Intellectual disabilityGene: ODC1 Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: Changing rating from grey to green. 5 unrelated cases with likely disease causing variants. All de novo. Variants cause a gain-of-function.
Created: 14 Feb 2019, 2:46 p.m.
PMID: 30239107 (Bupp et al 2018) - 1 patient with heterozygous de novo nonsense mutation in the ODC1 gene (c.1342 A>T) identified by whole exome sequencing. Phenotypic manifestations include macrosomia, macrocephaly, developmental delay, alopecia, spasticity, hypotonia, cutaneous vascular malformation, delayed visual maturation, and sensorineural hearing loss. Red blood cells from the patient showed elevated ODC protein and polyamine levels compared to healthy controls indicating that this is a gain-of-function variant.
PMID: 30475435 (Rodan et al 2018) - 4 patients (1 stillborn) with a distinct neurometabolic disorder associated with de novo heterozygous, gain-of-function variants in the ODC1 gene. 4 different variants found. This disorder presents with global developmental delay, ectodermal abnormalities including alopecia, absolute or relative macrocephaly, and characteristic facial dysmorphisms. No epilepsy observed. None of the reported variants are found in the Broad. gnomAD database. The variants are predicted to have a gain-of-function effect as the mutant protein escapes nonsense‐mediated decay (NMD) and has reduced degradation compared to wild‐type.
Created: 14 Feb 2019, 2:44 p.m.
Green List (high evidence)
PMIDs 30239107 and 30475435 report on 5 cases of de novo truncating ODC1 variants in unrelated families. One concerned a stillborn male. The 4 remaining individuals presented with a similar phenotype consisting of alopecia and other ectodermal anomalies, DD/ID, relative or absolute macrocephaly and common facial features. DD/ID was severe in some instances and many of these individuals had extensive prior testing for other disorders (Fragile-X, PTEN, SLC2A1, chromosomal disorders, etc).
ODC1 (ornithine decarboxylase 1) converts enzymatically ornithine to putrescine. All variants reported to date are truncating but lead to gain-of-function. Specifically they affect a 37 amino acid c-terminal destabilization region critical for the degradation of ODC1 and - as a result - lead to increased levels of ODC1 as well as putrescine.
A mouse model with identical phenotype has been described several years ago.
The role of ODC inhibitors is extensively discussed in both publications.
Thus, ODC1 can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature, Expert Review
Created: 29 Nov 2018, 1:01 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Macrocephaly; Alopecia; Ectodermal dysplasia
Gene: odc1 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
gene: ODC1 was added gene: ODC1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review Mode of inheritance for gene: ODC1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: ODC1 were set to 30239107; 30475435 Phenotypes for gene: ODC1 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Macrocephaly; Alopecia; Ectodermal dysplasia Penetrance for gene: ODC1 were set to unknown Review for gene: ODC1 was set to GREEN
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.