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Intellectual disability

Gene: PAX1

Amber List (moderate evidence)

PAX1 (paired box 1)
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh38): ENSG00000125813
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh37): ENSG00000125813
OMIM: 167411, Gene2Phenotype
PAX1 is in 3 panels

2 reviews

Arina Puzriakova (Genomics England Curator)

Comment on list classification: New gene added and rated Amber by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Updating rating from Grey to Amber based on 2 papers (PMID:29681087 and PMID:23851939) reporting 2 unrelated cases with mild ID.
Created: 16 Nov 2020, 1:43 p.m. | Last Modified: 16 Nov 2020, 1:43 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.535

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

I don't know

Biallelic PAX1 pathogenic variants cause Otofaciocervical syndrome 2 (OMIM 615560).

Brief review of the literature suggests 3 relevant publications to date (04-07-2020).

2 individuals with DD and ID have been reported (Patil et al, 2018 - PMID: 29681087 and Pohl et al, 2013 - PMID: 23851939). Other subjects reported were only evaluated as newborns(mostly)/infants [Paganini et al, 2017 - PMID: 28657137, Patil et al, 2018 - PMID: 29681087].

While the first report by Pohl et al identified a homozygous missense variant supported by functional studies [NM_006192.5:c.497G>T - p.(Gly166Val)] subsequent ones identified homozygosity for pLoF mutations [Patil et al: NM_006192.4:c.1173_1174insGCCCG / Paganini et al: NM_006192:c.1104C>A - p.(Cys368*)].

As discussed by Pohl et al:

PAX1 encodes a transcription factor with critical role in pattern formation during embryogenesis. Study of the mouse Gly157Val (equivalent to human Gly166Val) Pax1 variant suggested reduced binding affinity (reduced transactivation of a regulatory sequence of the Nkx3-2 promoter) and hypofunctional nature of this variant.

Mouse models seem to recapitulate features of the disorder (skeletal, immunodeficiency) while the role of Pax1 in hearing process was thought to be supported by early expression (P6) in mouse cochlea.

Overall this gene can be considered for inclusion in the ID panel with amber/green rating.
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Created: 13 Jul 2020, 7:18 p.m.

Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal

Otofaciocervical syndrome 2, 615560



Mode of Inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
  • Expert Review Amber
  • Otofaciocervical syndrome 2, 615560
Clinvar variants
Variants in PAX1
Panels with this gene

History Filter Activity

16 Nov 2020, Gel status: 2

Entity classified by Genomics England curator

Arina Puzriakova (Genomics England Curator)

Gene: pax1 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).

13 Jul 2020, Gel status: 0

Created, Added New Source, Set mode of inheritance, Set publications, Set Phenotypes, Set penetrance

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

gene: PAX1 was added gene: PAX1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen Mode of inheritance for gene: PAX1 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: PAX1 were set to 29681087; 23851939; 28657137 Phenotypes for gene: PAX1 were set to Otofaciocervical syndrome 2, 615560 Penetrance for gene: PAX1 were set to Complete Review for gene: PAX1 was set to AMBER