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Intellectual disability

Gene: PIDD1

Amber List (moderate evidence)

PIDD1 (p53-induced death domain protein 1)
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh38): ENSG00000177595
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh37): ENSG00000177595
OMIM: 605247, Gene2Phenotype
PIDD1 is in 3 panels

2 reviews

Arina Puzriakova (Genomics England Curator)

Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Overall there are sufficient unrelated cases (>3) with a relevant phenotype and biallelic variants in this gene to rate as Green at the next GMS panel update.
Created: 7 Sep 2021, 2:01 p.m. | Last Modified: 7 Sep 2021, 2:01 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1257

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

Green List (high evidence)

There is enough evidence to include this gene in the current panel with green rating.

Biallelic PIDD1 pathogenic variants have been reported in 26 individuals (11 families) with DD (all), variable degrees of ID (mild to severe), behavioral (eg. aggression/self-mutilation in several, ADHD) and/or psychiatric abnormalities (ASD, psychosis in 5 belonging to 3 families), well-controlled epilepsy is some (9 subjects from 6 families) and MRI abnormalities notably abnormal gyration pattern (pachygyria with predominant anterior gradient) as well as corpus callosum anomalies (commonly thinning) in several. Dysmorphic features have been reported in almost all, although there has been no specific feature suggested.

The first reports on the phenotype associated with biallelic PIDD1 mutations were made by Harripaul et al (2018 - PMID: 28397838) and Hu et al (2019 - PMID: 29302074) [both studies investigating large cohorts of individuals with ID from consanguineous families].

Sheikh et al (2021 - PMID: 33414379) provided details on the phenotype of 15 individuals from 5 families including those from the previous 2 reports and studied provided evidence on the role of PIDD1 and the effect of variants.

Zaki et al (2021 - PMID: 34163010) reported 11 additional individuals from 6 consanguineous families, summarize the features of all subjects published in the literature and review the neuroradiological features of the disorder.

PIDD1 encodes p53-induced death domain protein 1. The protein is part of the PIDDosome, a multiprotein complex also composed of the bipartite linker protein CRADD (also known as RAIDD) and the proform of caspase-2 and induces apoptosis in response to DNA damage.

There are 5 potential PIDD1 mRNA transcript variants with NM_145886.4 corresponding to the longest. Similar to the protein encoded by CRADD, PIDD1 contains a death domain (DD - aa 774-893). Constitutive post-translational processing gives PIDD1-N, PIDD1-C the latter further processed into PIDD1-CC (by auto-cleavage). Serine residues at pos. 446 and 588 are involved in this autoprocessing generating PIDD1-C (aa 446-910) and PIDD1-CC (aa 774-893). The latter is needed for caspase-2 activation.

Most (if not all) individuals belonged to consanguineous families of different origins and harbored pLoF or missense variants.

Variants reported so far include : c.2587C>T; p.Gln863* / c.1909C>T ; p.Arg637* / c.2443C>T / p.Arg815Trp / c.2275-1G>A which upon trap assay was shown to lead to skipping of ex15 with direct splicing form exon14 to the terminal exon 16 (resulting to p.Arg759Glyfs*1 with exlcusion of the entire DD) / c.2584C>T; p.Arg862Trp / c.1340G>A; p.Trp447* / c.2116_2120del; p.Val706His*, c.1564_1565del; p.Gly602fs*26

Evidence so far provided includes:
- Biallelic CRADD variants cause a NDD disorder and a highly similar gyration pattern.
- Confirmation of splicing effect (eg. for c.2275-1G>A premature stop in position 760) or poor expression (NM_145886.3:c.2587C>T; p.Gln863*). Arg815Trp did not affect autoprocessing or protein stability.
- Abnormal localization pattern, loss of interaction with CRADD and failure to activate caspase-2 (MDM2 cleavage assay) [p.Gln863* and Arg815Trp]
- Available expression data from GTEx (PIDD1 having broad expression in multiple tissues, but higher in brain cerebellum) as well as BrainSpan and PsychEncode studies suggesting high coexpression of PIDD1, CRADD and CASP2 in many regions in the developing human brain.
- Variants in other genes encoding proteins interacting with PIDD1 (MADD, FADD, DNAJ, etc) are associated with NDD.

Pidd-1 ko mice (ex3-15 removal) lack however CNS-related phenotypes. These show decreased anxiety but no motor anomalies. This has also been the case with Cradd-/- mice displaying no significant CNS phenotypes without lamination defects.

There is currently no associated phenotype in OMIM, PanelApp Australia. PIDD1 is listed in the DD panel of G2P (PIDD1-related NDD / biallelic / loss of function / probable) . SysID includes PIDD1 among the current primary ID genes.

Overall the gene appears to be relevant for the epilepsy panel, panels for gyration and/or corpus callosum anomalies etc.
Sources: Literature, Other
Created: 10 Aug 2021, 10:36 p.m. | Last Modified: 10 Aug 2021, 10:37 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1217

Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal

Phenotypes
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Autism; Behavioral abnormality; Psychosis; Pachygyria; Lissencephaly; Abnormality of the corpus callosum

Publications

Details

Mode of Inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Sources
  • Expert Review Amber
Phenotypes
  • Global developmental delay
  • Intellectual disability
  • Seizures
  • Autism
  • Behavioral abnormality
  • Psychosis
  • Pachygyria
  • Lissencephaly
  • Abnormality of the corpus callosum
Tags
Q3_21_rating
OMIM
605247
Clinvar variants
Variants in PIDD1
Penetrance
Complete
Publications
Panels with this gene

History Filter Activity

7 Sep 2021, Gel status: 2

Entity classified by Genomics England curator

Arina Puzriakova (Genomics England Curator)

Gene: pidd1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).

7 Sep 2021, Gel status: 0

Added Tag

Arina Puzriakova (Genomics England Curator)

Tag Q3_21_rating tag was added to gene: PIDD1.

10 Aug 2021, Gel status: 0

Created, Added New Source, Set mode of inheritance, Set publications, Set Phenotypes, Set penetrance

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

gene: PIDD1 was added gene: PIDD1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Other Mode of inheritance for gene: PIDD1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: PIDD1 were set to 28397838; 29302074; 33414379; 34163010 Phenotypes for gene: PIDD1 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Autism; Behavioral abnormality; Psychosis; Pachygyria; Lissencephaly; Abnormality of the corpus callosum Penetrance for gene: PIDD1 were set to Complete Review for gene: PIDD1 was set to GREEN