Intellectual disabilityGene: NSD2 Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: New gene added by external expert and reviewed by curation team: Sufficient evidence has been provided by the external expert review for this gene to be rated green. NSD2 is not associated with any phenotypes on OMIM or Gene2Phenotypes.
Created: 22 Feb 2019, 11:08 a.m.
Green List (high evidence)
PMID: 29892088 reports on 2 individuals with de novo SNVs affecting NSD2 (WHSC1). Both individuals presented with pre- and postnatal growth retardation, hypotonia, developmental delay / intellectual disability, as well as microcephaly. The authors suggest partial overlap with the phenotype of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). Seizures are not part of the phenotype.The first subject had a splice site mutation while the second individual had a stopgain variant (affecting the PWWP domain).
PMID: 29760529 describes a further patient with de novo nonsense mutation in NSD2. The boy was evaluated for probable growth delay ("low physical development"), hypotonia, psychomotor delay and microcephaly. The variant affected the SET domain.
Three individuals with de novo likely loss-of-function (two frameshift and one stop gained) variants in Decipher [ https://decipher.sanger.ac.uk/search?q=NSD2#research-variants/results ].
A further patient with de novo frameshift mutation in NSD2 and a phenotype overlapping WHS reported in ClinVar [ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/variation/547999/ ]
PMID: 29884796 (Zollino M and Doronzio PN) comments that NSD2 (WHSC1) is a neurodevelopmental gene with a role in growth delay, intellectual disability and dysmorphic facial features.
PMID: 30244530 describes patients with 4p16.3 microdeletions spanning (exclusively) NSD2 and reviews the literature on patients with small microdeletions reported to date. All relevant individuals present with developmental delay and (rather mild) intellectual disability apart from other characteristics such as microcephaly, growth retardation and some facial features also observed in WHS.
In Decipher one individual (286913) with a single CNV spanning exclusively NSD2 presenting with IUGR, failure to thrive, feeding difficulties, postnatal microcephaly, hypotonia, developmental delay as well as possibly relevant facial features.
The gene is included in ID gene panels offered by various labs (either as NSD2 or WHSC1).
As a result it can be considered for inclusion in the panel as green.
Sources: Literature, Expert Review
Created: 11 Oct 2018, 11:35 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intrauterine growth retardation; Growth delay; Microcephaly; Muscular hypotonia; Neurodevelopmental delay; Intellectual disability
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Gene: nsd2 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Phenotypes for gene: NSD2 were changed from Intrauterine growth retardation; Growth delay; Microcephaly; Muscular hypotonia; Neurodevelopmental delay; Intellectual disability to Intrauterine growth retardation; Growth delay; Microcephaly; Muscular hypotonia; Neurodevelopmental delay; Intellectual disability; No OMIM number
gene: NSD2 was added gene: NSD2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review Mode of inheritance for gene: NSD2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted Publications for gene: NSD2 were set to 29892088; 29760529; 29884796; 30244530 Phenotypes for gene: NSD2 were set to Intrauterine growth retardation; Growth delay; Microcephaly; Muscular hypotonia; Neurodevelopmental delay; Intellectual disability Penetrance for gene: NSD2 were set to unknown Review for gene: NSD2 was set to GREEN gene: NSD2 was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.