Intellectual disabilityGene: SUPT16H Amber List (moderate evidence)
Comment on list classification: There is sufficient evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review - at least four unrelated individuals with GDD/ID (plus another additional patient with a deletion, albeit encompassing other potentially clinically relevant genes).
Created: 2 Sep 2020, 10:31 a.m. | Last Modified: 2 Sep 2020, 10:31 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.277
I don't know
Bina et al (2020 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106193) report on 4 unrelated individuals with heterozygous SNVs affecting SUPT16H as well as 1 further with microdeletion spanning this gene.
The phenotype consisted of DD with subsequent ID in a subset of them (ages of the cohort: 2y-14y), autistic features in few, abnormalities of the corpus callosum (for 3 with available MRI images), variable gastrointestinal problems in some, and possibly minor dysmorphic features.
SUPT16H encodes a subunit of the FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription) complex, a chromatin-specific factor required for transcription elongation as well as for DNA replication and repair (OMIM citing Belotserkovskaya et al. 2003 - PMID: 12934006). The 2 subunits of the complex [Spt16 (encoded by SUPT16H) and SSRP1] are essential for histone regulation. As the authors note, Spt16 interacts with the histone dimer H2A-H2B during transcription to allow RNA polymerase access to previously coiled DNA [cited PMIDs : 9489704, 10421373 / A recent study by Liu et al 2019 (PMID: 31775157) appears highly relevant].
SUPT16H has a Z-score of 5.1 in gnomAD and a pLI of 1 (%HI of 22.56 in Decipher).
4 de novo missense SNVs were identified following exome sequencing (NM_007192.3:c.484A>G or I162V / L432P / N571S / R734W), all absent from gnomAD and mostly predicted to be deleterious (I162V predicted benign, tolerated, disease-causing by PolyPhen2, SIFT, MutationTaster respectively and had a CADD score of 13.61). Prior work-up for these individuals (incl. CMA in some / MS-MLPA for Angelman s. in 1 / metabolic investigations) had (probably) not revealed an apparent cause, with small CNVs inherited from healthy parents (a 4q13.3 dup / 20q13.2 del - coordinates not provided).
There were no studies performed for the identified variants.
A 5th individual reported by Bina et al was found to harbor a 2.05 Mb 14q11.2 deletion spanning SUPT16H. The specific deletion also spanned CHD8 while the same individual harbored also a 30.17 Mb duplication of 18p11.32q12.1.
CNVs spanning SUPT16H reported to date, also span the (very) proximal CHD8. [Genomic coordinates (GRCh38) for SUPT16H and CHD8 as provided by OMIM : 14:21,351,471-21,384,018 / 14:21,385,198-21,456,122]. Haploinsufficiency of CHD8 is associated with a distinctive syndrome with overgrowth and ID (Douzgou et al 2019 - PMID: 31001818). The phenotype of SUPT16H-CHD8 duplications is discussed in other studies/reviews. [Smol et al 2020 - PMID: 31823155 / Smyk et al 2016 - PMID: 26834018].
Animal models were not commented on by Bina et al (possibly not available for mouse : http://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:1890948 / https://www.mousephenotype.org/data/genes/MGI:1890948 ).
Created: 12 Jan 2020, 7:41 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of the corpus callosum
Publications for gene: SUPT16H were set to http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106193
Gene: supt16h has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Tag for-review tag was added to gene: SUPT16H.
gene: SUPT16H was added gene: SUPT16H was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: SUPT16H was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: SUPT16H were set to http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106193 Phenotypes for gene: SUPT16H were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of the corpus callosum Penetrance for gene: SUPT16H were set to Complete Review for gene: SUPT16H was set to AMBER
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.