The enzyme transfers one-carbon units from serine to tetrahydrofolate (THF) and generates glycine and 5,10,methylene-THF.

Mitochondrial defect was suggested by presence of ragged red fibers in myocardial biopsy of one patient. Quadriceps and myocardial biopsies of the same individual were overall suggestive of myopathic changes.

While plasma metabolites were within N range and SHMT2 protein levels not significantly altered in patient fibroblasts, the authors provide evidence for impaired enzymatic function eg. presence of the SHMT2 substrate (THF) in patient but not control (mitochondria-enriched) fibroblasts , decrease in glycine/serine ratios, impared folate metabolism. Patient fibroblasts displayed impaired oxidative capacity (reduced ATP levels in a medium without glucose, diminished oxygen consumption rates). Mitochondrial membrane potential and ROS levels were also suggestive of redox malfunction.

Shmt2 ko in mice was previously shown to be embryonically lethal attributed to severe mitochondrial respiration defects, although there was no observed brain metabolic defect.

The authors performed Shmt2 knockdown in motoneurons in Drosophila, demonstrating neuromuscular junction (# of satellite boutons) and motility defects (climbing distance/velocity).

Overall this gene can be considered for inclusion with (probably) green rating in gene panels for ID, metabolic / mitochondrial disorders, cardiomyopathy, congenital microcephaly, corpus callosum anomalies, etc.
Sources: Literature
Intellectual disability v3.420 ABCB11 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: ABCB11 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.420 ABCB11 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Downgraded from Amber to Red in context of the review by Konstantinos Varvagiannis
Intellectual disability v3.420 ABCB11 Arina Puzriakova Gene: abcb11 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.419 ACAN Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: ACAN as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.419 ACAN Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Downgraded from Amber to Red in context of the review by Konstantinos Varvagiannis
Intellectual disability v3.419 ACAN Arina Puzriakova Gene: acan has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.418 ATP8B1 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: ATP8B1 as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.418 ATP8B1 Arina Puzriakova Gene: atp8b1 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.417 ATP8B1 Arina Puzriakova changed review comment from: Following discussion with the clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark; to: Following discussion with the clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark and Konstantinos Varvagiannis
Intellectual disability v3.417 KAT5 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: KAT5 were changed from to Severe global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Microcephaly; Behavioral abnormality; Sleep disturbance; Morphological abnormality of the central nervous system; Short stature; Oral cleft; Abnormality of the face
Intellectual disability v3.416 KAT5 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: KAT5 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.415 KAT5 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: KAT5 was changed from MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.415 KAT5 Arina Puzriakova Mode of inheritance for gene: KAT5 was changed from to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.414 KAT5 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: KAT5 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.414 KAT5 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: Rating upgraded from Red to Amber. There is a sufficient number of unrelated cases reported in PMID:32822602 to promoted this gene to Green at the next GMS panel update.
Intellectual disability v3.414 KAT5 Arina Puzriakova Gene: kat5 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.413 KAT5 Arina Puzriakova Tag for-review tag was added to gene: KAT5.
Intellectual disability v3.413 SCAF4 Arina Puzriakova Phenotypes for gene: SCAF4 were changed from to SCAF4-related Neurodevelopmental Disorder; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Behavioural abnormalities
Intellectual disability v3.412 SCAF4 Arina Puzriakova Classified gene: SCAF4 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.412 SCAF4 Arina Puzriakova Added comment: Comment on list classification: At least 8 unrelated individuals reported in PMID:32730804 with a neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by DD/ID, mostly in the mild range (severe in only one individual).

Rating Amber in view of the mild ID presentation. This may be reviewed if further cases are reported with more severe manifestations of relevant phenotypes.
Intellectual disability v3.412 SCAF4 Arina Puzriakova Gene: scaf4 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.411 SCAF4 Arina Puzriakova commented on gene: SCAF4
Intellectual disability v3.411 SCAF4 Arina Puzriakova Publications for gene: SCAF4 were set to
Intellectual disability v3.410 NEDD4L Eleanor Williams changed review comment from: Associated with Periventricular nodular heterotopia 7 #617201 (AD) in OMIM.

PMID: 27694961 - Broix et al 2016 - report 4 different de novo missense changes in NEDD4L in a total of five unrelated patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia and neurodevelopmental delay, and in a additional familial case with a similar phenotype and a previously found missense variant. In the familial case, two affected siblings were found to be heterozygous for the variant, the father and an unaffected sibling did not carry the variant, and the mother was found to show somatic mosaicism of NEDD4L variant. Functional studies showed a sensitivity of PNH-associated mutants to proteasome degradation.; to: Associated with Periventricular nodular heterotopia 7 #617201 (AD) in OMIM.

PMID: 27694961 - Broix et al 2016 - report 4 different de novo missense changes in NEDD4L in a total of five unrelated patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia and neurodevelopmental delay, and in a additional familial case with a similar phenotype and a previously found missense variant. In the familial case, two affected siblings were found to be heterozygous for the variant, the father and an unaffected sibling did not carry the variant, and the mother was found to show somatic mosaicism of NEDD4L variant. Functional studies showed a sensitivity of PNH-associated mutants to proteasome degradation. Seizures were reported in some but not all affected individuals.
Intellectual disability v3.410 NEDD4L Eleanor Williams Tag for-review tag was added to gene: NEDD4L.
Intellectual disability v3.410 NEDD4L Eleanor Williams Classified gene: NEDD4L as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.410 NEDD4L Eleanor Williams Gene: nedd4l has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.409 NEDD4L Eleanor Williams Classified gene: NEDD4L as Red List (low evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.409 NEDD4L Eleanor Williams Added comment: Comment on list classification: Promoting this gene from red to amber, but there are sufficient cases with a severe developmental delay phenotype for it to be rated green. It should therefore be reviewed at the next GMS update.
Intellectual disability v3.409 NEDD4L Eleanor Williams Gene: nedd4l has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
Intellectual disability v3.408 NEDD4L Eleanor Williams Phenotypes for gene: NEDD4L were changed from EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY to Periventricular nodular heterotopia 7, 617201
Intellectual disability v3.408 NEDD4L Eleanor Williams Publications for gene: NEDD4L were set to 23934111
Intellectual disability v3.407 NEDD4L Eleanor Williams reviewed gene: NEDD4L: Rating: GREEN; Mode of pathogenicity: None; Publications: 27694961; Phenotypes: Periventricular nodular heterotopia 7, 617201; Mode of inheritance: MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual disability v3.407 NUP214 Eleanor Williams Publications for gene: NUP214 were set to 31178128
Intellectual disability v3.406 NUP214 Eleanor Williams Classified gene: NUP214 as Amber List (moderate evidence)
Intellectual disability v3.406