Intellectual disabilityGene: AP1B1 Amber List (moderate evidence)
I don't know
AP1B1 identified by Konstantinos Varvagiannis as reported in Boyden et al. (2019 - PMID: 31630788) and Alsaif et al (2019 - PMID: 31630791)
AP1B1 is currently not in OMIM and is possible in Gene2Phenotype. Phenotype observed in all subjects included failure to thrive, ichthyosis (with variable palmoplantar keratoderma/erythroderma/abnormal hair) and hearing loss. However as DD/ID not consistent amongst all subjects AP1B1 will be rated as Amber.
Created: 27 Nov 2019, 2:02 p.m. | Last Modified: 27 Nov 2019, 2:02 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1123
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
I don't know
Boyden et al. (2019 - PMID: 31630788) and Alsaif et al (2019 - PMID: 31630791) report on the phenotype related to biallelic AP1B1 mutations.
Common features included failure to thrive, ichthyosis (with variable palmoplantar keratoderma/erythroderma/abnormal hair) and hearing loss. Each study focused on different additional features eg. thrombocytopenia or photophobia in all individuals reported by Boyden et al, while Alsaif et al. focused on abnormal copper metabolism (low plasma copper and ceruloplasmin) observed in all 3 affected individuals and enteropathy/hepatopathy observed in 2 sibs.
DD was observed in all 3 individuals (2 families) reported by Alsaif et al. and patient 424 reported by Boyden et al. ID was noted in all individuals of relevant age (2 from 2 families) in the study by Alsaif. Boyden commented that ID is not part of the phenotype. The adult (424) - despite his early DD - was noted to have normal intellect and had graduated college. The other patient (1325) was last followed up at 11 months (still DD was not reported).
AP1B1 encodes one of the large subunits (β1) of the adaptor protein complex 1. Each of the AP complexes is a heterotetramer composed of two large (one of γ, α, δ, ε and β1-β4 for AP-1 to AP-4 respectively), one medium (μ1-μ4) and one small (σ1-σ4) adaptin subunit. The complex is involved in vesicle-mediated transport.
Variants were confirmed in probands and carrier parents (NM_001127.3):
Boyden Pat424 (33y) : c.430T>C (p.Cys144Arg) in trans with c.2335delC (p.Leu779Serfs*26)
Boyden Pat1325 (11m) [consanguineous Ashkenazi Jewish family] : homozygosity for c.2374G>T (p.Glu792*)
Alsaif sibs P1,P2 (4y4m, 1y5m) [consanguineous - Pakistani origin] : homozygous for a chr22 75 kb deletion spanning only the promoter and ex1-2 of AP1B1
Alsaif P3 (4y6m) [consanguineous - Saudi origin] : homozygous for a c.38-1G>A
Variant / additional studies :
22q 75-kb deletion: PCR deletion mapping and Sanger delineated the breakpoints of the 22q12.2 del to chr22:29758984-29815476 (hg?). Complete absence of transcript upon RT-PCR (mRNA from fibrolasts).
Splicing variant (c.38-1G>A): RT-PCR confirmed replacement of the normal transcript by an aberrant harboring a 1 bp deletion (r.40del).
Stopgain variant (c.2374G>T): Western blot demonstrated loss of AP1B1 (and marked reduction also for AP1G1) in cultured keratinocytes of the homozygous patient.
Loss-of-function is the effect predicted by variants. Vesicular defects were observed in keratinocytes of an affected individual (homozygous for the nonsense variant). Rescue of these vesicular defects upon transduction with wt AP1B1 lentiviral construct confirmed the LoF effect. [Boyden et al.]
ATP7A and ATP7B, two copper transporters, have been shown to depend on AP-1 for their trafficking. Similar to MEDNIK syndrome, caused by mutations in AP1S1 and having an overlapping phenotype with AP1B1 (also including hypocupremia and hypoceruloplasminemia), fibroblasts from 2 affected individuals (from different families) demonstrated abnormal ATP7A trafficking. [Alsaif et al.]
Proteomic analysis of clathrin coated vesicles (2 ind from 2 fam) demonstrated that AP1B1 was the only AP1/AP2 CCV component consistently reduced in 2 individuals (from 2 families). [Alsaif et al.]
Boyden et al. provided evidence for abnormal differentiation and proliferation in skin from an affected individual. In addition E-cadherin and β-catenin were shown to be mislocalized in keratinocytes from this affected individual.
Loss of ap1b1 in zebrafish is not lethal but lead to auditory defects (/vestibular deficits). The inner ears appear to develop normally, although there is progressive degeneration of ear epithelia. There are no behavioral/neurological phenotypes listed for mouse models. [ http://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:1096368 ].
AP1B1 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM/G2P/SysID.
Overall this gene could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably with amber rating.
Created: 11 Nov 2019, 4:19 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Failure to thrive; Abnormality of the skin; Hearing abnormality; Abnormality of copper homeostasis; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability
Gene: ap1b1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
gene: AP1B1 was added gene: AP1B1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: AP1B1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: AP1B1 were set to 31630788; 31630791 Phenotypes for gene: AP1B1 were set to Failure to thrive; Abnormality of the skin; Hearing abnormality; Abnormality of copper homeostasis; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability Penetrance for gene: AP1B1 were set to Complete Review for gene: AP1B1 was set to AMBER
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Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
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Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.