Intellectual disabilityGene: HEATR3 No list
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O'Donohue et al (2022 - PMID: 35213692) describe the clinical features of 6 individuals (from 4 unrelated families) with biallelic pathogenic HEATR3 variants.
These included bone marrow failure (anemia/anemia and thrombocytopenia at presentation), short stature/growth retardation (4/6), facial features (5/6 - in some: straight eyebrows, d-s palpebral fissures, synophrys) and skeletal findings incl. disproportionately short fingers/thumb anomaly. ID was reported in 4/6 individuals from 3 families (all: mild ID | 2/6 without ID). The phenotype corresponded overall to a variant form Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA, disorder caused by variants in genes encoding for ribosomal proteins) with additional features.
The 1st family (2 affected sibs and parents) underwent WES, not diagnostic for DBA. Analysis suggested variants in HEATR3 (prioritized due to its potential role in ribosome biogenesis) and 4 additional genes as candidates. Collaboration in the European DBA consortium and national DBA consortia led to identification of additional families.
HEATR3 encodes Heat-repeat-containing protein 3 or symportin, a protein that co-imports uL5 (encoded by RPL11) and uL18 (RPL5) in the nucleus where they assemble with 5S rRNA to form 5S RNP. The 5S RNP complex incorporates with maturing large ribosomal subunits to form the central protuberance. When 5S RNP is not incorporated, it accumulates and associates with Hdm2 ubiquitin ligase, the later normally targeting p53 proteasomal degradation.
The following missense and splice variants were identified (NM_182922):
- c.1751G>Α/p.(Gly584Glu) hmz
- c.1337G>A/p.(Cys446Tyr) hmz
- c.399+1G>T in trans with c.719C>T/p.(Pro240Leu)
- c.400T>C/p.(Cys134Arg) hmz
Variants were confirmed with Sanger sequencing. They were dispersed across HEATR3 without clustering although they affect residues either in the ARM (38-320) or HEAT (415-675) repeat domains, at positions evolutionary conserved, with in silico predictions in favor of a deleterious effect. With the exception of Cys134Arg (AF:4.11x10-6/no hmz), all were absent from gnomAD.
Studies in yeast suggested that deletions in symportin gene (syo1) lead to a mild growth defect and accumulation of 40S subunits. Similarly, two yeast strains engineered to test for the effect of the p.Gly584Glu (yeast p.Gly522Glu/Ala) exhibited growth defect and ribosomal subunit imbalance, both restored by wt Syo1.
HA-tagged HEATR3 in HeLa cells suggested that the co-translational capture mechanism to chaperone uL18 (RPL5) is conserved in human cells but was not observed upon expression of the p.Cys446Tyr variant.
While HEATR3 transcription was not affected in LCLs from individuals hmz for Gly584Glu or Cys446Tyr, protein levels were barely detectable, suggesting destabilization of the protein.
While uL18 accumulates in cytoplasm and nucleus with expected enrichment in nucleolus, upon siRNA knockdown of HEATR3 in HeLa cells this enrichment was lost. Studies in fibroblasts (Gly584Glu) demonstrated reduced uL18 nuclear staining. Overall, HEATR3 was suggested to be important for nuclear import of uL18 (though not for uL5).
LCL studies demonstrated pre-rRNA processing defects in patient cells with accumulation of 32S and 12S pre-rRNAs, the former being reminiscent of accumulations observed in individuals with RPL5- and RPL11-related DBA. Expression of wt HEATR3 restored processing defects.
LCLs from affected individuals revealed loss of free 60S subunits (as in yeast) with expression of wt cDNA restoring Nl levels.
Western blots of LCLs demonstrated that the levels of uL5, uL18 and p53 were not affected (the latter also observed in RPL5-related DBA)
Studies of bone marrow smears from 2 affected individuals allowed to conclude in a strong defect in erythroid cell proliferation.
Currently, there is no HEATR3-associated phenotype in OMIM, PanelApp Australia, G2P or the SysID database.
Consider inclusion in the ID panel with amber (mild ID in >3 individuals/families/variants although not universal feature) or green rating. Also consider inclusion in other possibly relevant panels eg. for cytopenias/congenital anemias, short stature, etc.
Created: 11 Mar 2022, 9:50 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Anemia; Thrombocytopenia; Growth delay; Short stature; Abnormality of the skeletal system; Abnormality of finger; Abnormality of the thumb; Intellectual disability; Obesity; Abnormality of the face
gene: HEATR3 was added gene: HEATR3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: HEATR3 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: HEATR3 were set to 35213692 Phenotypes for gene: HEATR3 were set to Anemia; Thrombocytopenia; Growth delay; Short stature; Abnormality of the skeletal system; Abnormality of finger; Abnormality of the thumb; Intellectual disability; Obesity; Abnormality of the face Penetrance for gene: HEATR3 were set to Complete Review for gene: HEATR3 was set to AMBER
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Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.