Intellectual disabilityGene: GJB1 Amber List (moderate evidence)
Following discussion with the clinical team, this gene has been demoted from Amber to Red, in accordance with the external review by Zornitza Stark
Created: 17 Aug 2020, 10:01 a.m. | Last Modified: 17 Aug 2020, 10:01 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.252
Red List (low evidence)
ID is not a consistent or prominent part of the phenotype; remains to be established whether this gene is causative of moderate/severe ID with/without CMT.
Created: 4 Feb 2020, 9:21 p.m. | Last Modified: 4 Feb 2020, 9:21 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.0
Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy, X-linked dominant, 1, MIM#302800
Comment on phenotypes: Added phenotype from Sarah Leigh (Genomics England), 5 Mar 2018 review
Created: 14 Mar 2018, 11:55 a.m.
Comment when marking as ready: Typical phenotype is not a good fit for this panel. I note the small number of reports of patients with more prominent ID than neuropathic presentation, however on the current evidence I would expect the greatest diagnostic yield to be from the presence of this gene on the CMT panel.
Created: 6 Mar 2018, 5:05 p.m.
Associated with phenotype in OMIM, not in G2P. Numerous variants reported in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy, X-linked dominant, 1 302800, however, intellectual disability or cognitive impairment has only been reported in a minority of cases. PMID 26385972 reports cognitive impairment in 4 adult cases and PMID 23279342 reports a proband and her sister with severe neuropathy and subclinical cognitive impairment, while the proband's brother showed severe cognitive impairment and mild neuropathy.
Reported as a gene linked to isolated ID and ID associated disorders Vissers 2016 (PMID 26503795)
Created: 5 Mar 2018, 12:34 p.m.
Red List (low evidence)
Green List (high evidence)
This is a pertinent gene from the NIHR BioResource - Rare Diseases Study (NIHRBR-RD) BRIDGE Study : SPEED (Specialist Pathology: Evaluating Exomes in Diagnostics) which covers epilepsies, movement and microcephaly disorders, this gene is on the SPEED_NEURO_20170705 gene list. Evidences used for SPEED NEURO gene list: in_movement_disorder_list;in_UKGTN_v12 . Main mutation mechanism : NA
Created: 27 Jul 2017, 6:15 p.m.
Evidences key, gene present in following gene lists and main mutation mechanism : manju_list; UKGTN_v12; Nijmegen_ID_diagnostic; GEL_ID_red_20160217; neuro_20160418_strict; NA. This is a pertinent gene from the BRIDGE Study : SPEED (Specialist Pathology: Evaluating Exomes in Diagnostics) which covers epilepsies, movement and microcephaly disorders, this gene comes from the SPEED_NEURO_v3.0_20170404 gene list. The following experts from the BRIDGE consortium NIHRBR-RD contributed to this panel: - Professor F. Lucy Raymond, Cambridge Institute for Medical Research, University of Cambridge - Manju Kurian, Paediatric neurologist, Great Ormond Street Hosptial - Keren Carss, NIHR BioResource - Rare Diseases, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust - Alba Sanchis-Juan, NIHR BioResource - Rare Diseases, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust - Marie Erwood NIHR BioResource - Rare Diseases, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust - Louise Daugherty, NIHR BioResource - Rare Diseases, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
Created: 19 Jul 2017, 12:32 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, biallelic mutations in females
Red List (low evidence)
Source: Expert Review Red was removed from gene: GJB1
Phenotypes for GJB1 were set to Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy, X-linked dominant, 1, 302800
Publications for GJB1 were set to 26503795; 23279342; 26385972
12.03.2018: Due to major updates completed (Phase 1, 2 and 3), this panel was promoted to Version 2 in order to reflect the major updates since November 2017 which have resulted in reviews for 836 genes added by Genomics England Curators and the Clinical Team, 130 new Green genes added to the interpretation pipeline (from 751 to 881 Green genes), and the gene total has increased from 1879 to 1927.
Expert Review Amber was added to GJB1. Panel: Intellectual disability Model of inheritance for gene GJB1 was set to X-LINKED: hemizygous mutation in males, monoallelic mutations in females may cause disease (may be less severe, later onset than males)
The Gel status was updated for this whole panel
The Gel status was updated for this whole panel
GJB1 was added to Intellectual disabilitypanel. Source: Expert Review Red
GJB1 was added to Intellectual disabilitypanel. Sources: Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.