Intellectual disabilityGene: SYNCRIP Red List (low evidence)
I don't know
Semino et al (2021 - PMID: 34157790) provide clinical details on 3 unrelated individuals with de novo SYNCRIP variants and provide a review of 5 additional subjects previously identified within large cohorts in the literature and databases.
Features included DD, ID (7/7 for whom this information was available), ASD or autistic features (4/7). MRI abnormalities were observed in 3 (widening of CSF spaces, periventricular nodular heterotopia, prominent lat. ventricles). Epilepsy (myoclonic-astatic epilepsy / Doose syndrome) was reported for 2(/8) individuals.
The 3 patients here reported were identified following trio/singleton exome with Sanger confirmation of the variants and their de novo occurrence.
Variants are in almost all cases de novo (7/7 for whom this was known) and in 5/8 cases were pLoF, in 2/8 missense SNVs while a case from DECIPHER had a 77.92 kb whole gene deletion not involving other genes with unknown inheritance.
Overall the variants reported to date include [NM_006372.5]:
1 - c.858_859del p.(Gly287Leufs*5)
2 - c.854dupA p.(Asn285Lysfs*8)
3 - c.734T>C p.(Leu245Pro)
4 - chr6:85605276-85683190 deletion (GRCh38)
5 - c.629T>C p.(Phe210Ser)
6 - c.1573_1574delinsTT p.(Gln525Leu)
7 - c.1247_1250del p.(Arg416Lysfs*145)
8 - c.1518_1519insC p.(Ala507Argfs*14)
[P1-3: this report, P4: DECIPHER 254774, P5-6: Guo et al 2019 - PMID: 30504930, P7: Lelieveld et al 2016 - PMID: 27479843, P8: Rauch et al 2012 - PMID: 23020937 / all other Refs not here reviewed, clinical details summarized by Semino et al in table 1]
SYNCRIP (also known as HNRNPQ) encodes synaptotagmin‐binding cytoplasmic RNA‐interacting protein. As the authors note, this RNA-binding protein is involved in multiple pathways associated with neuronal/muscular developmental disorders. Several references are provided for its involvement in regulation of RNA metabolism, among others sequence recognition, pre-mRNA splicing, translation, transport and degradation.
Mutations in other RNA-interacting proteins and hnRNP members (e.g. HNRNPU, HNRNPD) are associated with NDD.
The missense variant (p.Leu245Pro) is within RRM2 one of the 3 RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains of the protein. These 3 domains, corresponding to the central part of the protein (aa 150-400), are relatively intolerant to variation (based on in silico predictions and/or variation in gnomAD). Leu245 localizes within an RNA binding pocket and in silico modeling suggests alteration of the tertiary structure and RNA-binding capacity of RRM2.
There are no additional studies performed.
Overall haploinsufficiency appears to be the underlying disease mechanism based on the truncating variants and the gene deletion. [pLI in gnomAD : 1, %HI : 2.48%]
Animal models are not discussed.
There is no associated phenotype in OMIM or PanelApp AUS.
This gene is included in the DD panel of G2P (monoallelic LoF variants / SYNCRIP-related developmental disorder). SysID also lists SYNCRIP within the current primary ID genes.
Created: 26 Jul 2021, 11:18 p.m. | Last Modified: 26 Jul 2021, 11:18 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1201
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autism; Myoclonic atonic seizures; Abnormality of nervous system morphology
Red List (low evidence)
Red List (low evidence)
Currently insufficient evidence to include in ID panel. Evidence comes from PMID:27479843 (2016) who perform statistical enrichment analysis on 2,637 de novo mutations identified from the exomes of 2,104 patient-parent trios, and identify SYNCRIP as a candidate ID gene.
Created: 31 Oct 2017, 9:24 a.m.
Red List (low evidence)
12.03.2018: Due to major updates completed (Phase 1, 2 and 3), this panel was promoted to Version 2 in order to reflect the major updates since November 2017 which have resulted in reviews for 836 genes added by Genomics England Curators and the Clinical Team, 130 new Green genes added to the interpretation pipeline (from 751 to 881 Green genes), and the gene total has increased from 1879 to 1927.
Publications for gene SYNCRIP was set to ['27479843', ' 26350204']
The Gel status was updated for this whole panel
The Gel status was updated for this whole panel
SYNCRIP was added to Intellectual disabilitypanel. Sources: Expert Review Red
SYNCRIP was created by ellenmcdonagh
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.