Intellectual disabilityGene: DNM1L Green List (high evidence)
The rating of this gene has been updated following NHS Genomic Medicine Service approval.
Created: 9 Mar 2022, 3:40 p.m. | Last Modified: 9 Mar 2022, 3:40 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1510
Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review - more than 3 unrelated cases with distinct variants, presenting with a relevant phenotype.
Created: 24 Jul 2020, 11:43 a.m. | Last Modified: 24 Jul 2020, 11:43 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.186
Associated with related phenotype in OMIM and 'probable' gene in G2P.
Variants in DNM1L cause a chronic neurological disorder, which is commonly associated with neonatal lethality. Global developmental delay or cognitive impairment (mild-profound) is reported in several surviving patients:
PMID: 26931468 - Two unrelated cases: A male with global developmental delay, hypotonia and status epilepticus. WES revealed a c.1048G>A, p.G350R variant, for which low-level (6–8%) mosaicism was detected in the maternal sample. The second patient, with diffuse hypotonia, global developmental delay, poor growth, and persistent elevation of lactate, was found to harbour a de novo DNM1L variant (c.1135G>A, p.E379K). However, another de novo change in the PDHA1 gene (c.448G>A, p.G150R) was also found, and the definitive contribution of each variant to the patients phenotype could not be ascertained.
PMID: 27328748 - Compound heterozygous DNM1L variants (c.106A>G, p.Ser36Gly; c.346_347delGA, p.Glu116Lysfs*6) identified in two brothers (3 and 16-years-old) with psychomotor delay, ocular and cerebellar involvement, including mild cognitive impairment in the older brother. Some supporting functional evidence using patient fibroblasts and a yeast model.
PMID: 27301544 - De novo missense variant (c.1217T>C, p.Leu406Ser) identified in a child who presented severe hypotonia, infantile spasms with suppression‐burst and a high level of lactate in CSF. Development was profoundly delayed, and he attained no developmental milestones before his death at 18 months of age.
PMID: 26604000 - De novo missense substitution, (c.1085G>A; p.Gly362Asp) identified in a child with refractory epilepsy. Profound global developmental delay was reported, and at the last clinical assessment (age 7 years), he remained nonambulatory with the use of <10 monosyllabic words.
PMID: 26992161 - De novo heterozygous c.1084G>A (p.Gly362Ser) variant. Developmental delay was reported from 6-months of age, and at 2-years-old he was said to not be able to utter any intelligible words.
There are also reports of an identical de novo heterozygous missense variant (p.R403C) in four unrelated individuals who all experienced normal development until a sudden-onset episode of status epilepticus at the age of 4, 5, 10, and 11-years-old, respectively. Subsequently, all presented with rapid neurological regression, diffuse cerebral atrophy and substantial cognitive decline. Functional studies showed the variant confers a dominant negative effect (PMID: 27145208; 30767894; 30711678).
Created: 24 Jul 2020, 11:08 a.m. | Last Modified: 24 Jul 2020, 11:40 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.185
Mode of inheritance
BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Epileptic encephalopathy, 614388; Global developmental delay; Cerebral atrophy; Microcephaly
Green List (high evidence)
Dominant and recessive disease described depending on domain affected; dominant negative effect of heterozygous missense variants. LoF/LoF or LoF/missense for AR variants.
Sources: Expert list
Created: 1 Feb 2020, 10:10 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Encephalopathy, lethal, due to defective mitochondrial peroxisomal fission 1, MIM#614388
Mode of pathogenicity
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Tag for-review was removed from gene: DNM1L.
Source Expert Review Green was added to DNM1L. Rating Changed from Amber List (moderate evidence) to Green List (high evidence)
Gene: dnm1l has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Tag for-review tag was added to gene: DNM1L.
gene: DNM1L was added gene: DNM1L was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Expert list Mode of inheritance for gene: DNM1L was set to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Phenotypes for gene: DNM1L were set to Encephalopathy, lethal, due to defective mitochondrial peroxisomal fission 1, MIM#614388 Mode of pathogenicity for gene: DNM1L was set to Other Review for gene: DNM1L was set to GREEN gene: DNM1L was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.