Intellectual disabilityGene: CDH11 Green List (high evidence)
Comment on mode of inheritance: Association with biallelic variants well-established, with ID reported in all cases to date. On the other hand, DD/ID is variable in individuals with monoallelic variants (PMID: 33811546) - 7/19 cases (4 families) presented a developmental phenotype including very mild speech delays in 5/7, mild-moderate DD in 1/7, and global delay in 1/7 individuals.
Overall, given the mostly mild degree of cognitive delay, as well as intra- and interfamilial reduced penetrance of this feature, there is currently not enough evidence to rate as Green on this panel for the monoallelic disease.
Created: 4 May 2021, 3:17 p.m. | Last Modified: 4 May 2021, 3:17 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1057
Green List (high evidence)
Li et al (2021) report 19 subjects from 9 families with Teebi hypertelorism syndrome (hypertelorism, prominent forehead, short nose, broad/depressed nasal root, cardiac and umbilical defects). Patients had heterozygous missense variants affecting residues in the extracellular region of CDH11. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated that CDH11 is strongly expressed in human facial mesenchyme. Using multiple functional assays, they showed 5 variants significantly reduced the cell-substrate trans adhesion activity and changed cell morphology, focal adhesion, and migration, suggesting dominant negative effect. Some clinical features distinguished this phenotype from that seen in SPECC1L-related hypertelorism syndrome and CDH11-related EWS. 37% of Teebi cohort had ID. All variants were missense.
EWS: bi-allelic LoF is the established mechanism.
Created: 17 Apr 2021, 7:42 a.m. | Last Modified: 17 Apr 2021, 7:42 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.1018
Mode of inheritance
BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Elsahy-Waters syndrome, MIM# 211380; Teebi hypertelorism syndrome
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Green List (high evidence)
Not associated with phenotype in OMIM or G2P. However, three biallelic truncating variants reported, each in unrelated cases of Elsahy-Waters syndrome, which is relevant for the ID panel.
Created: 2 Jan 2018, 11:18 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Phenotypes for gene: CDH11 were changed from Elsahy-Waters syndrome to Elsahy-Waters syndrome, OMIM:211380; Teebi hypertelorism syndrome
Publications for gene: CDH11 were set to 27431290; 29271567
Mode of inheritance for gene: CDH11 was changed from BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
12.03.2018: Due to major updates completed (Phase 1, 2 and 3), this panel was promoted to Version 2 in order to reflect the major updates since November 2017 which have resulted in reviews for 836 genes added by Genomics England Curators and the Clinical Team, 130 new Green genes added to the interpretation pipeline (from 751 to 881 Green genes), and the gene total has increased from 1879 to 1927.
CDH11 was added to Intellectual disability panel. Sources: Expert Review Green,Literature
CDH11 was created by Ellen McDonagh
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.