Intellectual disabilityGene: TMEM94 Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: TMEM94 was added to the ID panel by Konstantinos Varvagiannis, and rated Amber. Stephen et al., 2018 (PMID:30526868) identified biallelic (homozygous or compound het) variants in 10 patients from 6 unrelated families of different ethnic origins. All affected individuals manifested with delays in development and dysmorphic facial features. All variants were predicted to be truncating variants. There is a question from Konstantinos over whether the phenotypes fall under the scope of the ID panel since the authors refer to ID in the abstract, and speech delay, motor delay and learning disability in Table 1. Global developmental delay is reported for individual II.1 in Family 1, gross developmental delay is reported in Family 3, mild DD and an IQ of 58 is reported for individual II.2 in Family 5, and developmental delay was reported for Individual II.2 in Family 6. TMEM94 has now also been associated with a disorder in OMIM: Intellectual developmental disorder with cardiac defects and dysmorphic facies, 618316. Therefore on balance and because of sufficient numbers of general DD reported in PMID:30526868, I have included TMEM94 on the ID panel as a Green gene.
Created: 14 May 2019, 10:42 a.m.
I don't know
Stephen et al. (https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.11.001) report on 10 individuals from 6 unrelated families with bi-allelic truncating TMEM94 variants. The common phenotype consisted of global DD/ID, similar facial features as well as the presence of congenital heart defects (in all but one).
Speech as well as motor delay and learning difficulties were universal features. ID is mentioned in the abstract, explicitly specified for one individual and implied for some of the rest.
Overall 6 different LoF variants are reported. Reduced expression was demonstrated while gene expression microarray and RNA sequencing expression studies demonstrated dysregulation of several essential genes. Using a CRISPR/Cas9 mouse model loss of Tmem94 was shown to be embryonically lethal with craniofacial, cardiac anomalies as well as abnormal neuronal migration pattern observed in homozygous mutant mice embryos.
TMEM94 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P nor in OMIM.
As a result this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel probably as amber (or green).
Created: 10 Dec 2018, 3:29 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormal heart morphology; Abnormality of head or neck
Gene: tmem94 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Phenotypes for gene: TMEM94 were changed from Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormal heart morphology; Abnormality of head or neck to Intellectual developmental disorder with cardiac defects and dysmorphic facies, 618316; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormal heart morphology; Abnormality of head or neck
Publications for gene: TMEM94 were set to
gene: TMEM94 was added gene: TMEM94 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: TMEM94 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Phenotypes for gene: TMEM94 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Abnormal heart morphology; Abnormality of head or neck Penetrance for gene: TMEM94 were set to Complete Review for gene: TMEM94 was set to AMBER
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.