Intellectual disabilityGene: PUS3 Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: Expert review by Konstantinos Varvagiannis, initially rated as Amber as only two families. Additional evidence from PMID: 30697592 reports 2 additional individuals with intellectual disability, siblings from non consanguineous parents from Northeast Brazil and Southern Italy.
PUS3 is in OMIM and phenotype is relevant but it is currently not in G2P.
PUS3 will be classified as Green as sufficient (<3) unrelated families.
Created: 30 May 2019, 10:07 a.m. | Last Modified: 24 Jun 2019, 3:42 p.m.
Panel Version: 0.192
I don't know
PMID: 30697592 reports 2 additional individuals with intellectual disability, leukoencephalopathy and adult onset nephropathy. These individuals harbored 2 missense variants in the compound heterozygous state (c.497G>A - p.Arg166Gln and c.1097T>C - p.Leu366Pro - Ref. sequence not mentioned).
As a result amber/green rating could be considered.
Created: 31 Jan 2019, 4:35 p.m.
PUS3 (Pseudouridylate synthase 3) is proposed as a gene related to ID in a recent publication on PUS7.
Biallelic mutations in this gene are associated in OMIM with ?Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 55 (MIM 617051).
PMID: 27055666 reports on 3 sisters from a consanguineous Saudi Arabian family with failure to thrive, DD/ID, microcephaly and some common (coarse) facial features. These individuals were homozygous for a stopgain mutation in the last exon of the gene. Pseudouridylation appeared to be defective (as has also been the case with other genes related to ID, eg. PUS7).
PMID: 30308082 describes 1 individual born to consanguineous Palestinian parents, homozygous for a further LoF variant. Despite the localisation of this variant (again in the last exon of the gene) qPCR analyses were suggestive of degradation of the abnormal transcript possibly by NMD. The phenotype consisted of DD/ID and microcephaly.
In a further publication (http://dx.doi.org/10.7124/bc.0008D6) Gulkovskyi et al. report on 2 siblings with ID, born to non-consanguineous Ukranian parents. Pathogenicity of the variant is disputed. [NM_031307.4:c.212A>G or p.(Tyr71Cys) is found in an apparent homozygous state in the sibs but was only found in their father. De novo occurence in the maternal allele is proposed although the possibility of microdeletion missed by aCGH or other plausible mechanisms are not considered. This variant has maximum pathogenicity scores in silico (not discussed) and has an allele frequency of 0.00006717 in gnomAD and no homozygotes. The authors did not perform studies of pseudouridylation but examined for the presence of hypoproteinemia, observed in some disorders due to disruption of this process).
PUS3 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P but is associated with disease in OMIM.
The gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by various diagnostic laboratories (including Radboudumc). PUS1 is included in the current panel as green and PUS7 has been suggested for inclusion.
As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion as amber (2 families) or green (given the supportive functional studies and/or the proposed role for the gene).
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Created: 10 Dec 2018, 11:49 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
?Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 55 (MIM 617051)
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Source Expert Review Green was added to PUS3. Source Expert Review was added to PUS3. Added phenotypes Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 55, 617051 for gene: PUS3 Publications for gene PUS3 were changed from 27055666; 30308082 to 30697592; 30308082; 27055666 Rating Changed from No List (delete) to Green List (high evidence)
gene: PUS3 was added gene: PUS3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen Mode of inheritance for gene: PUS3 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: PUS3 were set to 27055666; 30308082 Phenotypes for gene: PUS3 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Microcephaly Penetrance for gene: PUS3 were set to Complete Review for gene: PUS3 was set to AMBER gene: PUS3 was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.