Intellectual disabilityGene: SLC5A6
SLC5A6 encodes the sodium dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT), a transporter of biotin, pantothenate and lipoate. The transporter has a major role in vitamin uptake in the digestive system (among others is the sole transporter for intestinal uptake of biotin which is not synthesized but must be obtained from exogenous sources) as well as transport across the blood-brain barrier (SMVT being responsible for 89% of biotin transport) [several refs provided by Subramanian et al and Byrne et al].
4 affected individuals from 3 families have been reported.
Subramanian et al (2017 - PMID: 27904971) et al reported on a girl with feeding difficulties and failure to thrive (requiring nasogastric tube placement), microcephaly, DD (at 15m developmental age corresponding to 6m with features suggestive of spastic cerebral palsy), occurrence of multiple infections, osteoporosis and pathologic bone fractures. MRIs suggested brain atrophy, thin CC and hypoplasia of the pons. Metabolic (AA, OA) investigations and array-CGH were normal. Whole exome sequencing revealed presence of a missense (Arg123Leu - RefSeq not provided) and a nonsense (Arg94Ter) SLC5A6 variant. Serum biotin was normal although - at the time - the child was on parenteral and G-T nutrition. Following administration of biotin, pantothenic acid and lipoic acid the child demonstrated among others improved motor and verbal skills, head growth and normalization of immunoglobulin levels. Transfection of mutants in human derived intestinal HuTu-80 cells and brain U87 cells was carried out and a 3H-biotin assay showed no induction in biotin uptake confirming impaired functionality of the transporter. While wt protein displayed normal expression/membrane localization, Arg94Ter was poorly expressed with ectopic localization (cytoplasm). Arg123Leu was retained predominantly intracellularly, probably in the ER as was further supported by colocalization with DsRed-ER. Evidence from the literature is provided that deficiencies of the specific vitamins explain the clinical features (DD, microcephaly, immunological defect, osteopenia, etc).
Schwantje et al (2019 - PMID: 31392107) described a girl with severe feeding problems, vomiting with blood (suspected Mallory-Weiss syndrome), poor weight gain and delayed gross motor development. The child presented an episode of gastroenteritis associated with reduced consciousness, circulatory insufficiency and metabolic derangement (hypoglycemia, severe metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, mild lactate elevation, ketonuria). Investigations some months prior to the admission (?) were suggestive of a metabolic disorder due to elevated plasma C3-carnitine, C5-OH-carnitine and elevated urinary excretion of 3-OH-isovaleric acid (biotinidase deficiency was considered in the DD but enzymatic activity was only marginally decreased). Biotin supplementation was initiated. Trio-exome sequencing (at 3yrs) demonstrated compound heterozygosity for 2 frameshift variants [NM_021095.2:c.422_423del / p.(Val141Alafs*34) and c.1865_1866del]. Following this result, increase of biotin supplementation and introduction of pantothenic acid, GI symptoms (incl. chronic diarrhea) resolved and the child displayed improved appetite and growth, yet a stable motor delay. The authors cite previous studies of conditional ko mice, displaying intestinal mucosal abnormalities and growth defects (similar to the child's problems), prevented by biotin and pantothenic acid supplementation.
Byrne et al (2019 - PMID: 31754459) reported on a sibling pair with severe motor/speech developmental regression following a plateau (at 12m and 14m), development of ataxia and dyskinetic movements (both), seizures (one). Feeding difficulties, reflux and failure to thrive required N-G/gastrostomy feeding while both presented GI hemorrhage (in the case of the older sib, lethal). Other features in the youngest sib included brain MRI abnormalities (cerebral/cerebellar atrophy, thin CC, etc) and IgG deficiency. Biochemical, single-gene testing and mtDNA sequencing were not diagnostic. Exome in one, revealed presence of a frameshift [c.422_423del as above] and a missense variant (Arg400Thr). Sanger sequencing confirmed variants in both sibs and heterozygosity in parents. HeLa cells transfected with empty vector, wt or mut expression constructs confirmed significantly decreased 3H-biotin uptake for mut constructs compared to wt (and similar to empty vector). Parenteral triple vitamin replacement at the age of ~7 years resulted in improved overall condition, regain of some milestones, attenuation of vomiting, and resolution of peripheral neuropathy. Seizure were well-controlled (as was the case before treatment) despite persistence of epileptiform discharges. Again the authors cite studies of conditional (intestine-specific) SLC5A6 ko mice, with those viable (~1/3) demonstrating growth retardation, decreased boned density and GI abnormalities (similar to affected individuals). The phenotype could be rescued by oversupplementation of biotin and pantothenic acid (PMIDs cited: 23104561, 29669219).
[Please consider inclusion in other relevant panels eg. metabolic disorders]
Created: 2 Dec 2019, 9:28 p.m. | Last Modified: 2 Dec 2019, 9:39 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1135
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Feeding difficulties; Failure to thrive; Global developmental delay; Developmental regression; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Microcephaly; Cerebral atrophy; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Vomiting; Chronic diarrhea; Gastrointestinal hemorrhage; Abnormal immunoglobulin level; Osteopenia; Abnormality of metabolism/homeostasis
gene: SLC5A6 was added gene: SLC5A6 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: SLC5A6 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: SLC5A6 were set to 27904971; 31392107; 31754459; 23104561; 29669219 Phenotypes for gene: SLC5A6 were set to Feeding difficulties; Failure to thrive; Global developmental delay; Developmental regression; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Microcephaly; Cerebral atrophy; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Vomiting; Chronic diarrhea; Gastrointestinal hemorrhage; Abnormal immunoglobulin level; Osteopenia; Abnormality of metabolism/homeostasis Penetrance for gene: SLC5A6 were set to Complete Review for gene: SLC5A6 was set to GREEN