Intellectual disabilityGene: NECAP1 Amber List (moderate evidence)
Comment on list classification: New gene added by external expert and reviewed by curation team. NECAP1 has been given an amber gene rating based on the evidence provided by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. As patients from the cases described in PMID: 24399846, 30525121 are from Saudi Arabia and have the same variant, these are counted as a single piece of evidence. Therefore, there are not enough evidence to promote this gene to a green rating at this stage.
Created: 20 Feb 2019, 4:14 p.m.
Green List (high evidence)
Biallelic pathogenic variants in NECAP1 cause ?Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 21 (MIM 615833).
PMID: 24399846 (Alazami et al. 2014) report on 6 individuals from an multigenerational family from Saudi Arabia with biallelic NECAP1 nonsense variant. The common phenotype consisted of hypotonia, profound global developmental delay preceding the onset of intractable seizures (fragmented multifocal clonic and tonic) in early infancy. Initial workup excluded metabolic causes.
4 of these individuals were born to first cousins once removed, while 2 additional affected subjects from the broader pedigree were born to seemingly unrelated parents from the same region. All affected individuals shared a single autozygous 4.78-Mb interval on chromosome 12p. Linkage analysis confirmed involvement of this locus (LOD score : 5.0447). Exome sequencing demonstrated homozygosity for a nonsense variant (NM_015509.3:c.142C>T - p.R48*). mRNA levels in lymphoblast cell lines from affected subjects were significantly reduced when compared to controls, probably due to NMD.
Necap1 was shown to be strongly expressed in the developing (E14.5) mouse brain and spinal cord, upon immunohistochemical analysis (part of the current study).
NECAP1 has been previously shown to have a functional role in Clathrin-mediated encocytocis (CME), a process which plays a critical role at the site of synapsis (in synaptic vesicle recycling).
PMID: 30525121 (Alsahli et al. 2018) report on a 41-month-old girl with hypotonia, profound global developmental delay and onset of seizures at the age of 3 months (generalized tonic and clonic / flexor hemispasms). Initial workup was negative for an eventual metabolic origin. The girl was born to consanguineous Saudi parents and was found to harbor the p.R48* variant in the homozygous state, following trio-WES.
PMID: 30626896 (Mizuguchi et al. 2019) report on a 16-month-old boy, born to consanguineous parents from Malaysia. This individual presented with axial hypotonia and profound developmental delay and developed generalized tonic-clonic and clonic seizures at the (corrected) age of 3 months. EEG demonstrated a burst suppression pattern and a clinical diagnosis of Ohtahara syndrome was retained. Metabolic workup was normal.
Homozygosity for a splice-site NECAP1 variant (NM_015509.3:c.301+1G>A) was demonstrated following exome sequencing. The variant was shown to result in inclusion of a 44-bp intron, resulting in frameshift and introduction of a premature termination codon (p.Gly101Aspfs*45). The level of abnormal transcript was 2-fold increased in lymphoblast cells trated with cycloheximide when compared to cells treated with DMSO, suggesting involvement of NMD.
As also in PMID: 30525121, the present study suggests similarities with the DNM1-related phenotype (Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 31 - #616346 - DNM1 is rated green in the ID panel) as DNM1 also participates in vesicle recycling. The authors of the present study also note that mutations in CLTC (encoding clathrin heavy chain) cause hypotonia with DD/ID with or without epilepsy (Mental retardation, autosomal dominant 56 - #617854 - CLTC is rated green in the ID panel).
NECAP1 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P.
This gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories.
As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green (or amber).
Created: 3 Feb 2019, 8 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
?Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile 21, 615833
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Gene: necap1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
gene: NECAP1 was added gene: NECAP1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: NECAP1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: NECAP1 were set to 24399846; 30525121; 30626896 Phenotypes for gene: NECAP1 were set to ?Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile 21, 615833 Penetrance for gene: NECAP1 were set to Complete Review for gene: NECAP1 was set to GREEN gene: NECAP1 was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.