Intellectual disabilityGene: PRPF8 Amber List (moderate evidence)
Green List (high evidence)
Associated with Retinitis pigmentosa 13 (OMIM:600059) in OMIM, but not with PRPF8-related developmental disorder (monoallelic) and as a both RD and IF Gen2Phen gene for PRPF8-related developmental disorder (monoallelic). PMID: 35543142 reports 14 PRPF8 variants in unrelated cases (12/14 variants were confirmed as de novo). Intellectual disability was observed in 13/14 of these cases and seizures were evident in 4/14 cases.
Created: 24 May 2022, 1:36 p.m. | Last Modified: 24 May 2022, 1:36 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1587
Comment on phenotypes: Gen2Phen phenotype: PRPF8-related developmental disorder (monoallelic) in addition to Retinitis pigmentosa 13
Created: 24 May 2022, 1:30 p.m. | Last Modified: 24 May 2022, 1:30 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1587
Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review.
Created: 24 May 2022, 1:28 p.m. | Last Modified: 24 May 2022, 1:28 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1586
I don't know
A recent study suggests that heterozygous PRPF8 variants are associated with a syndromic form of DD/ID, in some cases epilepsy with heterogeneous other clinical findings. However the authors acknowledge that not all variants within their cohort may be pathogenic (5 VUSs using ACMG criteria) and that conclusive evidence may necessitate functional studies.
Heterozygous variants (typically clustering in exon 42) have been reported to cause a non-syndromic form of RP with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance (Retinitis pigmentosa 13, MIM # 600059) .
Overall consider inclusion with amber rating.
O'Grady et al. (2022 - PMID: 35543142) describe the phenotype of 14 unrelated individuals with heterozygous, mostly de novo, missense and pLoF variants in PRPF8.
Nearly all had some degree of global developmental delay or ID (13/14). 6/14 had a diagnosis of ASD. Seizures were reported in 4 or 5 subjects. Other features included short stature (6/14), abnormal gait, cardiac anomalies and somewhat overlapping facial features (11/14). Ages ranged from 4 - 19 years (median : 9y).
PRPF8 encodes a component of the spliceosomes which in turn are involved in removal of introns from mRNA precursors. The gene is ubiquitously expressed with expression within brain being highest in cerebral cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum (Refs. provided).
Individuals were investigated with exome sequencing (12/14) or an autism/ID panel of >2500 genes (likely application of virtual panel on exome data).
13 individuals harbored a missense SNV and 1 further had a frameshift variant. In 12 individuals the variant had occurred de novo. 1 individual had inherited the variant from a possibly mosaic parent, while for 1 further a single parental sample was available.
PRPF8 is intolerant to both missense (Z = 8.28) and pLoF variants (pLI : 1). Variants in 5 individuals were formally classified as VUS while 2 variants were present in gnomAD.
Additional findings (CNVs/SNVs) were reported, in some cases possibly of relevance.
As the authors discuss, heterozygous pathogenic missense SNVs cause (and account for ~2-3% of) non-syndromic AD retinitis pigmentosa with variable expressivity and incomplete penetrance. Variants for this phenotype are typically missense - although nonsense ones have also been reported - clustering within ex42 (of 43) encoding the MPN domain (aa 2103-2335 / NP_006436) and weakening interaction with 2 other spliceosomal proteins.
Variants in the present study occurred throughout the gene. Although not universally assessed within the cohort, only one participant had RP (in this case variant within the MPN domain).
There were no variant studies performed.
Animal models: the authors cite a study by Graziotto et al (2011 - PMID: 20811066) where knock-in mice for a missense variant in ex42 displayed defects of the retinal pigment epithelium. A zebrafish ko model also cited (Keightley et al, 2013 - PMID: 23714367) displayed widespread apoptosis in brain and spinal cord.
The authors cite a previous bioinformatic study identifying PRPF8 as a major hub connecting gene-interaction networks for NDDs (Casanova et al, 2018 - PMID: 30420816) as well as 2 studies demonstrating enrichment of variants in individuals with NDDs compared to controls (da Silva Montenegro et al, 2020 - PMID: 31696658, Karczewski et al, 2020 - PMID: 32461654).
Created: 19 May 2022, 2:04 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Autism; Retinitis pigmentosa 13, MIM # 600059
Phenotypes for gene: PRPF8 were changed from Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Autism; Retinitis pigmentosa 13, OMIM:600059 to PRPF8-related developmental disorder (monoallelic); Retinitis pigmentosa 13, OMIM:600059
Gene: prpf8 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Tag Q2_22_rating tag was added to gene: PRPF8.
Phenotypes for gene: PRPF8 were changed from Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Autism; Retinitis pigmentosa 13, MIM # 600059 to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Autism; Retinitis pigmentosa 13, OMIM:600059
Publications for gene: PRPF8 were set to 35543142
gene: PRPF8 was added gene: PRPF8 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: PRPF8 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: PRPF8 were set to 35543142 Phenotypes for gene: PRPF8 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Autism; Retinitis pigmentosa 13, MIM # 600059 Penetrance for gene: PRPF8 were set to unknown Review for gene: PRPF8 was set to AMBER
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.