Intellectual disabilityGene: EXOC2 Amber List (moderate evidence)
Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Updating rating from Grey to Amber based on one publication (PMID:32639540) reporting 2 families with EXOC2 variants and variable ID, among other features. Additional cases with a significant ID phenotype are required before inclusion of this gene on a diagnostic panel.
Created: 16 Nov 2020, 2:51 p.m. | Last Modified: 16 Nov 2020, 2:51 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.537
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Van Bergen et al (2020 - PMID: 32639540) report on 3 individuals from 2 families, harboring biallelic EXOC2 mutations.
Clinical presentation included DD, ID (severe in 2 subjects from fam1, borderline intellectual functioning in fam2), dysmorphic features and brain abnormalities. Cerebellar anomalies were common to all with a molar tooth sign observed in one (1/3). Other findings limited to subjects from one family included acquired microcephaly, congenital contractures, spastic quadriplegia (each observed 2/3).
Previous investigations were in all cases non-diagnostic. WES identified biallelic EXOC2 mutations in all affected individuals.
EXOC2 encodes an exocyst subunit. The latter is an octameric complex, component of the membrane transport machinery, required for tethering and fusion of vesicles at the plasma membrane. As discussed ,vesicle transport is important for the development of brain and the function of neurons and glia. Exocyst function is also important for delivery of Arl13b to the primary cilium (biallelic ARL13B mutations cause Joubert syndrome 8) and ciliogenesis.
Affected subjects from a broader consanguineous family (fam1) were homozygous for a truncating variant. Fibroblast studies revealed mRNA levels compatible with NMD (further restored in presence of CHX) as well as reduced protein levels. The female belonging to the second non-consanguineous family was found to harbor 2 missense variants in trans configuration.
An exocytosis defect was demonstrated in fibroblasts from individuals belonging to both families. Ciliogenesis appeared to be normal, however Arl13b localization/recruitment to the cilia was reduced compared with control cells with the defect rescued upon exogenous expression of wt EXOC2.
Mutations in other genes encoding components of the exocyst complex have been previously reported in individuals with relevant phenotypes (e.g. EXOC8 in a boy with features of Joubert s. or EXOC4 in nephrotic syndrome).
The authors discuss on the essential role of EXOC2 based on model organism studies (e.g. impaired neuronal membrane traffic, failure of neuronal polarization and neuromuscular junction expansion seen in Drosophila Sec5 (EXOC2) null mutants).
Created: 13 Jul 2020, 6:47 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of the face; Abnormality of brain morphology
Gene: exoc2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
gene: EXOC2 was added gene: EXOC2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: EXOC2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: EXOC2 were set to 32639540 Phenotypes for gene: EXOC2 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of the face; Abnormality of brain morphology Penetrance for gene: EXOC2 were set to Complete Review for gene: EXOC2 was set to AMBER
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.