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Intellectual disability

Gene: ATP9A

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ATP9A (ATPase phospholipid transporting 9A (putative))
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh38): ENSG00000054793
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh37): ENSG00000054793
OMIM: 609126, Gene2Phenotype
ATP9A is in 2 panels

1 review

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

I don't know

Vogt, Verheyen et al (2021 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2021-107843) report 3 affected individuals from 2 unrelated consanguineous families.

Features included DD, variable ID (Fam1: sib1-mild, sib2-possible, Fam2: severe), postnatal microcephaly (-2.33 to -3.58 SD), failure to thrive as well as gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, GE reflux).

These subjects were homozygous for pLoF ATP9A variants private to each family.

Previous investigations incl. karyotype, aCGH and transferrin electophoresis (CDGs) and were unremarkable.

Diagnosis was made by exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping. Affected sibs from the first family were homozygous for a stopgain variant [NM_006045.3:c.868C>Τ / p.(Arg290*)]. The subject from the second family was homozygous for a variant affecting the consensus (donor) splice site [c.642+1G>A - same RefSeq]. Both variants were absent from gnomAD. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm variants, carrier status of the parents and unaffected sibs in both families.

Sequencing of cDNA from the individual homozygous for the splicing variant demonstrated skipping of exon 7 with the variant likely leading to frameshift and introduction of a premature stop codon.

qPCR in dermal fibroblasts from affected individuals from both families revealed expression downregulation of ATP9A (14% and 4% respectively for the stopgain and splice variant). Study at the protein level was not possible due to absence of antibody against endogenous ATP9A.

ATP9A encodes ATPase phospholipid transporting 9A (similarly to ATP9B) belonging to the subclass 2 of the P4-ATPase family. As the authors comment, the protein is mainly expressed in the brain although the precise function or subcellular distribution of endogenous ATP9A are unknown.

A previous study showed that overexpressed ATP9A in HeLa cells localizes to early/recycling endosomes and the trans-Golgi network, being required for endocytic recycling of the transferrin receptor to the plasma membrane. ATP9A (in complex with DOP1B and MON2) functionally interacts with the SNX3-retromer. A previous ATP9A knockdown cell line suggested dysregulation of >100 genes with ARPC3 (actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 3) being strongly upregulated.

Overall ATP9A appears to have a role in endosome trafficking pathways as well as to inhibit secretion of exosomes at the plasma membrane likely due to alteration of the actin cytoskeleton.

In line with the role of APT9A in early/recycling endosomes and identified interactions, the authors demonstrated overexpression of ARPC3 and SNX3. Study of genes encoding other known interacting proteins was not possible due to poor expression in fibroblasts.

As the authors note, mutations in genes encoding proteins of the Golgi and endosomal trafficking are important for brain development and have been associated with postnatal microcephaly.

In OMIM, G2P, SysID there is no associated phenotype.

The gene is included in the ID panel of PanelApp AUS with amber rating.
Sources: Literature, Other
Created: 24 Jul 2021, 4:37 p.m.

Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal

Phenotypes
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Postnatal microcephaly; Failure to thrive; Abnormality of the abdomen

Publications

  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2021-107843

Details

Mode of Inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Sources
Phenotypes
  • Global developmental delay
  • Intellectual disability
  • Postnatal microcephaly
  • Failure to thrive
  • Abnormality of the abdomen
OMIM
609126
Clinvar variants
Variants in ATP9A
Penetrance
Complete
Panels with this gene

History Filter Activity

24 Jul 2021, Gel status: 0

Created, Added New Source, Set mode of inheritance, Set Phenotypes, Set penetrance

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

gene: ATP9A was added gene: ATP9A was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Other Mode of inheritance for gene: ATP9A was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Phenotypes for gene: ATP9A were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Postnatal microcephaly; Failure to thrive; Abnormality of the abdomen Penetrance for gene: ATP9A were set to Complete Review for gene: ATP9A was set to AMBER