Intellectual disabilityGene: CWF19L1 Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: New gene added by external expert and reviewed by curation team: appropriate phenotype, sufficient cases and external expert review all support gene-disease association and relevance to this panel to rate gene to Green.
Created: 25 Feb 2019, 5:42 p.m.
Comment on publications: Added PMID:30167849 Novel candidate genes and variants underlying autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorders with intellectual disability Santos-Cortez et.el, (2018)
Created: 25 Feb 2019, 5:38 p.m.
Green List (high evidence)
Biallelic pathogenic variants in CWF19L1 cause Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 17 (MIM 616127).
Burns et al. (2014 - PMID: 25361784) report on 2 sibs born to consanguineous parents, homozygous for a splice site variant (NM_018294.5:c.964+1G>A). Congenital ataxia with hypoplasia of vermis and cerebellar hemispheres and ID were features reported in both in this study.
Clinical details on this family were published previously (Yapici and Eraksoy - PMID: 15981765) where ID appeared to be a feature for one of the sibs (FSIQ of 68) but not the other (IQ of 90) [the sibs seem to correspond to patients 5 and 6 from the third family of the original report].
Expression in patient lymphoblastoid cell lines was reduced using expression micro-arrays and quantitative reverse-transcription PCR.
The variant was shown to lead to skipping of exon 9. Introduction of an out-of-frame stop codon (thus NMD) may explain mRNA levels.
Western blot using epitope spanning exons 5-7 demonstrated absence (in patient but not in control LCLs) of the 2 protein bands expected based on this epitope. [A shorter isoform due to downstream alternative start site would not be detectable].
Using commercial normal tissue brain lysates revealed only the canonical protein band suggesting that this is the isoform present in brain.
Morpholino knockdown of cwf91l1 in zebrafish resulted in altered cerebellar staining (/structure) and abnormal motor behavior.
Nguyen et al. (2016 - PMID: 26197978) report on a further individual with ID, ataxia and abnormal cerebellum (extensive discussions whether this represents hypoplasia/atrophy) compound heterozygous for a missense (NM_018294.4:c.37G>C / p.Asp13His) and a nonsense variant (c.946A>T / p.Lys316*).
mRNA expression in patient fibroblasts was similar to control while cDNA sequence analysis was suggestive of lower levels for the r.946A>U transcript (compared to r.37G>C) possibly due to NMD.
Evers et al. (2016 - PMID: 27016154) report on a further individual, born to consanguineous parents, homozygous a frameshift variant (NM_018294.5:c.467delC or p.Pro156Hisfs). This individual presented with ID, ataxia and similar cerebellar anomalies.
cDNA of 3 different regions of CWF19L1 suggested tht mRNA was not entirely degraded by NMD. Western blot demonstrated absence of a band corresponding to the longest isoform in patient LCL cells. [All isoforms discussed in Fig3].
A subsequent pregnancy of the same couple was terminated due to presence of additional fetal anomalies possibly not explained by homozygosity (only) for this variant which was confirmed (cerebellar measurements were in the the low-normal range and morphology reportedly normal).
In ClinVar additional variants have been submitted as pathogenic/likely pathogenic (although a phenotype is not specified for all).
CWF19L1 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.
This gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc).
As a result CWF19L1 can be considered for inclusion in this panel probably as green (rather than amber).
Created: 31 Dec 2018, 12:29 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 17 (MIM 616127)
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Gene: cwf19l1 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Phenotypes for gene: CWF19L1 were changed from Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 17, 616127; intellectual disability to Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 17, 616127; intellectual disability, developmental delay
Publications for gene: CWF19L1 were set to 25361784; 15981765; 26197978; 27016154
Phenotypes for gene: CWF19L1 were changed from Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 17, 616127 to Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 17, 616127; intellectual disability
Publications for gene: CWF19L1 were set to 25361784
Phenotypes for gene: CWF19L1 were changed from Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 17 (MIM 616127) to Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 17, 616127
gene: CWF19L1 was added gene: CWF19L1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen Mode of inheritance for gene: CWF19L1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: CWF19L1 were set to 25361784 Phenotypes for gene: CWF19L1 were set to Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 17 (MIM 616127) Penetrance for gene: CWF19L1 were set to Complete Review for gene: CWF19L1 was set to GREEN gene: CWF19L1 was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.