Intellectual disabilityGene: RNF220 Amber List (moderate evidence)
Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. This gene is currently not associated with a phenotype in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype. There are >3 cases for this gene; however, 3 of the cases described in PMID:33964137 are of Roma descent and haplotype analysis has shown that the variant found in these families are due to a founder effect (c.1094G>A, p.Arg365Gly). A separate Roma family also has the same variant (c.1094G>A, p.Arg365Gly). An Italian family with similar phenotypes has a different variant (c.1088G>A, p.Arg363Gly). The authors also report on in vitro and in vivo studies.
There is enough evidence to support a gene-disease association; however, the ID severity in these patients do not meet the criteria (moderate to severe) for this panel (patients show mild (mostly) to moderate severity). Therefore, this gene has been given an Amber rating.
Created: 6 Oct 2021, 3:06 p.m. | Last Modified: 6 Oct 2021, 3:06 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1328
Green List (high evidence)
Sferra et al (2021 - PMID: 33964137) provide extensive evidence that biallelic RNF220 mutations cause a disorder characterized by hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, ataxia (9/9 - onset 1-5y), borderline intellectual functioning (3/9) / intellectual disability (5/9 - in most cases mild), sensorineural deafness (9/9) with complete hearing loss in the first decade of life, hepatopathy (9/9) with associated periportal fibrosis, and dilated cardiomyopathy (9/9) which was fatal.
Other neurologic manifestations apart from ataxia incl. hyperreflexia (8/8), spastic paraplegia (9/9), dysarthria (9/9), peripheral neuropathy (4/9), seizures in one case (1/9). Upon brain MRI there was thin corpus callosum (9/9) or cerebellar atrophy in some (2/9).
The authors identified homozygosity for 2 recurrent missense RNF220 variants in affected members belonging to these 5 broad consanguineous pedigrees (7 families), namely NM_018150.4:c.1094G>A / p.Arg365Gly in 4 Roma families in the context of a shared haplotype (/founder effect) as well as c.1088G>A / p.Arg363Gly in a large pedigree from southern Italy initially reported by Leuzzi et al (2000 - PMID: 10881263).
Extensive segregation analyses were carried out including several affected and unaffected members.
RNF220 encodes ring finger protein 220, which functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Previous studies have shown among others a role in modulation of Sonic hedgehog/GLI signaling and cerebellar development
Evidence for the role of RNF220 included relevant expression, localization within the cell, interaction partners (lamin B1, 20S proteasome), similarities with other laminopathies in terms of phenotype, etc :
*RNF220 has a relevant expression pattern in CNS (based on qRT-PCR analyses in human brain, cerebellum, cerebral cortex / mRNA levels in human fetal CNS with higher expression in cerebellum, spinal cord and cortex / previous GTEx data / protein levels in mouse CNS)
*The protein displays nuclear localization based on iPSC cells differentiated to motor neurons (also supported by data from the Human Protein Atlas). Transfection of COS-1 cells demonstrated localization primarily to the nucleus (as also previously demonstrated in HEK293T cells) in vesicle like structures with ASF2/SF2 colocalization suggesting enrichment in nuclear speckles. There was also partial co-distribution with the 20S proteasome. R363Q and R365Q additionally coalesced in the cytoplasm forming protein aggregates/inclusions.
*Immunofluorescence studies in patient fibroblasts also confirmed abnormal increase of the protein in the cytoplasm and increased fluorescence with the 20S proteasome.
*Proteomic identification of RNF220-interacting proteins in transfected HEK293T cells demonstrated enrichment for all members of the lamin protein family (incl . lamin B1, AC, B2).
*RNAi-mediated downregulation of RNF222 in Drosophila suggested altered subcellular localization and accumulation of the fly orthologue for human lamin B1.
*Immunoprecipitation of lamin B1 from the nuclear matrix of cerebellar cells suggested significant interaction of endogenous lamin B1 with RNF220, while transfection studies in HEK293T cells for wt/mt suggested reduced binding to endogenous lamin B1 for RNF220 mt compared to wt (more prominent for R365Q). RNF220 mutants also reduced ubiquitination of nuclear lamin B1 compared to wt.
*Patient fibroblasts immunostained with different nuclear envelope markers displayed abnormal nuclear shapes with multiple invaginations and lobulations, findings also observed in laminopathies.
There is currently no associated phenotype in OMIM or G2P. SysID includes RNF220 among the current primary ID genes.
Consider inclusion in panels for leukodystrophies, childhood onset ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, corpus callosum anomalies, cardiomyopathies, hepatopathies, etc in all cases with green rating.
Sources: Literature, Other
Created: 16 Aug 2021, 12:24 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Leukodystrophy; CNS hypomyelination; Ataxia; Intellectual disability; Sensorineural hearing impairment; Elevated hepatic transaminases; Hepatic fibrosis; Dilated cardiomyopathy; Spastic paraplegia; Dysarthria; Abnormality of the corpus callosum
Phenotypes for gene: RNF220 were changed from Leukodystrophy; CNS hypomyelination; Ataxia; Intellectual disability; Sensorineural hearing impairment; Elevated hepatic transaminases; Hepatic fibrosis; Dilated cardiomyopathy; Spastic paraplegia; Dysarthria; Abnormality of the corpus callosum to Intellectual disability, MONDO:0001071
Gene: rnf220 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
gene: RNF220 was added gene: RNF220 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Other Mode of inheritance for gene: RNF220 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: RNF220 were set to 33964137; 10881263 Phenotypes for gene: RNF220 were set to Leukodystrophy; CNS hypomyelination; Ataxia; Intellectual disability; Sensorineural hearing impairment; Elevated hepatic transaminases; Hepatic fibrosis; Dilated cardiomyopathy; Spastic paraplegia; Dysarthria; Abnormality of the corpus callosum Penetrance for gene: RNF220 were set to Complete Review for gene: RNF220 was set to GREEN
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.