Intellectual disabilityGene: TRAPPC4 No list
Green List (high evidence)
Van Bergen et al. (2019 - PMID: 31794024) report on 7 affected individuals from 3 famillies (only 1 of which consanguineous), all homozygous for a TRAPPC4 splicing variant.
Overlapping features included feeding difficulties, progressive microcephaly, severe to profound developmental disability (7/7 - DD also prior to the onset of seizures / regression also reported in 3), epilepsy (7/7 - onset in the first year), spastic quadriparesis. Other findings in some/few incl. scoliosis, cortical visual and hearing impairment. Some facial features were shared (eg. bitemporal narrowing, long philtrum, open mouth with thin tented upper lip, pointed chin, etc). Brain imaging demonstrated abnormalities in those performed (among others cerebral with/without cerebellar atrophy).
Work-up prior to exome sequencing was normal (highly variable incl. metabolic testing, CMA, MECP2, CDKL5, mitochondrial depletion studies, etc).
Exome of affected individuals (and parents +/- affected sibs in some families) revealed a homozygous TRAPPC4 splicing variant [NM_016146.5:c.454+3A>G / chr11:g.118890966A>G (hg19)]. Sanger sequencing confirmed variant in affecteds, heterozygosity in parents and compatible genotypes with disease status in sibs/other members.
Families were of Caucasian/Turkish and French-Canadian ethnicities. SNP array to compare haplotypes between affecteds in 2 families did not reveal a shared haplotype (/founder effect) and the variant is present in gnomAD (68/281054 - no hmz) in many populations (European/Asian/African/Latino) [https://gnomad.broadinstitute.org/variant/11-118890966-A-G].
mRNA studies in fibroblasts from an affected individual confirmed the splicing defect (2 RT-PCR products corresponding to wt and a shorter due to skipping of exon 3, the latter further confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The shorter transcript is not present in controls). qPCR revealed that the normal transript in patient fibroblasts was present at 6% of the level observed in control fibroblasts (or 54% in the case of a heterozygote parent compared to controls).
Western blot in patient fibroblasts, revealed presence of full-length protein in significantly reduced levels compared to fibroblasts from carrier parents or controls. There was no band using an antibody targeting the N-terminal region of the protein prior to exon 3, suggesting that NMD applies (skipping of ex3 is also predicted to lead to frameshift).
TRAPPC4 encodes one of the core proteins of the TRAPP complex. Use of different accessory proteins leads to formation of 2 distinct complexes (TRAPPII / III). The complex has an important role in intracellular trafficking. Both TRAPPII & TRAPPIII have a function in the secretory pathway, while complex III has a role also in autophagy. Core proteins are important for the complex stability. The TRAPP complex serves as a GEF for Ypt/Rab GTPases [several refs in article].
Mutations in genes for other proteins of the complex lead to neurodevelopmental disorders with associated ID ('TRAPPopathies' used by the authors / TRAPPC12, C6B, C9 green in the current panel).
Western blot suggested that levels of other TRAPP subunits (TRAPPC2 or C12) under denaturing conditions, although PAGE/size exclusion chromatography suggested that the levels of fully-assembled TRAPP complexes were lower in affected individuals.
Studies in patient fibroblasts showed a secretory defect (between ER, Golgi and the plasma membrane) which was restored upon lentiviral transduction with wt TRAPPC4 construct. Basal and starvation-induced autophagy were also impaired in patient fibroblasts (increased LC3 marker and LC3-positive structures / impaired co-localization with lysosomes) partly due to defective autophagosome formation (/sealing).
TRAPPC4 is the human orthologue of the yeast Trs23. In a yeast model of reduced Trs23 (due to temperature instability) the authors demonstrated impaired assembly of the TRAPP core. The yeast model recapitulated the autophagy as well as well as the secretory defect observed in patient fibroblasts.
Created: 9 Dec 2019, 5:36 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Feeding difficulties; Progressive microcephaly; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Spastic tetraparesis; Abnormality of the face; Scoliosis; Cortical visual impairment; Hearing impairment
gene: TRAPPC4 was added gene: TRAPPC4 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: TRAPPC4 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: TRAPPC4 were set to 31794024 Phenotypes for gene: TRAPPC4 were set to Feeding difficulties; Progressive microcephaly; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Spastic tetraparesis; Abnormality of the face; Scoliosis; Cortical visual impairment; Hearing impairment Penetrance for gene: TRAPPC4 were set to Complete Review for gene: TRAPPC4 was set to GREEN
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Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
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Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.