Intellectual disabilityGene: VPS50 Amber List (moderate evidence)
Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other). This gene is not associated with a phenotype in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype.
PMID: 34037727. Both patients have severe microcephaly (-7.65 to -10.35 z-score), height at 2 years (-2.65 to -3.84 z-score), seizures, hypoplastic corpus callosum, neonatal cholestasis and feeding difficulties.
Based on the available evidence there is currently not enough evidence to support a gene-disease association. This gene has been given an Amber rating.
Created: 1 Oct 2021, 2:26 p.m. | Last Modified: 1 Oct 2021, 2:36 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1322
I don't know
Schneeberger et al (2021 - PMID: 34037727) describe the phenotype of 2 unrelated individuals with biallelic VPS50 variants.
Common features included transient neonatal cholestasis, failure to thrive, severe DD with failure to achieve milestones (last examination at 2y and 2y2m respectively), postnatal microcephaly, seizures (onset at 6m and 25m) and irritability. There was corpus callosum hypoplasia on brain imaging.
Both individuals were homozygous for variants private to each family (no/not known consanguinity applying to each case). The first individual was homozygous for a splicing variant (NM_017667.4:c.1978-1G>T) and had a similarly unaffected sister deceased with no available DNA for testing. The other individual was homozygous for an in-frame deletion (c.1823_1825delCAA / p.(Thr608del)).
VPS50 encodes a critical component of the endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) complex, which functions in recycling endocytic vesicles back to the plasma membrane [OMIM based on Schindler et al]. The complex contains VPS50, VPS51, VPS52, VPS53, the three latter also being components of GARP (Golgi-associated-retrograde protein) complex. GARP contains VPS54 instead of VPS50 and is required for trafficking of proteins to the trans-golgi network. Thus VPS50 (also named syndetin) and VPS54 function in the EARP and GARP complexes, to define directional movement of their endocytic vesicles [OMIM based on Schindler et al]. The VPS50 subunit is required for recycling of the transferrin receptor.
As discussed by Schneeberger et al (refs provided in text):
- VPS50 has a high expression in mouse and human brain as well as throughout mouse brain development.
- Mice deficient for Vps50 have not been reported. vps50 knockdown in zebrafish results in severe developmental defects of the body axis. Knockout mice for other proteins of the EARP/GARP complex (e.g. Vps52, 53 and 54) display embryonic lethality.
Studies performed by Schneeberger et al included:
- Transcript analysis for the 1st variant demonstrated skipping of ex21 (in patient derived fabriblasts) leading to an in frame deletion of 81 bp (r.1978_2058del) with predicted loss of 27 residues (p.Leu660_Leu686del).
- Similar VPS50 mRNA levels but significant reduction of protein levels (~5% and ~8% of controls) were observed in fibroblasts from patients 1 and 2. Additionally, significant reductions in the amounts of VPS52 and VPS53 protein levels were observed despite mRNA levels similar to controls. Overall, this suggested drastic reduction of functional EARP complex levels.
- Lysosomes appeared to have similar morphology, cellular distribution and likely unaffected function in patient fibroblasts.
- Transferrin receptor recycling was shown to be delayed in patient fibroblasts suggestive of compromise of endocytic-recycling function.
As the authors comment, the phenotype of both individuals with biallelic VPS50 variants overlaps with the corresponding phenotype reported in 15 subjects with biallelic VPS53 or VPS51 mutations notably, severe DD/ID, microcephaly and early onset epilepsy, CC anomalies. Overall, for this group, they propose the term "GARP and/or EARP deficiency disorders".
There is no VPS50-associated phenotype in OMIM or G2P. SysID includes VPS50 among the ID candidate genes.
Consider inclusion in other relevant gene panels (e.g. for neonatal cholestasis, epilepsy, microcephaly, growth failure in early infancy, corpus callosum anomalies, etc) with amber rating pending further reports.
Created: 13 Aug 2021, 1:35 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Neonatal cholestatic liver disease; Failure to thrive; Profound global developmental delay; Postnatal microcephaly; Seizures; Abnormality of the corpus callosum
Tag watchlist tag was added to gene: VPS50.
Tag Q3_21_rating was removed from gene: VPS50.
Tag Q3_21_rating tag was added to gene: VPS50.
Gene: vps50 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
gene: VPS50 was added gene: VPS50 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: VPS50 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: VPS50 were set to 34037727 Phenotypes for gene: VPS50 were set to Neonatal cholestatic liver disease; Failure to thrive; Profound global developmental delay; Postnatal microcephaly; Seizures; Abnormality of the corpus callosum Penetrance for gene: VPS50 were set to Complete Review for gene: VPS50 was set to AMBER
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.