Intellectual disabilityGene: SNX27 No list
Green List (high evidence)
Evidence from 2 publications suggests that DD, ID and seizures are part of the phenotype of individuals with biallelic SNX27 pathogenic variants :
Damseh, Danson et al (2015 - PMID: 25894286) first reported on a consanguineous family with 4 affected sibs, homozygous for an SNX27 pathogenic variant. Features incl. hypotonia soon after birth, failure to thrive, severely delayed psychomotor development with no milestone acquisition, occurrence of myoclonic seizures with 3 individuals deceased early. Exome sequencing in one revealed a few candidate variants, with an SNX27 frameshift one [NM_030918.6:c.515_516del - p.(His172Argfs*6) / absent from ExAC] being the only retained following Sanger segregation studies. Using fibroblasts from an affected individual, Western blot with an antibody which would also bind prior to the truncation site, was consistent with dramatically reduced/absent SNX27 truncated mutant protein. Protein levels of VPS35, a component of the retromer responsible for direct cargo binding (not mediated by a cargo adaptor as SNX27), were normal.
Parente et al (2019 - PMID: 31721175) reported on a 13-year-old male with motor and language delay, ADHD, ID (kindergarten academic level at the age of 13) and seizures with onset at the age of 9 years (GTC, with abnormal EEG and postical SV tachycardia). Variable physical findings were reported. White matter hyperintesities were noted upon initial brain MRI (but were less marked in subsequent ones). Initial genetic testing (Alexander's disease, CMA, FMR1) was normal. Exome revealed compound heterozygosity for 2 SNX27 variants (NM_030918.5/NM_001330723.1 both apply c.510C>G - p.Tyr170* and c.1295G>A - p.Cys432Tyr) each inherited from healthy carrier parents. There were no other potentially causative variants. A parental history of - isolated - late onset seizures was reported (so this individual may not be considered for the seizure phenotype here).
The authors also reported on a further 31-year old affected male. This individual had infantile hypotonia, poor eye contact with subsequent significant DD, seizures (febrile/afebrile T-C with onset at the age of 14m) and ID estimated in the severe range. Variable - though somewhat different - physical findings were reported. Initial work-up included basic metabolic testing, standard karyotype, FISH for 15q11 and subtelomeric regions and PHF6 genetic testing - all normal. Exome (and subsequent Sanger confirmation/parental studies) revealed compound heterozygosity for a missense and a frameshift variant (c.989G>A / p.Arg330His and c.782dupT / p.Leu262Profs*6 same in NM_001330723.1, NM_030918.6).
SNX27 encodes sorting nexin 27, a cargo adaptor for the retromer. The latter is a multi-protein complex essential for regulating the retrieval and recycling of transmembrane cargos from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network or the plasma membrane [Lucas et al 2016 - PMID: 27889239 / McNally et al 2018 - PMID: 30072228].
As summarized by Parente et al, the encoded protein by regulating composition of the cell surface influences several processes eg. neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, Wnt signaling etc. It has been shown to interact with surface receptors and their ligands including GIRK channels, 5-HT4, ionotropic glutamate receptors (incl. NMDA- and AMPA-type receptors) and mGluR5 [several refs. provided].
Knockout of Snx27 in mice resulted in embryonic lethality (16% hmz of the 25% expected), severe postnatal growth retardation and death within the first 3 weeks. Snx27(+/-) mice have normal neuroanatomy but exhibit cognitive deficits (in learning and memory) and defects in synaptic function/plasticity with reduced amounts of NMDA and AMPA receptors (Cai et al - PMID: 21300787, Wang et al - PMID: 23524343).
The gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. GeneDx) and a current primary ID gene in SysID. There is no associated phenotype in OMIM/G2P.
Created: 9 Dec 2019, 5:24 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Generalized hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
gene: SNX27 was added gene: SNX27 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: SNX27 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: SNX27 were set to 25894286; 31721175; 21300787; 23524343 Phenotypes for gene: SNX27 were set to Generalized hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures Penetrance for gene: SNX27 were set to Complete Review for gene: SNX27 was set to GREEN gene: SNX27 was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.