Intellectual disabilityGene: PUM1 No list
Green List (high evidence)
Severity ranges from adult-onset disease to early-onset disease, sufficient individuals reported with EE/ID.
Created: 14 Feb 2020, 1:12 a.m. | Last Modified: 14 Feb 2020, 1:12 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.3
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, NOT imprinted
Spinocerebellar ataxia 47, MIM#617931
Green List (high evidence)
5 unrelated individuals with de novo pathogenic PUM1 variants have been reported in the literature. DD (5/5), ID (4/5 - relevant severity to the current panel), seizures (4/4 - absence/tonic-clonic, abnormal EEG) and variable other features (incl. facial dysmorphism, ataxia, cryptorchidism) appear to be part of the phenotype. 9 individuals with deletions spanning PUM1 and proximal genes presented similar features.
 PMID: 29474920 - Gennarino et al (2018)
 PMID: 30903679 - Bonnemason-Carrere et al (2019)
 PMID: 31859446 - Voet et al (2019) [with review of the literature]
SNVs in relevant individuals were identified by exome sequencing and were in all cases de novo.
Arg1147Trp was a recurrent variant reported in 3 unrelated subjects with ID and seizures (Refs 1,2,3 / NM_001020658.1:c.3439C>T). A nonsense variant was reported in an additional one with DD, ID, seizures and additional features (c.2509C>T / p.Arg837* - Ref3). One individual with a de novo missense variant (c.3416G>A / p.Arg1139Trp) with DD and ataxia, though without ID was reported in Ref1.
Details on 9 individuals with 0.3 - 5.6 Mb deletions spanning PUM1 and other genes are provided in Ref1. Features also included DD, ID, seizures, ataxia, etc.
Extensive initial investigations were reported for individuals in Refs 2 and 3 (various investigations incl. karyotype, SNP-array, targeted sequencing of OPHN1, KANSL1 or of a small panel of ID genes, biopsies and/or metabolic work-up) to rule out alternative causes. These only revealed a likely benign CNV and a GRIA3 SNV of uncertain significance in the case of an individual harboring the recurrent Arg1147Trp variant [Ref2].
Role of the gene (from OMIM):
Pumilio proteins, such as PUM1, negatively regulate gene expression by repressing translation of mRNAs to which they bind (Lee et al., 2016). A clinically significant PUM1 target is ataxin (ATXN1; 601556), mutation in which causes spinocerebellar ataxia-1 (SCA1; 601556).
- Arg1147Trp was shown to be associated with normal PUM1 mRNA levels, but reduced (to ~43%) PUM1 protein levels in patient fibroblasts. ATXN1 mRNA and protein levels, as well as protein and/or mRNA levels of other PUM1 targets were shown to be increased (Ref1).
- In Ref1, in vitro transfection assays with wt or mt PUM1 were performed in HEK293T cells to evaluate repression of ATXN1 and E2F3. While overexpression of wt and Arg1147Trp were able to reduce ATXN1 and E2F3 levels, Arg1139Trp was not able to repress ATXN1 or E2F3.
- Upon overexpression in mouse hippocampal neurons, PUM1 missense mutations (among others Arg1139Trp and Arg1147Trp) were shown to alter neuronal morphology.
Overall haploinsufficiency is the proposed mechanism for the disorder for which the acronym PADDAS is used (Pumilio1-associated developmental disability, ataxia and seizure).
Milder mutations reducing PUM1 levels by 25% are associated with adult-onset ataxia without ID (PRCA or Pumilio1-related cerebellar ataxia) [Ref1].
The role of PUM1 was first suggested in mouse models where Pum1 mutations were shown to lead to a SCA1-like phenotype (PMID cited : 12086639 - Watase et al 2002) further shown to be caused by increased Atxn1 mRNA and protein levels (PMID cited : 25768905 - Gennarino et al 2015).
The mouse model seems to recapitulate several of the features observed in affected individuals : Pum1 homozygous ko mice display among others hyperactivity, progressive cerebellar signs, spontaneous seizures as also observed in affected individuals (PMID cited : 25768905 - Gennarino et al 2015). Cryptorchidism was observed in 2 patients similar to testicular hypoplasia reported in Pum1 ko mice (PMID cited : 22342750 - Chen et al 2012).
- Heterozygous mice were evaluated in Ref1 with 69% or 75% exhibiting spontaneous seizures by the end of 30 or 35 wks respectively, with abnormal EEG activity already by 16 wks.
Additional individuals with PUM1 variants and a relevant phenotype of ID with or without seizures have been reported as part of the DDD study or as external submissions to Decipher and ClinVar :
https://decipher.sanger.ac.uk/search?q=PUM1#research-variants/results [ DDD4K.01387 participant ]
https://decipher.sanger.ac.uk/search?q=pum1#consented-patients/results [ external submission(s) ]
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/variation/431110/ [ splice-site variant in an individual with ID submitted prior to the 1st publication on the disorder ]
Created: 31 Dec 2019, 1:58 a.m. | Last Modified: 31 Dec 2019, 1:58 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.0
Please consider inclusion in both ID and epilepsy panels with probably green rating.
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Created: 31 Dec 2019, 1:54 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Abnormality of the face; Ataxia; Cryptorchidism
gene: PUM1 was added gene: PUM1 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen Mode of inheritance for gene: PUM1 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: PUM1 were set to 29474920; 30903679; 31859446 Phenotypes for gene: PUM1 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Abnormality of the face; Ataxia; Cryptorchidism Penetrance for gene: PUM1 were set to unknown Review for gene: PUM1 was set to GREEN
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.