Intellectual disabilityGene: FAM160B1 Red List (low evidence)
Comment on list classification: Gene added by external reviewer, and promoted from grey to Red as the function of the protein/gene is still unknown at this stage. One family and another unrelated individual reported with developmental delay/ID and variants in this gene, however this will be kept red until further evidence arises.
Created: 27 Nov 2019, 5:12 p.m. | Last Modified: 27 Nov 2019, 5:12 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1127
I don't know
Anazi et al. (2017 - PMID: 27431290) in a study of 337 subjects with ID, reported on a consanguineous family (15DG2696) with 3 affected sibs. The proband, a 7 y.o. boy had hypotonia, DD, mild ID (IQ of 69), some facial dysmorphic features as well as increased skin elasticity and joint hypermobility. Initial investigations included metabolic testing for OA and CDGs, FMR1 and aCGH. A 4 y.o. sister and a 3 y.o. brother of the proband had similar presentation of DD. Exome sequencing, autozygosity mapping and segregation studies suggested a FAM160B1 hmz missense SNV as the likely causal variant (NM_001135051.1:c.248T>C or p.Leu83Pro). There were no other candidate variants. As the encoded protein has a yet unknown function, with uncertain in silico 3D modeling, the authors speculated disruption of helices affecting fold/(ligand binding) function as the underlying effect of this variant.
Mavioğlu et al. (2019 - PMID: 31353455) reported on a 38 y.o. female with history of motor and language delay, severe ID, ataxia, behavioral abrnormalities as well as some dysmorphic features. This individual was born to consanguineous parents (2nd cousins). There was history of a deceased, similarly affected sib. Initial investigations included metabolic work-up (plasma AA, urinary OA) and karyotyping. SNP genotyping in the family (parents, affected sib, 3 unaffected sibs) and multipoint linkage analysis for AR inheritance, yielded a maximum LOD score of 2.15. Selection of homozygous regions unique to the patient (but not present in unaffected sibs) did not suggest any known ID gene. Exome sequencing of the proband, with analysis of the variants in candidate regions revealed a homozygous stopgain SNV (NM_020940.4:c.115G>T or p.Glu39*) as the best candidate variant (with few others not considered to be relevant). FAM160B1 has a pLI of 1, LoF variants in public databases have MAFs below 0.000034 with no recorded homozygotes. In silico predictions suggested a deleterious effect (CADD score of 40, etc). The previous report by Anazi and fulfilment of the ACMG criteria for its classification of this variant as pathogenic led to its consideration as causal of the patient's phenotype.
Study of the expression of the 2 isoforms of the gene (isoform1: NM_020940, 2:NM_001135051) revealed that the first is ubiquitously expressed and the second only in testes. [To my understanding the 2 isoforms seem to differ only in their last exon, the 2 reported variants affecting both isoforms - http://genome.ucsc.edu/cgi-bin/hgTracks?db=hg19&lastVirtModeType=default&lastVirtModeExtraState=&virtModeType=default&virtMode=0&nonVirtPosition=&position=chr10%3A116577123%2D116663023&hgsid=777553295_dPP9DgaheaF82gTRTfZO6XS5lEzA ]
The function of this gene remains unknown. Animal models/phenotypes are probably not available.
There is no associated phenotype in OMIM/G2P. SysID lists FAM160B1 as a candidate ID gene.
FAM160B1 is not commonly included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories.
As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in the current panel probably with amber (2 families/variants, variable ID as a feature) or red rating pending further evidence (given the partial phenotypic overlap, unknown function of the gene, variants not further studied, no animal models).
Created: 11 Nov 2019, 5:07 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Central hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of the face
Gene: fam160b1 has been classified as Red List (Low Evidence).
gene: FAM160B1 was added gene: FAM160B1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: FAM160B1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: FAM160B1 were set to 27431290; 31353455 Phenotypes for gene: FAM160B1 were set to Central hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of the face Penetrance for gene: FAM160B1 were set to Complete Review for gene: FAM160B1 was set to AMBER
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.