Intellectual disabilityGene: ADD1 No list
I don't know
A recent study suggests an ADD1-related phenotype (3 subjects with monoallelic de novo variants/1 with biallelic variants) with DD/ID and ventriculomegaly or corpus callosum dysgenesis and possibly seizures among the features.
There is currently no associated phenotype in other databases (OMIM, G2P, SysID, PanelApp Australia).
Consider inclusion in the current panel with amber / green rating (3 subjects/variants/families, role of the gene and mouse models recapitulating ventriculomegaly/CC abnormalities, relevant expression, variant studies demonstrating abn. protein levels and/or disruption of adducin heterodimer formation || monoallelic vs bi-allelic variants).
Please consider inclusion in other possibly relevant gene panels (e.g. for corpus callosum / ventriculomegaly) [ Not added ].
Qi et al (2022 - PMID: 34906466) describe the phenotype of 3 unrelated individuals with monoallelic de novo ADD1 pathogenic variants as well as of a fourth homozygous for a missense SNV.
Overall, the authors propose a common phenotype consisting of morphological brain abnormalities (incl. ventriculomegaly and corpus callosum dysgenesis) and neurological symptoms such as DD and/or ID and attention deficit.
All individuals were investigated with singleton/trio ES.
De novo variants - phenotype:
One individual investigated for hypotonia, DD & ID, partial ACC, well controlled seizures (on ketogenic diet) and proportional short stature harbored a de novo stopgain variant (NM_014189.3:c.1418G>A / p.Trp473*) absent from gnomAD.
Another affected subject with hypotonia, FTT/feeding difficulties, mild motor delays complete ACC, a seizure (2y11m), staring spells without EEG correlate, and fatigue (with low coenz. Q10, and complex I & IV deficiency in muscle biopsy) had a de novo fs variant (NM_001119:c.2029_2039del / p.Glu680Argfs*7 - gnomAD:0) and a VUS in a gene not associated with phenotype to date.
A 3rd subject investigated for seizures (onset:1y), speech delay, mild ID, ADHD, without MRI abnormalities harbored a de novo missense SNV (NM_001119:c.670C>T / p.His224Tyr - gnomAD:0) and with cmp htz for 2 missense SPTBN2 SNV not fitting the phenotype (no ataxia).
Biallelic variants - phenotype:
One individual with ID, and ACC, abnormal sulcation, enlarged lateral and 3rd ventricles, abnormal of white matter and hypoplastic vermis upon MRI was reported to harbor in homozygosity a missense SNV (NM_001119:c.169A>T / p.Arg57Trp). There was an additional variant in a gene without associated phenotype to date and not expressed in brain.
Role of the encoded protein:
ADD1 encodes adducin 1/alpha (similar to ADD2, ADD3 encoding other adducins). As the authors note, adducins are cytoskeleton proteins critical for osmotic rigidity and cell shape. In neurons they have been reported to form membrane associated periodic ring-like structures with actin and β-spectrin. Deletion of Add1 in mice results in increased MPS ring diameter and axonal degeneration (several refs provided).
ADD1/2/3 form heterodimers which in turn form heterotetramers. ADD1 is expressed in most tissues.
Previous mouse models have demonstrated that Add1 null mice have also undetectable ADD2/3 (suggesting a role for stabilization of the latter) and exhibit growth delay, anemia and develop lethal hydrocephalus and ventriculomegaly with 50% penetrance (cited PMIDs: 27068466, 18723693). Here the authors demonstrated that surviving mice had ventriculomegaly and thinning of corpus callosum thus recapitulating the respective human phenotypes. Htz mice also presented thinner CC, though not to a statistically significant extent.
ADD1 expression and isoforms:
- Performing mRNA studies and W.Blot in (developing - GW15-17) human or mouse brain (E12.5-P40) the authors demonstrated dynamic expression of ADD1 with differentially expressed isoforms, notably alternative splicing of ex10 and ex15 with NM_176801 (extended ex10, inclusion of ex15) corresponding to a neuronal isoform and NM_001119 (shorter ex10, exclusion of ex15) corresponding to a neural progenitor cell (NPC) isoform.
- Variants here reported appear to affect both isoforms with the exception of NM_001119:c.2029_2039del / p.Glu680Argfs*7 affecting only the longer NPC one.
- PTBP1 is an RNA binding protein expressed in NPCs known to suppress neuronal exon insertion. The authors demonstrated in mouse Neuro2A cells, through shRNA targeting of Ptbp1, that the latter suppresses the neuronal Add1 isoform.
Variant studies demonstrated that effect of variants was mediated by decreased protein levels and/or disruption of adducin complex formation (ADD1-ADD2 dimer formation known to be mediated by N- and C- terminal ADD1 domains):
- Expression of Arg57Trp (found in hmz in one individual) NPC and neuronal isoforms in Neuro2a cells showed that while protein levels were not significantly affected, there were (also) truncated protein products for both isoforms suggesting that aberrant splicing or protein translation/cleavage may apply.
- The authors generated HEK293FT cells for the truncating variants demonstrating decreased protein levels (using N-/C- terminal antibodies).
- Reduced (HA-tagged)-ADD1-(V5-tagged)-ADD2 protein interaction was shown to apply for the Arg57Trp and Arg473* in HEK293FT cells. Similarly in Neuro2a cells, reduced ADD1-ADD2 interaction was shown for His224Tyr.
Created: 10 May 2022, 10:27 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Ventriculomegaly; Abnormality of the corpus callosum
gene: ADD1 was added gene: ADD1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: ADD1 was set to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: ADD1 were set to 34906466 Phenotypes for gene: ADD1 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Ventriculomegaly; Abnormality of the corpus callosum Penetrance for gene: ADD1 were set to unknown Review for gene: ADD1 was set to AMBER
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.