Intellectual disabilityGene: MACF1 Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: New gene added by external expert and reviewed by curation team: Sufficient evidence has been provided by the external expert review for this gene to be rated green. The gene is associated with a phenotype on OMIM but not on Gene2Phenotype.
Created: 18 Feb 2019, noon
Green List (high evidence)
Dobyns et al. (doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.10.019) report on 9 individuals (all unrelated appart from a pair of monozygotic twins) with de novo variants in MACF1.
All patients presented lissencephaly and brainstem hypoplasia with associated intellectual disability (9/9) and seizures (9/9).
Seven of these individuals had de novo missense variants within the GAR domain and an eighth had a deletion of several exons also spanning this domain and leading to an in-frame deletion. A further ninth patient had a de novo missense variant in the spectrin repeat domain and was found to have similar features although the brainstem dysplasia was rather subtle.
5 missense variants (4 of which in the GAR domain) and an intragenic deletion are reported in total.
The variants in the GAR domain were predicted to have important effect in the zinc-binding pocket. The spectrin repeat (SR4) is thought to have an important role for the function of MACF1 and further to neuronal migration.
Knockdown of Macf1 in mice has been shown to result in developmental defects similar to the human malformation.
The authors note that several high-confidence loss-of-function mutations are listed in ExAC and as a result this type of variants could be non-pathogenic (or lead to neurodevelopmental disorders with reduced penetrance). Still MACF1 has a pLI of 1.0.
As for the missense variants, the authors suggest either a gain-of-function or a dominant negative mechanism.
Caution should be taken when interpreting variants as the ENST00000372915.7 (or MACF1-204) transcript is used for the predicted protein changes, although ENST00000361689.6 or MACF1-203 (corresponding to NM_012090.5) has also been used in some tables or figures.
As a result, this gene can be considered for inclusion in this panel probably as green.
Sources: Literature, Expert Review
Created: 23 Nov 2018, 8:31 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Intellectual disability; Seizures; Lissencephaly; Brainstem dysplasia
Mode of pathogenicity
Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments
Gene: macf1 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Publications for gene: MACF1 were set to 30471716
Publications for gene: MACF1 were set to
Phenotypes for gene: MACF1 were changed from Intellectual disability; Seizures; Lissencephaly; Brainstem dysplasia to Intellectual disability; Seizures; Lissencephaly; Brainstem dysplasia; Lissencephaly 9 with complex brainstem malformation, 618325
gene: MACF1 was added gene: MACF1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Expert Review Mode of inheritance for gene: MACF1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted Phenotypes for gene: MACF1 were set to Intellectual disability; Seizures; Lissencephaly; Brainstem dysplasia Penetrance for gene: MACF1 were set to unknown Mode of pathogenicity for gene: MACF1 was set to Loss-of-function variants (as defined in pop up message) DO NOT cause this phenotype - please provide details in the comments Review for gene: MACF1 was set to GREEN
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.