Intellectual disabilityGene: CARS Green List (high evidence)
Comment on phenotypes: Added disease term which has now been added to OMIM.
Created: 15 Jul 2020, 2:09 p.m. | Last Modified: 15 Jul 2020, 2:09 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.171
Added new-gene-name tag, new approved HGNC gene symbol for CARS is CARS1
Created: 6 Sep 2019, 2:14 p.m. | Last Modified: 6 Sep 2019, 2:14 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1022
Comment on list classification: Expert review by Konstantinos Varvagiannis on CARS. Kuo et al. (PMID:30824121) report on 4 individuals from 3 families with biallelic pathogenic CARS variants. All with common features of microcephaly, developmental delay, brittle hair and nails All 4 were presented as adults in the publication. All showed developmental delay as children and mild to moderate cognitive disabilities as adults a phenotype applicable to the ID panel.
CARS is currently not associated with a phenotype in OMIM and is in G2P as Disease: Microcephaly Developmental Delay and Brittle Hair and Nail although no list of phenotypes have been assigned to the G2P entry.
Overall sufficient (>3) unrelated cases of developmental delay in patients with CARS variants, to warrant a Green rating.
Created: 16 May 2019, 12:47 p.m. | Last Modified: 17 Jul 2019, 10:32 a.m.
Panel Version: 0.200
Green List (high evidence)
Kuo et al. (2019 - doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.01.006) report on 4 individuals from 3 families with biallelic pathogenic CARS variants.
Common features included microcephaly, DD, brittle hair and nails. All 4 were adults and presented with motor, language and cognitive disabilities.
Reported genotypes (and variants) included [NM_001751.5 and NP_001742.1]:
- c.1138C>T (p.Gln380*) and c.1022G>A (p.Arg341His) (1 individual)
- c.1076C>T (p.Ser359Leu) and c.1199T>A (p.Leu400Gln) (2 sibs)
- c.2061dup (p.Ser688Glnfs ∗2) in homozygous state (1 individual - no reported consanguinity)
Segregation studies confirmed the in trans occurrence of the variants in affected individuals and carrier state in unaffected parents or other family members.
CARS encodes Cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS). ARSs are a group of enzymes responsible for ligating amino acids to cognate tRNA molecules. CARS is responsible for charging cysteine to tRNA molecules in the cytoplasm (CARS2 is responsible for charging cysteine to tRNA molecules in mitochondria).
Mutations in several ARSs have been linked to disorders with features overlapping to CARS-related phenotype.
- Western blot (pat. fibroblasts) confirmed expression of stable truncated p.Ser688Glnfs ∗2 but absence of the predicted truncating p.Gln380*. Expression in fibroblasts from the individual with compound heteroz. for the missense variants was similar to controls.
- Subcellular localization did not appear to be affected.
- Aminocacylation was significantly reduced (~40-80%) using protein lysates from affected individual fibroblasts (all families) supporting a LoF effect.
- A yeast complementation assay suggested LoF/hypomorphic effect with no or reduced yeast cell growth depending on the variant tested (hypomorphic variants: Arg341His and Ser359Leu). Aminoacylation assays (in yeast) showed reduced activity (by 50% and 84% respectively) for the 2 hypomorphic variants (compatible with the observations in patient fibroblasts).
- Conservation and the presumed effect of individual variants (in catalytic domain, truncation upstream of anticodon-binding domain or in a region affecting binding specificity of CARS and tRNA-cys) also supported pathogenicity.
All individuals demonstrated strikingly similar hair-shaft anomalies upon polarized light microscopy (eg. trichorrhexis/tiger-tail patterns/abnormal shaft diameter) in line with macroscopical observations of fine brittle hair suggesting a common underlying genetic cause (presumably explained by high cysteine content of keratins).
CARS is not associatated with any phenotype in OMIM, nor in G2P.
The gene is not - at least commonly - included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories.
As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in the current panel as green (or amber).
Created: 2 Mar 2019, 10:45 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Microcephaly; Neurodevelopmental delay; Brittle hair; Fragile nails
Phenotypes for gene: CARS were changed from Brittle hair; Fragile nails; Microcephaly; Neurodevelopmental delay to Brittle hair; Fragile nails; Microcephaly; Neurodevelopmental delay; Microcephaly, developmental delay, and brittle hair syndrome MIM#618891
Tag new-gene-name tag was added to gene: CARS.
Source Expert Review Green was added to CARS. Source Expert Review was added to CARS. Added phenotypes Brittle hair; Fragile nails; Microcephaly; Neurodevelopmental delay for gene: CARS Publications for gene CARS were changed from to 30824121 Rating Changed from No List (delete) to Green List (high evidence)
gene: CARS was added gene: CARS was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: CARS was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Phenotypes for gene: CARS were set to Microcephaly; Neurodevelopmental delay; Brittle hair; Fragile nails Penetrance for gene: CARS were set to Complete Review for gene: CARS was set to GREEN
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.