Intellectual disabilityGene: GNB5 Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: GNB5 identified in literature PMID:30914295 as missing in PanelApp compared to other curated gene list for ID genes.
GNB5 was added to the ID panel and rated Green by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Concur with Green rating, as sufficient number of individuals and variants for GNB5 to be included on panel. Phenotype is relevant for inclusion and GNB5 is probable in Gene2Phenotype.
Created: 21 May 2019, 10:30 a.m.
Green List (high evidence)
Biallelic GNB5 pathogenic variants cause Intellectual developmental disorder with cardiac arrhythmia (MIM 617173) or language delay and ADHD/cognitive impairment with or without cardiac arrhythmia (MIM 617182).
PMID: 27523599 is the first report on the associated phenotype. A total of 9 individuals from 6 different families (from various ethnic backgrounds) are described.
The common features included hypotonia (noted in 6 out of 9 patients), intellectual disability (9/9 - in 3 cases mild, in 6 severe), heart rate disturbance (9/9 - in most cases sick sinus syndrome), seizures (4/9), ophthalmological problems (nystagmus in 6 out of 7 for whom this information was available) as well as gastric problems (5/8 with G-E reflux).
The 6 variants (summarized in table S1) included : 2 nonsense mutations, 1 synonymous (demonstrated to affect splicing and leading to retention of 25 intronic bp), 2 further splice variants (positions +1 and +3) and a missense one (S81L).
Nonsense mediated decay was the case for the product of the synonymous/splice variant as well as for a stopgain one.
As noted by the authors, individuals homozygous for the S81L variant had a less severe phenotype - among others - with mild degree of intellectual disability.
Functional studies included knockout of gnb5 in zebrafish, which was able to reproduce the human neurological, cardiac and ophthalmological phenotypes.
Alternative causes for these phenotypes (incl. chromosomal or metabolic disorders) were ruled out.
Affected individuals might benefit interventions for their heart rate disturbance as appears to be the case in the article as well as subsequent studies.
PMID: 27677260 describes an extended consanguineous Saudi family with 5 individuals homozygous for the S81L variant. Common features included severe language delay, ADHD, but normal cognition in those available for evaluation. Seizures were not reported. Pathogenicity of the S81L variant is further supported by functional studies.
PMID: 28697420 describes in detail 2 individuals from a large consanguineous pedigree confirmed to be homozygous for a single nucleotide deletion in GNB5. The phenotype included severe DD/ID, seizures, sinus bradycardia with frequent sinus pauses and ophthalmological problems. Sinus arrhythmia and or seizures were documented in several other relatives deceased and unavailable for testing.
PMID: 28327206 reports on 2 subjects previously included in PMID: 27523599.
PMID: 29368331 describes a child with severe developmental delay, nystagmus and sinus arrhythmia necessitating a pacemaker. EEG was abnormal although no frank seizures were observed. The child was compound heterozygous for a novel missense variant (R246Q) as well a 5 basepair deletion.
GNB5 is included in diagnostic gene panels for intellectual disability offered by different laboratories.
As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green.
Sources: Literature, Expert Review
Created: 19 Nov 2018, 11:26 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Intellectual developmental disorder with cardiac arrhythmia, 617173; Language delay and ADHD/cognitive impairment with or without cardiac arrhythmia, 617182
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Phenotypes for gene: GNB5 were changed from Language delay and ADHD/cognitive impairment with or without cardiac arrhythmia, 617182; Intellectual developmental disorder with cardiac arrhythmia, 617173 to Intellectual developmental disorder with cardiac arrhythmia, OMIM:617173; Language delay and ADHD/cognitive impairment with or without cardiac arrhythmia, OMIM:617182
Source Expert Review Green was added to GNB5. Added phenotypes Language delay and ADHD/cognitive impairment with or without cardiac arrhythmia, 617182; Intellectual developmental disorder with cardiac arrhythmia, 617173 for gene: GNB5 Publications for gene GNB5 were changed from 27523599; 27677260; 28697420; 29368331 to 27677260; 28697420; 29368331; 30914295; 27523599 Rating Changed from No List (delete) to Green List (high evidence)
gene: GNB5 was added gene: GNB5 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review Mode of inheritance for gene: GNB5 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: GNB5 were set to 27523599; 27677260; 28697420; 29368331 Phenotypes for gene: GNB5 were set to Intellectual developmental disorder with cardiac arrhythmia, 617173; Language delay and ADHD/cognitive impairment with or without cardiac arrhythmia, 617182 Penetrance for gene: GNB5 were set to Complete Review for gene: GNB5 was set to GREEN gene: GNB5 was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.