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Intellectual disability

Gene: DPH5

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DPH5 (diphthamide biosynthesis 5)
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh38): ENSG00000117543
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh37): ENSG00000117543
OMIM: 611075, Gene2Phenotype
DPH5 is in 2 panels

1 review

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

I don't know

Shankar et al (2022 - PMID: 35482014) present evidence for a diphthamide-deficiency syndrome due to biallelic DPH5 pathogenic variants.

As the authors summarize, DPH5 encodes a methyltransferase critical to the biosynthesis of diphthamide. Diphthamide is a post translationally modified histidine residue found in eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). eEF2 is essential for mRNA translation and protein synthesis. The role of diphthamide is not clear, although it serves as a target for ADP-ribosylation, the latter resulting in inactivation of the eEF2 (inhibition of its translocation activity) and arrest of protein synthesis. Biosynthesis of diphthamide is complex involving multiple components (DPH1-DPH7) and the methylating co-factor S-adenosyl methionine, with 2 diphthamide-deficiency disorders due to biallelic DPH1 or DPH2 pathogenic variants and a NDD phenotype reported to date.

The authors describe a phenotypic spectrum associated with biallelic DPH5 variants ranging from a prenatally lethal presentation to profound neurodevelopmental disorder. Details are provided on 5 individuals from 3 unrelated families. While one subject died at the age of few days due to multisystem complications, the phenotype appeared to be relatively consistent with prenatal findings (decreased fetal movements in 2 from 2 families, polyhydramnios in 2 from 2 families), hypotonia, global DD and ID (4/4 from 2 families - profound in 3), seizures (3/5 from 2 families - abnormal EEG in 4/4), cardiovascular findings (5/5, MVP and regurgitation in 2 from Fam1 || aortic dilatation in 2 sibs from Fam2 || VSD, ASD and hypopl. PA, pericardial effusion in 5th), GI issues (5/5, poor feeding in 4), short stature (4/4). Ocular findings were reported in 3/4 (gray sclerae in 2, ocular melanocytosis in 2). The authors describe some common craniofacial findings incl. broad/prominent forehead (5/5), sparse eyebrows (4/5), downturned corners of mouth or triangular chin (each in 3/5).

WES/WGS revealed biallelic DPH5 variants in all affected individuals, namely: homozygosity for a missense variant in 2 sibs (NM_001077394.2:c.779A>G/p.His260Arg). Homozygosity for c.521dupA/p.Asn174LysTer10 for the individual deceased in the neonatal period (for this family there was significant history of spontaneous miscarriages/stillbirth/neonatal death). Two sibs born to non-consanguineous parents were compound htz for a stopgain and a missense SNV (c.619C>T/p.Arg207*, c.329A>G/p.Asn110Ser).

In silico modeling revealed that the pLoF variants, not predicted to lead to NMD, likely remove the domain for interaction with eEF2 while the missense ones also affected interaction with eEF2.

In recombinant MCF7 breast cancer cell line-derived DPH5-knockouts, transfected with recombinant expr. plasmids encoding wt or the 4 variants, the 2 truncating variants were shown to affect ADP-ribosylation of eEF2's diphthamide (total lack / minimal enzymatic activity for Arg207* and Asn174Lysfs respectively). Asn110Ser and His260Arg had residual activities which was thought to be explained by high expression levels compensating partial inactivation (given the multicopy plasmid-driven expression).

ADP-ribosylation assays in S. cerevisiae demonstrated loss of function for the 2 truncating variants. Although the 2 missense variants retained sufficient activity to produce diphthamide (assayed through toxin induced ADP-ribosylation of eEF2), more sensitive assays indicated that diphthamide synthesis was also partially compromised for both variants.

Generation of a knockin mouse model for His260Arg, appeared to recapitulate the human phenotypes with craniofacial, ophthalmologic, cardiac and visceral abnormalities and hmz mice being subviable. A single homozygous liveborn mouse had low birthweight, FTT, craniofacial dysmorphology, polydactyly, abnormal grooming behavior and early death. Few heterozygous embryos had craniofacial features, decreased body weight, reduced neuromuscular function without other abnormalities, either due to their inbred background or in the context of milder phenotype of heterozygosity in mice.

DPH5 is ubiquitously expressed in all human tissues. The gene has a pLI of 0 and LOEUF score of 0.77 (0.48-1.27) in gnomAD. The authors refer to unpublished data, noting that complete absence of DPH5 is incompatible with life with embryonic lethality of a Dph5(ko/ko) line.

The phenotype bears similarities to DPH1- and DPH2- related NDDs (both AR / green and amber respectively in ID panel) and appears to be more severe compared to the phenotype of de novo EEF2 variants (cited PMID: 33355653).

Please consider inclusion in the ID panel with amber (4 individuals from 2 families with ID) / green rating (rather consistent phenotype in 3 families probably representing a continuous spectrum, variant studies, mouse model, similarities with diphthamide-deficiency syndromes). Also consider amber rating in the epilepsy panel (3 individuals from 2 families reported). The gene may be also relevant in other gene panels e.g. for congenital heart disease, short stature, etc (not added).
Sources: Literature
Created: 1 May 2022, 10:19 a.m.

Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal

Abnormality of prenatal development or birth; Neonatal hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Abnormality of the cardiovascular system; Abnormality of the globe; Feeding difficulties; Short stature; Abnormality of head or neck



Mode of Inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
  • Abnormality of prenatal development or birth
  • Neonatal hypotonia
  • Global developmental delay
  • Intellectual disability
  • Seizures
  • Abnormality of the cardiovascular system
  • Abnormality of the globe
  • Feeding difficulties
  • Short stature
  • Abnormality of head or neck
Clinvar variants
Variants in DPH5
Panels with this gene

History Filter Activity

1 May 2022, Gel status: 0

Created, Added New Source, Set mode of inheritance, Set publications, Set Phenotypes, Set penetrance

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

gene: DPH5 was added gene: DPH5 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: DPH5 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: DPH5 were set to 35482014 Phenotypes for gene: DPH5 were set to Abnormality of prenatal development or birth; Neonatal hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Abnormality of the cardiovascular system; Abnormality of the globe; Feeding difficulties; Short stature; Abnormality of head or neck Penetrance for gene: DPH5 were set to unknown Review for gene: DPH5 was set to AMBER