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Intellectual disability

Gene: ZNF407

Amber List (moderate evidence)

ZNF407 (zinc finger protein 407)
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh38): ENSG00000215421
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh37): ENSG00000215421
OMIM: 615894, Gene2Phenotype
ZNF407 is in 1 panel

2 reviews

Arina Puzriakova (Genomics England Curator)

Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Some evidence linking both mono- and biallelic variants with disease but currently not sufficient for a Green rating. Further cases would help validate this gene-disease association (added 'watchlist' tag)
Created: 24 Dec 2020, 9:27 a.m. | Last Modified: 24 Dec 2020, 9:27 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.685

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

I don't know

You may consider inclusion of this gene probably with amber rating (or green if the evidence for biallelic variants is considered sufficient).

Biallelic variants:

- Kambouris et al. (2014 - PMID: 24907849) described 2 brothers with severe DD and ID, born to first cousin parents. Homozygosity mapping, following other non-diagnostic investigations (incl. aCGH), revealed 4 major homozygosity intervals. Exome sequencing in one identified 5 variants within these intervals, ZNF407 (c.5054C>G, p.Ser1685Trp) being the best candidate, supported also by segregation studies. The authors commented that zinc finger proteins act as transcriptional regulators, with mutations in genes encoding for other zinc finger proteins interfering with normal brain development.

- Zahra et al. (2020 - PMID: 32737394) report on 7 affected individuals (from 3 families) homozygous or compound heterozygous for ZNF407 variants. Features included hypotonia, DD and ID (in all) and variable occurrence of short stature (6/6), microcephaly (in at least 5), behavioural, visual problems and deafness. Linkage analysis in the first family revealed a 4.4 Mb shared homozygosity region and exome (30x) revealed a 3-bp duplication, confirmed by Sanger sequencing and segregating with the disease (NM_001146189:c.2814_2816dup, p.Val939dup). Affected subjects from the 2 other families were each found to be homozygous (c.2405G>T) or compound heterozygous (c.2884C>G, c.3642G>C) for other variants. Segregation was compatible in all families. Other studies were not performed. The authors comment than only the 3-bp duplication fulfilled ACMG criteria for classification as LP, the other variants being all formally classified as VUS (also due to in silico predictions predicting a LB effect). In addition, while several features such as DD/ID and short stature appeared to be frequent among all patients reported, Zahra et all comment that there was partial clinical overlap with the sibs described by Kambouris et al (additional variants?).

Monoallelic disruption of ZNF407:

- Ren et al (2013 - PMID: 23195952) described an 8 y.o. boy with ID and ASD. The boy was found to harbor a de novo translocation between chromosomes 3 and 18 [46,XY,t(3;18)(p13;q22.3)]. Array CGH did not reveal any P/LP CNV. Delineation of the breakpoints (FISH, long-range PCR) revealed that the chr18 breakpoint disrupted intron 3 of ZNF407 (isoform 1) with the other breakpoint within a gene-free region of exon 3. There was a loss of 4-8 nt in chr18 and 2-6 in chr3. Sequencing of ZNF407 did not reveal additional variants. RNA isolation in blood followed by RT-PCR studied expression of all 3 ZNF407 isoforms (the intronic region being shared by isoforms 1 and 2). Expression of isoform 1 was shown to be significantly reduced compared to controls. Isoform 2 was undetectable (in blood) while isoform 3 expression was similar to controls. Sequencing of 105 additional patients with similar clinical presentation (ID & ASD) revealed 2 further individuals with de novo missense variants.

- Based on the discussion by Kambouris et al (PMID: 24907849 - cited literature not here reviewed) ZNF407 may be deleted in patients with congenital aural atresia due to deletion of a critical region of 18q22.3 (though TSHZ1 is responsible for this phenotype) or 18q- although such deletions span several other genes (cited PMID: 16639285). In one case the breakpoint was shown to be disrupting ZNF407 (cited PMID: 24092497).

- The denovo db and Decipher (research variant tab) list few individuals with de novo ZNF407 SNVs although these do not seem to allow conclusions.
Sources: Literature
Created: 2 Aug 2020, 11:04 a.m.

Mode of inheritance
BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal

Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability



Mode of Inheritance
BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
  • Expert Review Amber
  • Global developmental delay
  • Intellectual disability
Clinvar variants
Variants in ZNF407
Panels with this gene

History Filter Activity

24 Dec 2020, Gel status: 2

Entity classified by Genomics England curator

Arina Puzriakova (Genomics England Curator)

Gene: znf407 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).

2 Aug 2020, Gel status: 0

Created, Added New Source, Set mode of inheritance, Set publications, Set Phenotypes, Set penetrance

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

gene: ZNF407 was added gene: ZNF407 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: ZNF407 was set to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: ZNF407 were set to 24907849; 32737394; 23195952 Phenotypes for gene: ZNF407 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability Penetrance for gene: ZNF407 were set to unknown Review for gene: ZNF407 was set to AMBER