Intellectual disabilityGene: NCAPD2 Amber List (moderate evidence)
I don't know
Comment on list classification: Amber rating as only one patient has been described with severe ID. However, added to watchlist in case of new reports of more significant cases of ID. Gene has also been added with a Green rating on the Severe Microcephaly panel.
Created: 31 Jul 2020, 3:30 p.m. | Last Modified: 31 Jul 2020, 3:30 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.216
Associated with phenotype in OMIM and a possible gene for Microcephaly with short stature in G2P.
PMID: 27737959 (2016) - A homozygous splice site variation (c.4120+2T>C, p.Asp1374Glyfs*29) in NCAPD2 was detected in a 3-year-old male with severe microcephaly (OFC -11.9 SD), severe ID, autistic-like behaviours, and no speech. The variant was found in a heterozygous state in both unaffected parents and was not present in the ExAC database. Functional studies indicated that the variant disrupted condensin-dependent mitotic chromosome integrity, providing supporting evidence for pathogenicity.
PMID: 28097321 (2017) - In two affected cousins from a consanguineous family with mild ID, intrauterine growth retardation, short stature, and microcephaly. Homozygous missense variants were found in NCAPD2 (c.23T>C, p.Phe8Ser), but also in ENO2 (c.710C>T, p.Thr237Met). Variants segregated with disease in the family, but no further functional studies were undertaken of the variants or patient cells.
PMID: 31056748 (2019) - In a 13-year-old female with severe microcephaly (OFC < -3), mild ID (IQ 59), poor learning performance, sloping forehead and reduced cerebral cortex size, exome sequencing revealed a homozygous variant in NCAPD2 (c.3477+2T>C, p.Gly1160Valfs*16). Progressive microcephaly was also apparent in a sibling of the proband, a male fetus which was terminated at 34 weeks of pregnancy. The same homozygous variant was identified in the fetus, while parents were heterozygotes and an unaffected brother was homozygous for the other allele. No further functional studies of the variant or patient cells were performed.
Created: 31 Jul 2020, 3:26 p.m. | Last Modified: 31 Jul 2020, 3:26 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.215
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Microcephaly 21, primary, autosomal recessive, 617983
Green List (high evidence)
5 individuals from three unrelated families reported, some functional evidence.
Sources: Expert list
Created: 4 Mar 2020, 4:56 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Microcephaly 21, primary, autosomal recessive, OMIM #617983
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: NCAPD2.
Gene: ncapd2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
gene: NCAPD2 was added gene: NCAPD2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Expert list Mode of inheritance for gene: NCAPD2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: NCAPD2 were set to 31056748; 27737959; 28097321 Phenotypes for gene: NCAPD2 were set to Microcephaly 21, primary, autosomal recessive, OMIM #617983 Review for gene: NCAPD2 was set to GREEN gene: NCAPD2 was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.