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Intellectual disability

Gene: ATP2B1

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ATP2B1 (ATPase plasma membrane Ca2+ transporting 1)
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh38): ENSG00000070961
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh37): ENSG00000070961
OMIM: 108731, Gene2Phenotype
ATP2B1 is in 2 panels

1 review

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

Green List (high evidence)

Monoallelic missense/pLoF ATP2B1 variants have been reported in 12 unrelated individuals with DD/ID making this gene relevant to the current panel.

Currently there is no associated phenotype in OMIM, G2P, SysID, PanelApp Australia.

Based also on the evidence discussed below, please consider inclusion with green (rather than amber) rating.
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Rahimi et al (2022 - PMID: 35358416) describe 12 unrelated individuals with monoallelic ATP2B1 variants.

Phenotype consisted of DD (12/12), ID [9/12 - mild or less commonly moderate, with 3 additional subjects "unclassified" likely due to their age (#6: 3y nonverbal/nonambulatory, could sit and roll / #8: 3y, sitting at 1y, 1st words:26m / #12: at 5y nonambulatory/nonverbal)]. Behavioral issues were observed in 8/11 (ASD in 5/11). Seizures were reported in 5/12 (one further had abnormal EEG). Minor features - albeit not consistent/without recognizable gestalt - were reported in 6. Anomalies of digits and marfanoid habitus were reported in 4 and 2.

All subjects were investigated by singleton/trio exome sequencing.

Previous investigations incl. karyotype, CMA, analysis of individual genes (e.g. FMR1, ZEB2) or metabolic workup were normal for several individuals with one having a concurrent diagnosis of mosaic (20%) XXY and another harboring an additional hmz variant for a liver disorder.

9 different missense and 3 nonsense ATP2B1 variants were identified, shown to have occurred de novo in all cases where parental samples were available (9/12).

ATPase plasma membrane Ca+2 transporting 1, the protein encoded by ATP2B1, is an ATP-driven calmodulin-dependent Ca+2 pump which removes intracellular calcium from the cytosol. As the authors comment calcium pumps are thought to have a crucial role on neuronal function.

All variants identified were absent from gnomAD with the exception of c.2365C>T / p.Arg789Cys (de novo) which is present once in the database. ATP2B1 has a pLI of 1 and a missense Z-score of 5.29.

The variants affected several ATP2B1 isoforms. Variants were reported using NM_001001323.2, corresponding to ATP2B1a isoform which is mainly detected in brain (as also in GTEx).

In silico predictions were in favor of a deleterious effect and structural modeling supported the role of the affected residues.

The nonsense variants occurred in positions predicted to lead to NMD (not studied).

Transfection of an ATP2B1-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) expression plasmid for wt or variants in HEK293 cells, revealed membranous fluorescence for wt, significantly altered localization for 3 variants (Asp239Gly, Thr264Ile, Arg991Gln), shift to cytoplasmic localization for 4 others (Thr425Lys, Arg763Pro, Glu824Lys, Gln857Arg) with statistically non-significant effect for 2 others (His459Arg and Arg789Cys).

Fluorometric [Ca+2]i analysis in HEK293 cells expressing wt or variant ATP2B1 revealed that all missense variants affected Ca+2 transport. This was not the case for wt ATP2B1 or for another missense variant used as control (drawn from gnomAD).

Of note, a further (13th) affected individual with another missense variant (c.1793T>C / p.Ile598Thr) was excluded from the phenotypic analysis. The membrane localization and Ca+2 transport did not appear to be affected by this variant which was classified as VUS although it a different impact from those studied.

Overall loss-of-function is thought to be the underlying mechanism based on the above (and supported by few reported cases with gross deletions spanning also ATP2B1). A dominant negative effect for missense variants (affecting heteromeric complex formation with neuroplastin or basigin) could not be completely excluded, but not supported either by the localization of the identified variants.

In the supplement the authors include 3 DDD study participants previously reported to harbor de novo pLoF/missense variants though with few available clinical information (PMID: 33057194 - DDD13k.05076 : c.2883del / DDD13k.04028 : c2512A>C - p.Ile838Val / DDD13k.08944 : c.2129A>C - p.Asp710Ala).

The authors discuss on the role of ATP2B1 on Ca+2 homeostasis in the CNS and neurodevelopment overall (also based on isoform expression in rat brain).
Sources: Literature
Created: 2 Apr 2022, 1:19 p.m.

Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown

Phenotypes
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autism; Behavioral abnormality; Seizures; Abnormality of head or neck

Publications

Details

Mode of Inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Sources
Phenotypes
  • Global developmental delay
  • Intellectual disability
  • Autism
  • Behavioral abnormality
  • Seizures
  • Abnormality of head or neck
OMIM
108731
Clinvar variants
Variants in ATP2B1
Penetrance
unknown
Publications
Panels with this gene

History Filter Activity

2 Apr 2022, Gel status: 0

Created, Added New Source, Set mode of inheritance, Set publications, Set Phenotypes, Set penetrance

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

gene: ATP2B1 was added gene: ATP2B1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: ATP2B1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: ATP2B1 were set to 35358416; 35358416 Phenotypes for gene: ATP2B1 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Autism; Behavioral abnormality; Seizures; Abnormality of head or neck Penetrance for gene: ATP2B1 were set to unknown Review for gene: ATP2B1 was set to GREEN