Intellectual disabilityGene: DPH5 No list
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Shankar et al (2022 - PMID: 35482014) present evidence for a diphthamide-deficiency syndrome due to biallelic DPH5 pathogenic variants.
As the authors summarize, DPH5 encodes a methyltransferase critical to the biosynthesis of diphthamide. Diphthamide is a post translationally modified histidine residue found in eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). eEF2 is essential for mRNA translation and protein synthesis. The role of diphthamide is not clear, although it serves as a target for ADP-ribosylation, the latter resulting in inactivation of the eEF2 (inhibition of its translocation activity) and arrest of protein synthesis. Biosynthesis of diphthamide is complex involving multiple components (DPH1-DPH7) and the methylating co-factor S-adenosyl methionine, with 2 diphthamide-deficiency disorders due to biallelic DPH1 or DPH2 pathogenic variants and a NDD phenotype reported to date.
The authors describe a phenotypic spectrum associated with biallelic DPH5 variants ranging from a prenatally lethal presentation to profound neurodevelopmental disorder. Details are provided on 5 individuals from 3 unrelated families. While one subject died at the age of few days due to multisystem complications, the phenotype appeared to be relatively consistent with prenatal findings (decreased fetal movements in 2 from 2 families, polyhydramnios in 2 from 2 families), hypotonia, global DD and ID (4/4 from 2 families - profound in 3), seizures (3/5 from 2 families - abnormal EEG in 4/4), cardiovascular findings (5/5, MVP and regurgitation in 2 from Fam1 || aortic dilatation in 2 sibs from Fam2 || VSD, ASD and hypopl. PA, pericardial effusion in 5th), GI issues (5/5, poor feeding in 4), short stature (4/4). Ocular findings were reported in 3/4 (gray sclerae in 2, ocular melanocytosis in 2). The authors describe some common craniofacial findings incl. broad/prominent forehead (5/5), sparse eyebrows (4/5), downturned corners of mouth or triangular chin (each in 3/5).
WES/WGS revealed biallelic DPH5 variants in all affected individuals, namely: homozygosity for a missense variant in 2 sibs (NM_001077394.2:c.779A>G/p.His260Arg). Homozygosity for c.521dupA/p.Asn174LysTer10 for the individual deceased in the neonatal period (for this family there was significant history of spontaneous miscarriages/stillbirth/neonatal death). Two sibs born to non-consanguineous parents were compound htz for a stopgain and a missense SNV (c.619C>T/p.Arg207*, c.329A>G/p.Asn110Ser).
In silico modeling revealed that the pLoF variants, not predicted to lead to NMD, likely remove the domain for interaction with eEF2 while the missense ones also affected interaction with eEF2.
In recombinant MCF7 breast cancer cell line-derived DPH5-knockouts, transfected with recombinant expr. plasmids encoding wt or the 4 variants, the 2 truncating variants were shown to affect ADP-ribosylation of eEF2's diphthamide (total lack / minimal enzymatic activity for Arg207* and Asn174Lysfs respectively). Asn110Ser and His260Arg had residual activities which was thought to be explained by high expression levels compensating partial inactivation (given the multicopy plasmid-driven expression).
ADP-ribosylation assays in S. cerevisiae demonstrated loss of function for the 2 truncating variants. Although the 2 missense variants retained sufficient activity to produce diphthamide (assayed through toxin induced ADP-ribosylation of eEF2), more sensitive assays indicated that diphthamide synthesis was also partially compromised for both variants.
Generation of a knockin mouse model for His260Arg, appeared to recapitulate the human phenotypes with craniofacial, ophthalmologic, cardiac and visceral abnormalities and hmz mice being subviable. A single homozygous liveborn mouse had low birthweight, FTT, craniofacial dysmorphology, polydactyly, abnormal grooming behavior and early death. Few heterozygous embryos had craniofacial features, decreased body weight, reduced neuromuscular function without other abnormalities, either due to their inbred background or in the context of milder phenotype of heterozygosity in mice.
DPH5 is ubiquitously expressed in all human tissues. The gene has a pLI of 0 and LOEUF score of 0.77 (0.48-1.27) in gnomAD. The authors refer to unpublished data, noting that complete absence of DPH5 is incompatible with life with embryonic lethality of a Dph5(ko/ko) line.
The phenotype bears similarities to DPH1- and DPH2- related NDDs (both AR / green and amber respectively in ID panel) and appears to be more severe compared to the phenotype of de novo EEF2 variants (cited PMID: 33355653).
Please consider inclusion in the ID panel with amber (4 individuals from 2 families with ID) / green rating (rather consistent phenotype in 3 families probably representing a continuous spectrum, variant studies, mouse model, similarities with diphthamide-deficiency syndromes). Also consider amber rating in the epilepsy panel (3 individuals from 2 families reported). The gene may be also relevant in other gene panels e.g. for congenital heart disease, short stature, etc (not added).
Created: 1 May 2022, 10:19 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Abnormality of prenatal development or birth; Neonatal hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Abnormality of the cardiovascular system; Abnormality of the globe; Feeding difficulties; Short stature; Abnormality of head or neck
gene: DPH5 was added gene: DPH5 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: DPH5 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: DPH5 were set to 35482014 Phenotypes for gene: DPH5 were set to Abnormality of prenatal development or birth; Neonatal hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Abnormality of the cardiovascular system; Abnormality of the globe; Feeding difficulties; Short stature; Abnormality of head or neck Penetrance for gene: DPH5 were set to unknown Review for gene: DPH5 was set to AMBER
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Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
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We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
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Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.