Intellectual disabilityGene: POLR2A Green List (high evidence)
POLR2A was added to the panel and rated Green by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. As Konstantinos notes, Haijes et al., 2019 (PMID: 31353023) report 16 individuals with heterozygous de novo POLR2A variants located via GeneMatcher.
The cohort included 3 individuals with truncating variants, 3 in-frame deletions and 10 with missense variants. Delayed development was noted in all individuals varying from mild to severe. Severe epilepsy was noted in three individuals. Although POLR2A is not yet associated with a disorder in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype, there are sufficient unrelated cases in PMID:31353023 for inclusion on the panel and therefore on balance, updated rating from Grey to Green.
Created: 15 Aug 2019, 12:58 p.m. | Last Modified: 15 Aug 2019, 12:58 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1004
Green List (high evidence)
Haijes et al. (2019 - PMID: 31353023) report on 16 individuals with heterozygous de novo POLR2A variants.
DD in all domains was observed in all individuals, ranging from mild to severe (in 8/16 moderate or more severe). The developmental scores were stable over time (as for eventual catch-up/decline) supporting relevance to the current panel.
POLR2A encodes RPB1, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (pol II). Pol II is responsible for the transcription of all protein coding genes as well as several long/short non-coding RNA genes.
Missense, in-frame deletions as well as truncating mutations were observed. POLR2A has a pLI of 1 and a Z-score for missense variants of 7.13 (one of the highest ones). The reported variants did not cluster in specific domains of the protein although many were in regions relatively depleted in benign variants in gnomAD (stretches of desert Z-scores). Measures such as the CADD scores did not discriminate between deleterious ones and those in gnomAD.
Different layers of structural analyses, functional analyses (impaired growth in S. cerevisiae in genetic background lacking transcr. factors Dst1 / Sub1 - suggesting reduced transcriptional fidelity / reduced HeLa cell viability) or phenotypic overlap were used to classify variants in probably disease causing (11), possibly disease causing (4 - only based on phenotypic overlap) or of unknown effect (1 variant - due to unavailable/incomplete phenotype).
Some variants were predicted to act by haploinsufficiency while others (missense ones) by a dominant-negative mechanism, the latter being more likely to result in severe phenotypes.
Mutations in genes encoding subunits of pol III (responsible for tRNA synthesis) are associated with leukodystrophy phenotypes with some limited overlap with POLR2A (delayed myelination/white-matter loss/tooth misalignment). Mutations in genes encoding other subunits of pol II (other than RPB1 encoded by POLR2A) have not been implicated in disease though.
POLR2A is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM/G2P. This gene is included in panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories [eg. Utrecht UMC - affiliation of many co-authors of this study or GeneDx].
As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as green, or amber.
Created: 8 Aug 2019, 11:08 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Generalized hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Feeding difficulties
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Phenotypes for gene: POLR2A were changed from Global developmental delay; Generalized hypotonia; Feeding difficulties to Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and variable intellectual and behavioral abnormalities, 618603; Global developmental delay; Generalized hypotonia; Feeding difficulties
Gene: polr2a has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Phenotypes for gene: POLR2A were changed from Generalized hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Feeding difficulties to Global developmental delay; Generalized hypotonia; Feeding difficulties
gene: POLR2A was added gene: POLR2A was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: POLR2A was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: POLR2A were set to 31353023 Phenotypes for gene: POLR2A were set to Generalized hypotonia; Global developmental delay; Feeding difficulties Penetrance for gene: POLR2A were set to unknown Review for gene: POLR2A was set to GREEN gene: POLR2A was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.