Intellectual disabilityGene: TDP2 Green List (high evidence)
TDP2 is in OMIM with a relevant clinical features but not in Gene2Phenotype. TDP2 was identified by Konstantinos Varvagiannis who reviewed all variants. Sufficient number of individuals from unrelated families reported upon in the literature and three different variants identified. Therefore TDP2 can be classified as Green
Created: 24 Oct 2019, 12:11 p.m. | Last Modified: 24 Oct 2019, 12:11 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1076
Green List (high evidence)
Biallelic pathogenic TGP2 variants cause Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 23 (MIM 616949). At least 6 affected individuals from 4 families have been reported, in all cases homozygous for LoF variants (3 different). ID, epilepsy and ataxia are consistent features of the disorder.
TDP2 encodes a phosphodiesterase that is required for efficient repair of double strand breaks (DSBs) produced by abortive topoisomerase II (TOP2) activity.
The gene is expressed in fetal and adult human brain.
Evidence at the variant level (mRNA, protein levels) and additional studies for impairment of TOP2-induced DSB repair support a role.
Animal models (primarily mice) reproduce the DSB repair defect, provide some histopathological evidence, show transcriptional dysregulation of genes (in line with the role of TOP2 in transcription). They have however failed to reproduce relevant neurological phenotypes.
Published studies are summarized below.
TDP2 is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc and GeneDx). There is no associated phenotype in G2P. TDP2 is listed among the current primary ID genes in SysID.
Overall, this gene could be considered for inclusion in the ID and epilepsy panels probably as green (>=3 patients/families/variants, relevant ID and seizures in all, expression in brain, mRNA/protein levels tested, impaired activity) or amber (absence of neurological phenotypes in mouse model).
 - PMID: 24658003 (Gómez-Herreros et al. 2014):
Reports 3 individuals from a consanguineous Irish family. Features included seizures (onset by 2m, 6m and 12y), ID (3/3) and ataxia (3/3).
A splicing variant (NM_016614.3:c.425+1G>A) was found in a 9.08-Mb region of homozygosity shared by all. A further ZNF193 missense variant localizing in the same region was thought unlikely to contribute to the phenotype (evidence also provided in subsequent study).
The effect of the specific variant was proven by abnormal mRNA size, lower mRNA levels due to NMD (corrected upon cyclohexamide treatment), loss of TDP2 protein upon WB, loss of protein activity in lymphoblastoid cells from affected individuals, decreased repair of DSBs and increased cell death upon addition of etoposide (which promotes TOP2 abortive activity).
The authors report very briefly on a further patient (from Egypt), with ID, 'reports of fits' and ataxia. This individual, with also affected sibs, was homozygous LoF (c.413_414delinsAA / p.Ser138*). Again, the authors were not able to detect TDP2 activity in blood from this subject.
As also commented:
- TDP2 has relevant expression in human (particularly adult) brain.
- Mouse model : Tdp2 is expressed in relevant tissues, absence of Tdp2 activity was observed in neural tissue of mice homoyzgous for an ex1-3 del, with impairment of DSB repair. The authors were unable to detect a neurological phenotype with behavioral analyses, preliminary assesment of seizure propensity. Mice did not show developmental defects. Histopathology however, revealed ~25% reduction in the density of interneurons in cerebellum (a 'hallmark of DSB repair' and associated with seizures and ataxia). Transcription of several genes was shown to be disregulated.
- Knockdown in zebrafish appears to affect left-right axis detremination (cited PMID: 18039968).
 - PMID: 30109272 (Zagnoli-Vieira et al. 2018):
A 6 y.o. male with seizures (onset by 5m), hypotonia, DD and ID, microcephaly and some additional clinical features and testing (ETC studies on muscle biopsy, +lactate, +(lactate/pyruvate) ratio) which could be suggestive of mitochondrial disorder. This individual from the US was homozygous for the c.425+1G>A variant but lacked the ZNF193 one (despite a shared haplotype with the Irish patients). Again absence of the protein was shown upon WB in patient fibroblasts, also supported by its activity. Complementation studies restored the DSB repair defect. The defect was specific to TOP2-induced DSBs as suggested by hypersensitivity to etoposide but not to ionizing radiation. CRISPR/Cas9 generated mutant human A549 cells demonstrated abnormal DSB repair. Fibroblasts / edited A549 cells failed to show mitochondrial defects (which were noted in muscle).
 - PMID: 31410782 (Ciaccio et al. 2019):
A girl born to consanguineous Italian parents, presented with moderate/severe ID, seizures (onset at 12y) and - among others - gait ataxia, tremor and dysmetria. MRI at the age of 12, demonstrated cerebellar atrophy (although previous exams were N). WES revealed a homozygous nonsense variant (c.400C>T / p.Arg134Ter) for which each parent was found to be carrier. Previous investigations included aCGH, NGS testing for epilepsy and metabolic testing.
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Created: 6 Oct 2019, 7:54 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 23, 616949)
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Gene: tdp2 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Mode of inheritance for gene: TDP2 was changed from MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
gene: TDP2 was added gene: TDP2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen Mode of inheritance for gene: TDP2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted Publications for gene: TDP2 were set to 24658003; 30109272; 31410782 Phenotypes for gene: TDP2 were set to Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 23, 616949) Penetrance for gene: TDP2 were set to unknown Review for gene: TDP2 was set to GREEN gene: TDP2 was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.