Intellectual disabilityGene: PRKAR1B Amber List (moderate evidence)
Green List (high evidence)
Manuscript now published PMID 33833410:
6 individuals reported with neurodevelopmental disorders, 5 confirmed de novo. 4 carried the same variant p.(Arg335Trp).
Phenotypes include global developmental delay, autism spectrum disorder, apraxia/dyspraxia. 3 patients, all with the p.(Arg335Trp) variant, also had reduced pain sensitivity and congenital hypotonia.
Created: 3 Feb 2022, 9:48 p.m. | Last Modified: 3 Feb 2022, 9:48 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1496
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Marbach-Schaaf neurodevelopmental syndrome MIM#619680
Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Based on the provided evidence this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Created: 12 Nov 2020, 3:14 p.m. | Last Modified: 12 Nov 2020, 3:14 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.525
I don't know
Please consider inclusion of this gene with amber rating pending publication of the preprint and/or additional evidence.
Marbach et al. (2020 - medRxiv : https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.10.20190314 - last author : C. Schaaf) report 6 unrelated individuals with heterozygous missense PRKAR1B variants.
All presented formal ASD diagnosis (6/6), global developmental delay (6/6) and intellectual disability (all - formal evaluations were lacking though). Additional features included neurologic anomalies (movement disorders : dyspraxia, apraxia, clumsiness in all, with tremor/dystonia or involuntary movements as single occurrences). Three displayed high pain tolerance. Regression in speech was a feature in two. Additional behavior anomalies included ADHD (4-5/6) or aggression (3/6). There was no consistent pattern of malformations, physical anomalies or facial features (with the exception of uplsanted palpebral fissures reported in 4).
3 different missense variants were identified (NM_00116470:c.1003C>T - p.Arg335Trp, c.586G>A - p.Glu196Lys, c.500_501delAAinsTT - p.Gln167Leu) with Arg355Trp being a recurrent one within this cohort (4/6 subjects). A possible splicing effect may apply for the MNV. All variants are absent from gnomAD and the SNVs had CADD scores > 24.
In all cases were parental samples were available (5/6), the variant had occurred as a de novo event.
Protein kinase A (PKA) is a tetrameric holoenzyme formed by the association of 2 catalytic (C) subunits with a regulatory (R) subunit dimer. Activation of PKA is achieved through binding of 2 cAMP molecules to each R-subunit, and unleashing(/dissociation) of C-subunits to engage substrates. PRKACA/B genes encode the Cα- and Cβ-subunits while the 4 functionally non-redundant regulatory subunits are encoded by PRKAR1A/1B/2A/2B genes. As the authors comment, the RIβ subunit is primarily expressed in brain with higher expression in cortex and hypothalamus.
The functional consequences of the variants at cellular level were not studied.
Previous studies have demonstrated that downregulation of RIβ in murine hippocampal cultures, reduced phosphorylation of CREB, a transcription factor involved in long-term memory formation. The authors speculate that a similar effect on cAMP/PKA/CREB cascade may mediate the cognitive effects in humans. RIβ deficient mice also display diminished nociceptive pain, similar to the human phenotype. [Several refs provided].
The authors cite the study by Kaplanis et al (2020 - PMID: 33057194), where in a large sample of 31,058 trio exomes of children with developmental disorders, PRKAR1B was among the genes with significant enrichment for de novo missense variants. [The gene has a pLI score of 0.18 in gnomAD / o/e = 0.26 - so pLoF variants may not be deleterious].
Please note that a specific PRKAR1B variant (NM_002735.2:c.149T>G - p.Leu50Arg) has been previous reported to segregate with a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dementia and/or parkinsonism within a large pedigree with 12 affected individuals [Wong et al 2014 - PMID: 25414040].
Created: 1 Nov 2020, 3:17 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autism; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Aggressive behavior; Abnormality of movement; Upslanted palpebral fissure
Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: PRKAR1B.
Gene: prkar1b has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
gene: PRKAR1B was added gene: PRKAR1B was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: PRKAR1B was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: PRKAR1B were set to https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.10.20190314; 25414040 Phenotypes for gene: PRKAR1B were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autism; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Aggressive behavior; Abnormality of movement; Upslanted palpebral fissure Penetrance for gene: PRKAR1B were set to unknown Review for gene: PRKAR1B was set to AMBER
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Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
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Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.