Intellectual disabilityGene: CSDE1 Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: CSDE1 identified by Konstantinos Varvagiannis based on a publication by Guo et al. (PMID: 31579823) This is the first time CSDE1 has been associated with any diseases therefore it not currently in OMIM or Gene2Phenotype. However consistent phenotype of DD/ID and autism seen among all individuals with variants. With functional work on both mice and Drosophila.
Created: 24 Oct 2019, 4:23 p.m. | Last Modified: 24 Oct 2019, 4:23 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1086
Green List (high evidence)
Guo et al. (2019 - DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax2166) report on 18 individuals from 18 unrelated families, with heterozygous likely gene disrupting (stopgain/frameshift/spice-site) CSDE1 variants.
Initial sequencing with MIPs found in 3 individuals from an autism cohort (4045 probands), while subsequent targeted sequencing of a larger cohort (autism spectrum/ID network) led to identification of 5 additional relevant individuals and Genematcher/collaborations a further 10 (the latter by WES).
Consistent phenotypes included ASD (10 of 15 formally evaluated), DD (motor: 15/17 - speech: 17/17) and ID (mild to severe in 14 of 16 assessed, in further 2 in the below-average range). Recurrent seizures or epilepsy were reported for 7 of 16 patients. Other variable features were anxiety or ADHD, increased OFC, ocular, hand and MRI anomalies.
The study was mainly focused on LGD variants with p.R123* (NM_001242891.1:c.367C>T) being a reccurrent one, found in 3 families.
8 of these variants were de novo, 8 further inherited (often from a less severely affected parent, although parental neuropsychiatric status was not available for individuals from all 3 groups). In 2 cases inheritance was unknown (only 1 parental sample available).
3 individuals with de novo missense variants were also identified. Features in those individuals also included ASD and/or DD and ID (2/3) [Table S1].
Arguments to support involvement of the CSDE1 variants included the:
- role of the gene encoding an RNA binding protein implicated in neuronal migration/differentiation (cited : 24012837, 29129916),
- statistically significant burden of the variants in the cohorts examined,
- relevant CSDE1 intolerance scores (pLI of 1 and %RVIS of 6.18),
- relevant human (mRNA) / mouse (protein) spatial and temporal expression patterns,
- exclusion of apparent alternative diagnoses to the extent possible in many subjects with CNVs/SNVs/ROH of uncertain significance in very few,
- cosegregation with rather similar neuropsychiatric phenotypes in case of carrier parents,
- enrichment of ASD-related genes (and FMRP targets) among CSDE1-binding targets,
- suppression of Ctnnb1 expression (at the protein level) affecting Wnt/β-catenin signalling,
- effect of knockdown and/or mutants in mouse (shRNA) and Drosophila (mt and siRNA) models affecting synapse formation and synaptic transmission,
- rescue of many of the previous phenotypes by expression of human CSDE1 (mice), expression of stabilized β-Catenin (mice) or RNAi-stable-dUNR (Drosophila) [also supporting LoF as the underlying effect of variants].
CSDE1 is not commonly included in gene panels for ID offered by diagnostic laboratories. There is no associated phenotype in OMIM/G2P.
Overall, this gene could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as green (or amber).
Created: 28 Sep 2019, 5:37 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Autism; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability
Gene: csde1 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Publications for gene: CSDE1 were set to http://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax2166
gene: CSDE1 was added gene: CSDE1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: CSDE1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: CSDE1 were set to http://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax2166 Phenotypes for gene: CSDE1 were set to Autism; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability Penetrance for gene: CSDE1 were set to unknown Review for gene: CSDE1 was set to GREEN
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.