Intellectual disabilityGene: ZNF407 Amber List (moderate evidence)
Comment on list classification: New gene added by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Some evidence linking both mono- and biallelic variants with disease but currently not sufficient for a Green rating. Further cases would help validate this gene-disease association (added 'watchlist' tag)
Created: 24 Dec 2020, 9:27 a.m. | Last Modified: 24 Dec 2020, 9:27 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.685
I don't know
You may consider inclusion of this gene probably with amber rating (or green if the evidence for biallelic variants is considered sufficient).
- Kambouris et al. (2014 - PMID: 24907849) described 2 brothers with severe DD and ID, born to first cousin parents. Homozygosity mapping, following other non-diagnostic investigations (incl. aCGH), revealed 4 major homozygosity intervals. Exome sequencing in one identified 5 variants within these intervals, ZNF407 (c.5054C>G, p.Ser1685Trp) being the best candidate, supported also by segregation studies. The authors commented that zinc finger proteins act as transcriptional regulators, with mutations in genes encoding for other zinc finger proteins interfering with normal brain development.
- Zahra et al. (2020 - PMID: 32737394) report on 7 affected individuals (from 3 families) homozygous or compound heterozygous for ZNF407 variants. Features included hypotonia, DD and ID (in all) and variable occurrence of short stature (6/6), microcephaly (in at least 5), behavioural, visual problems and deafness. Linkage analysis in the first family revealed a 4.4 Mb shared homozygosity region and exome (30x) revealed a 3-bp duplication, confirmed by Sanger sequencing and segregating with the disease (NM_001146189:c.2814_2816dup, p.Val939dup). Affected subjects from the 2 other families were each found to be homozygous (c.2405G>T) or compound heterozygous (c.2884C>G, c.3642G>C) for other variants. Segregation was compatible in all families. Other studies were not performed. The authors comment than only the 3-bp duplication fulfilled ACMG criteria for classification as LP, the other variants being all formally classified as VUS (also due to in silico predictions predicting a LB effect). In addition, while several features such as DD/ID and short stature appeared to be frequent among all patients reported, Zahra et all comment that there was partial clinical overlap with the sibs described by Kambouris et al (additional variants?).
Monoallelic disruption of ZNF407:
- Ren et al (2013 - PMID: 23195952) described an 8 y.o. boy with ID and ASD. The boy was found to harbor a de novo translocation between chromosomes 3 and 18 [46,XY,t(3;18)(p13;q22.3)]. Array CGH did not reveal any P/LP CNV. Delineation of the breakpoints (FISH, long-range PCR) revealed that the chr18 breakpoint disrupted intron 3 of ZNF407 (isoform 1) with the other breakpoint within a gene-free region of exon 3. There was a loss of 4-8 nt in chr18 and 2-6 in chr3. Sequencing of ZNF407 did not reveal additional variants. RNA isolation in blood followed by RT-PCR studied expression of all 3 ZNF407 isoforms (the intronic region being shared by isoforms 1 and 2). Expression of isoform 1 was shown to be significantly reduced compared to controls. Isoform 2 was undetectable (in blood) while isoform 3 expression was similar to controls. Sequencing of 105 additional patients with similar clinical presentation (ID & ASD) revealed 2 further individuals with de novo missense variants.
- Based on the discussion by Kambouris et al (PMID: 24907849 - cited literature not here reviewed) ZNF407 may be deleted in patients with congenital aural atresia due to deletion of a critical region of 18q22.3 (though TSHZ1 is responsible for this phenotype) or 18q- although such deletions span several other genes (cited PMID: 16639285). In one case the breakpoint was shown to be disrupting ZNF407 (cited PMID: 24092497).
- The denovo db and Decipher (research variant tab) list few individuals with de novo ZNF407 SNVs although these do not seem to allow conclusions.
Created: 2 Aug 2020, 11:04 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability
Gene: znf407 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
gene: ZNF407 was added gene: ZNF407 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: ZNF407 was set to BOTH monoallelic and biallelic, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: ZNF407 were set to 24907849; 32737394; 23195952 Phenotypes for gene: ZNF407 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability Penetrance for gene: ZNF407 were set to unknown Review for gene: ZNF407 was set to AMBER
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.