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Intellectual disability

Gene: FBXW7

Amber List (moderate evidence)

FBXW7 (F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7)
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh38): ENSG00000109670
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh37): ENSG00000109670
OMIM: 606278, Gene2Phenotype
FBXW7 is in 2 panels

2 reviews

Sarah Leigh (Genomics England Curator)

Green List (high evidence)

Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review.
Created: 11 Aug 2022, 3:47 p.m. | Last Modified: 11 Aug 2022, 3:47 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1673
FBXW7 is not associated with a phenotype in OMIM (last edited 07/07/2022), but it has a definitive classification to FBXW7-related developmental disorder (monoallelic) in Gen2Phen. PMID: 33057194 reports 8 missense FBXW7 variants in 12 individual from three well established developmental disorder cohorts. PMID: 33057194 reports FBXW7 variants in 35 individuals, with 34/35 having severe to mild development / intellectual delay, hypotonia is also reported in 22/31 of cases assessed.
Created: 11 Aug 2022, 3:36 p.m. | Last Modified: 11 Aug 2022, 3:36 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.1672

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

I don't know

While Kaplanis et al (2020 - Ref1), identified FBXW7 among 285 genes significantly associated with developmental disorders, a recent study by Stephenson et al (2022 - Ref2) describes the neurodevelopmental phenotype of 35 individuals making this gene relevant to the current panel. There are previous reports of dn/inh germline variants in individuals (likely 7) with tumor predisposition although a neurodevelopmental phenotype was not reported in most cases.

There is currently no FBXW7-related phenotype in OMIM.

The gene is included in the DD panel of G2P [associated with: FBXW7-related developmental disorder (monoallelic), confidence: definitive, citing the study by Kaplanis et al]. SysID lists FBXW7 among the candidate ID genes (same Ref.). The gene has a green rating for ID in PanelApp Australia (VCGS participating in the recent publication).

Consider inclusion with amber/green rating. Also consider inclusion in other panels that may be relevant(macro/microcephaly, seizures, CHD, corpus callosum / cerebellar abnormalities, cleft palate, WT, etc).

Kaplanis et al (2020 - PMID: 33057194), by combining exome data from 31,058 parent offspring trios from the DDD study, Radboudumc and GeneDx, identified 285 genes significantly associated with developmental disorders, 28 of which (incl. FBXW7) not previously robustly associated with these disorders.

Stephenson et al (2022 - PMID: 35395208) provide clinical information on 35 individuals harboring germline monoallelic FBXW7 variants or chromosomal deletions spanning this gene.

The phenotype corresponded to a phenotypically variable NDD characterized by hypotonia (in about 2/3), neurodevelopmental abnormality (34/35 - as discussed later), seizures (8/35), abnormal brain morphology (13/17 - in 7/17 abnormal CC, in 5/17 abn. cerebellum, etc), head circumference (macrocephaly in 10/35, microcephaly in 2/35). Additional features included abnormal palate or uvula morphology (10/35 - cleft palate in 3 from 2 families while 1 individual from a 3rd family had bifid uvula) or abnormal heart morphology (11/35), ophthalmologic features (e.g. strabismus in 5/35) or hearing impairment (2/35). There was no recognizable gestalt (deeply set eyes with upper eyelid fullness in 9/35).

As for the DD/ID this ranged from borderline to severe, characterized as mild-moderate in 27/35, severe in 3/35. One individual did not present neurodevelopmental abnormality 1/35.

FBXW7 encodes F-box and WD40 domain protein 7 which is part of the SCF E3 ligase complex (SKP1/CUL1/F-box protein) exerting a role of recognition and binding of target proteins for degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system. In this way FBWX7 participates in regulating a network of proteins involved in cell division, growth, differentiation (as summarized by Roversi et al - Ref2).

Most individuals were investigated by trio-WES/WGS (few with singleton WES or CMA only). 28 germline FBXW7 variants were identified incl. missense (N=21), pLoF (predicted or not to undergo NMD) and 2 deletions encompassing but not limited to FBXW7.

Additional SNVs/CNVs (e.g. an inh intragenic DPP6 dup in one individual (#9) with deletion, other de novo 4q CNVs (#10), an inh 22q spanning partially an ISCA TS region, a CACNA1A and KMT2D SNV, etc) were reported in few individuals.

Most variants arose dn (N=30) with two individuals displaying mosaicism (2/30) and three individuals having inherited the variant from their affected parent. CNVs had occurred dn.

3 missense SNVs were recurrent in unrelated individuals.

All variants identified affected all FBXW7 isoforms.

As the authors comment missense variants clustered at the C-terminal half of the protein with most (16/21) occurring within the WD40 domain. [The N-terminal part commented in the literature to affect localization].

The crystal structure of FBXW7 and SKP1 complex has been determined with CYCLIN E1/DISC1 as substrates, and in silico modeling revealed that all missense variants aligned with residues required for this interaction, or adjacent ones.

All were absent from gnomAD, while missense variants from gnomAD (N=78) were not predicted have significant effect on the binding affinity.

Variant studies revealed that most missense variants (6/7 tested - Arg689Gln being the exception) are unlikely to cause protein instability or degradation in vivo.

Co-expression of these missense variants with CYCLIN E1 / E2, known FBXW7 substrates revealed that variants were less efficient at degrading the substrate with variants in the WD40 domain having greater impact (in some cases E1 / E2 - specific).

Elav-Gal4 mediated neuronal knockdown of the Drosophila ortholog archipelago (ago) using 2 RNAi-s with different efficiency was shown to affect learning or compromise neuronal function (also related to the level of knockdown).

The authors summarize results from animal models for the role of this gene in development and the nervous system.

KO mice die in utero at E10.5 manifesting abn. of hematopoietic or vascular development and heart-chamber maturation(*). Some htz knock-in for human cancer variants, display perinatal lethality, abn lung, cleft palate (30%)(*),etc. Conditional gut specific deletion results in impaired differentiation of intestinal goblet cells (*)(constipation in 16/35 in cohort). KO limited to CNS and PNS results in defective sucking and morphological brain abnormalities. Haploinsufficiency in the nervous system was associated with impaired differentiation of neural stem cells (possibly through a Notch-mediated mechanism). KO in Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system resulted in enhanced myelination.

Excessive oligodendrocyte cells and hypermyelination (as a result of elevated Notch & mTOR signaling) are observed in homozygous mutant zebrafish or after morpholino-mediated fbxw7 knockdown.

Overall, the authors propose haploinsufficiency or loss-of-function as the underlying mechanism.

Finally, as the authors comment, FBXW7 is a tumor suppressor among the most commonly mutated genes in human cancer (3.5%). Germline variants have been previously reported in individuals with cancer (Wilms tumor, rhabdoid, etc - most summarized below). However, none of the 35 individuals in this cohort (oldest 44 y.o.) had any history of cancer.

Reports of individuals with germline variants causing (monoallelic) disruption of FBXW7 - cases without DD/ID:

Mahamdallie et al (2019 - PMID: 30885698) investigated with WES a cohort of 890 individuals with Wilms tumor (799 non-familial disease, 91 from WT pedigrees). In this context they identified 4 individuals having developed WT (ages: 28-76m) with FBXW7 dn or inherited LoF variants (710G>A / p.Trp237* dn - 1972C>T / p.Arg658* - inh:NA, 1017_1021del5, 670C>T - paternal / p.Arg224* inh:NA - RefSeq not provided). One additional individual with a missense variant (1753A>T / p.Ser585Cys - dn) had developed rhabdoid tumor. While the authors mentioned additional features for other subjects in their cohort, among the 5 individuals with FBXW7 variants, only one had hypotonia (ID_0592) and another (ID_7520) had two febrile convulsions.

Roversi et al (2015 - PMID: 26482194) described the phenotype of a 34 y.o. female with syndromic presentation (macrocephaly, nephrotic syndrome due to FSGS, Hodgkin's lymphoma, Wilms tumor, ovarian cystadenoma, breast carcinoma) harboring a 157 kb deletion of 4q31.3.

Eventual DD/ID was not reported despite detailed clinical description.

The deletion spanned almost the entire FBXW7 gene and a pseudogene (hg19 - chr4:153205202-153362047). The authors provided evidence that the del affected the maternal allele as dn event (maternal mosaicism excluded). Expression of FBXW7 in patient-derived EBV lymphoblastoid cell line revealed decreased levels of expression compared to controls. At somatic level, the authors looked for eventual 2nd hit in tumor tissue (which was not the case) while they demonstrated decreased FBXW7 expression in a WT sample compared to normal renal tissue. Previously, variants in other genes candidate for the phenotype were ruled out (Sanger & MLPA for TP53, BRCA1/2, PALB2, WT1, 11p15 MS-MLPA, std karyotype).

Kuiper et al (2015 - PMID: 19963109), in a 58 y.o. patient with recurrence of RCC, identified a constitutional translocation [t(3;4)(q21;q31)]. Using long-range PCR they defined the breakpoints at 3q21.3 (128379059 - hg18) between the PLXNA1 and C3orf56 genes while the chr4 breakpoint was located within the second intron of FBXW7 (pos. 153500813 - hg18). There were no additional phenotypes reported.

Williams et al (2010 - PMID: 20332316) reported a patient with WT harboring germline variants in WT1 and FBXW7. While the phenotype was sufficiently explained by a germline stopgain WT1 variant with a frameshift WT1 variant (as 2nd hit) confined to the tumor, the authors identified a germline in-frame FBXW7 insertion in the same individual (c.45_46insCCT / p.Thr15_Gly16insPro - RefS : NA) [if correct corresponding to: - 345/281696 alleles in gnomAD].
Sources: Literature
Created: 14 Apr 2022, 12:26 p.m.

Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown

Neurodevelopmental abnormality; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Macrocephaly; Microcephaly; Abnormality of brain morphology; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Abnormality of the cerebellum; Abnormality of the cardiovascular system; Seizures; Strabismus; Abnormality of the palate



Mode of Inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
  • Expert Review Amber
  • Neurodevelopmental abnormality
  • Global developmental delay
  • Intellectual disability
  • Macrocephaly
  • Microcephaly
  • Abnormality of brain morphology
  • Abnormality of the corpus callosum
  • Abnormality of the cerebellum
  • Abnormality of the cardiovascular system
  • Seizures
  • Strabismus
  • Abnormality of the palate
Q3_22_rating Q3_22_MOI Q3_22_phenotype
Clinvar variants
Variants in FBXW7
Panels with this gene

History Filter Activity

11 Aug 2022, Gel status: 2

Entity classified by Genomics England curator

Sarah Leigh (Genomics England Curator)

Gene: fbxw7 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).

11 Aug 2022, Gel status: 0

Added Tag, Added Tag, Added Tag

Sarah Leigh (Genomics England Curator)

Tag Q3_22_rating tag was added to gene: FBXW7. Tag Q3_22_MOI tag was added to gene: FBXW7. Tag Q3_22_phenotype tag was added to gene: FBXW7.

14 Apr 2022, Gel status: 0

Created, Added New Source, Set mode of inheritance, Set publications, Set Phenotypes, Set penetrance

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

gene: FBXW7 was added gene: FBXW7 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: FBXW7 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: FBXW7 were set to 33057194; 35395208; 30885698; 26482194; 19963109; 20332316 Phenotypes for gene: FBXW7 were set to Neurodevelopmental abnormality; Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Macrocephaly; Microcephaly; Abnormality of brain morphology; Abnormality of the corpus callosum; Abnormality of the cerebellum; Abnormality of the cardiovascular system; Seizures; Strabismus; Abnormality of the palate Penetrance for gene: FBXW7 were set to unknown Review for gene: FBXW7 was set to AMBER