Intellectual disabilityGene: MAPK8IP3 Green List (high evidence)
Comment on phenotypes: OMIM phenotype recently added to OMIM
Created: 27 Jun 2019, 2 p.m. | Last Modified: 27 Jun 2019, 2 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.898
Comment on list classification: New gene added by external expert and reviewed by curation team: Sufficient evidence has been provided by the external expert review for this gene to be rated green. This gene is not associated with any phenotype on OMIM or Gene2Phenotype.
Created: 18 Feb 2019, 1:49 p.m.
Green List (high evidence)
Platzer et al. (doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.12.008 - PMID to be added) report on 13 unrelated individuals with de novo pathogenic variants in MAPK8IP3.
The phenotype consisted - among others - of DD with ID (13/13) as well as variable brain anomalies (incl. cerebral or cerebellar atrophy, corpus callosum anomalies, perisylvian polymicrogyria, etc). Abnormal muscular tone (hypotonia, spasticity or both) was noted in most. Microcephaly, seizures, ataxia, ASD were features seen in fewer individuals.
The variants reported included 2 nonsense, 1 frameshift as well as 6 missense mutations (3 missense variants were found - each - in 2 or more individuals).
All three LoF variants were located in the first exon. (mRNA levels were not studied for these variants although NMD is presumed). The brain anomalies were more consistent for missense variants.
MAPK8IP3 appears intolerant to LoF variants (pLI of 1) with constraint also for missense variants (Z-score of 4.06).
In silico structural modeling was possible for 4 missense variants based on available crystal structures and different mechanisms were presumed (disruption of contacts between Leu444 of adjacent subunits, altered interaction between proximal residues at positions 461 and 466, or disruption of protein protein interactions).
The C.elegans MAPK8IP3 ortholog is encoded by the unc-16 gene. Impaired clearance and accumulation of organelles (incl. lysosomes) in axons is observed in unc-16 mutants (recessive phenotype).
For 6 variants, also conserved in C.elegans, mutants were engineered using CRISPR genome editing. The observed mutant phenotypes (increased axonal lysosomal density compared to controls for 2 variants, sluggish locomotion with lower swimming cycle rate for 1 nonsense and 4 missense variants) were rescued upon CRISPR reverse engineering of each mutant allele back to its wild-type sequence.
The authors cite 3 previous studies, in which individuals investigated for neurodevelopmental disorders where found to harbor de novo MAPK8IP3 variants, namely:
- PMID 25363768 (Iossifov et al.) : p.Tyr94Cys [ASD without ID]
- PMID 28213671 (Berger et al.) : p.Glu461Gly [Smith-Magenis-like phenotype)
- PMID 28135719 (DDD study) p.Arg1146Cys [This variant was found in 3 individuals in the study by Platzer et al.]
A few additional individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders appear in the denovo-db after filtering for coding variants:
- NM_015133.4:c.111C>G (p.Tyr37Ter) has been submitted by the Undiagnosed Diseases Network (NIH) as likely pathogenic, associated with MAPK8IP3-related disorder (hypotonia, DD, EEG anomalies among the phenotypes). It is not clear whether this subject corresponds to individual #3 reported by the previous study (possibly not the case).
- 2 missense variants [NM_015133.4:c.2447C>A (p.Ala816Asp) / NM_015133.4:c.1288C>T (p.Leu430Phe)] have been submitted as VUS, although the latter was found in an individual with ID (summary evidence tab).
MAPK8IP3 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM, nor in G2P.
This gene is not commonly included in gene panels for ID.
As a result, MAPK8IP3 can be considered for inclusion in this panel as green (rather than amber).
Created: 4 Jan 2019, 3:15 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Abnormal muscle tone; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of nervous system morphology
Phenotypes for gene: MAPK8IP3 were changed from Abnormal muscle tone; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable brain abnormalities, 618443 to Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable brain abnormalities, OMIM:618443
Phenotypes for gene: MAPK8IP3 were changed from Abnormal muscle tone; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; No OMIM number to Abnormal muscle tone; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable brain abnormalities, 618443
Gene: mapk8ip3 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Phenotypes for gene: MAPK8IP3 were changed from 25363768; 28213671; 28135719 to Abnormal muscle tone; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormality of nervous system morphology; No OMIM number
Publications for gene: MAPK8IP3 were set to
gene: MAPK8IP3 was added gene: MAPK8IP3 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: MAPK8IP3 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Phenotypes for gene: MAPK8IP3 were set to 25363768; 28213671; 28135719 Penetrance for gene: MAPK8IP3 were set to unknown Review for gene: MAPK8IP3 was set to GREEN
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.