Intellectual disabilityGene: CNOT2
Comment on list classification: New gene added by expert reviewer. There is enough evidence to promote this gene to Green status.
Created: 26 Nov 2019, 2:26 p.m. | Last Modified: 26 Nov 2019, 2:26 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1112
Heterozygous pathogenic CNOT2 variants cause Intellectual developmental disorder with nasal speech, dysmorphic facies, and variable skeletal anomalies (MIM 618608 - recently added disorder in OMIM). Larger 12q15 deletions, spanning CNOT2 have been reported in patients with similar phenotype.
Relevant individuals - most discussed below - include 2 patients with truncating de novo mutation, 1 with de novo intragenic deletion, few with small deletions spanning also 2-3 additional proximal genes and others with larger 12q15 deletions encompassing CNOT2 and several other genes.
Overall the phenotype - summarized by Uehara et al. (Ref1 - below) - seems to consist of language delay, mild motor delay (in most), some suggestive facial features (upslanted palpebral fissures, anteverted nares, thin upper lip and micrognathia). Nasal speech has also been reported in some individuals.
As commented by Uehara et al. (Ref1), CNOT2 (CCR4-NOT transcription complex subunit 2) is a member of the carbon catabolite repressor 4 complex (CCR4-NOT), the latter having an important role in deadenylation of mRNA and global mRNA expression. Disruption of the complex - which can be caused by loss of one of its components - results in various human disorders incl. neural diseases. siRNA CNOT2 depletion has been shown to induce CCR4-NOT disruption (cited PMIDs: 16284618, 29438013, 31006510, 21299754).
The type of variants (truncating, intragenic deletion, larger deletions) and the highly overlapping phenotypes in the respective patients suggest happloinsufficiency as the underlying mechanism. CNOT2 has also a pLI of 1 in gnomAD (o/e =0.06) and a %HI in Decipher of 4.39.
The gene appears to have relevant expression (https://www.proteinatlas.org/ENSG00000111596-CNOT2/tissue).
Animal models have not been discussed (or phenotypes possibly not sufficiently studied - MGI for Cnot2 : http://www.informatics.jax.org/marker/MGI:1919318).
CNOT2 is not associated with any phenotype in G2P. It is listed among the ID candidate genes in SysID.
This gene is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc).
Overall CNOT2 could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel with amber (DD although outcome is not known, presumed dysfunction of the CCR4-NOT complex, variant studies or animal models not available) or green rating (sufficient cases and variants, consistent phenotype).
Individuals with CNOT2-only disruption:
 PMID: 31512373 (Uehara et al., 2019) - A 6 y.o. male investigated for hypotonia, feeding problems, DD (speech and motor), macrocephaly (+3 SD) and some possibly suggestive facial/other features was found to harbor a de novo stopgain variant (NM_001199302.1: c.946A>T, p.Lys316Ter) after trio exome sequencing. The variant and its de novo occurrence were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. NMD was the predicted effect (variant in ex11 of 21 / effect not further studied). Previous metabolic work-up and chromosomal testing had not revealed an alternative diagnosis.
 PMID: 31145527 (Alesi et al. 2019) - A 13 y.o. boy with hypotonia, failure to thrive, DD and following a specific schooling program for children with learning difficulties is reported. The authors comment on the facial phenotype (incl. upslanted p-f, anteverted nares, etc). Other features included valvular/supravalvular pulm. stenosis, mid aortic insufficiency, renal anomalies/failure, skeletal anomalies. Speech was nasal. CMA revealed an 85-kb 12q15 deletion spanning only CNOT2 (exons 3-15). Real-time PCR in proband and parents confirmed the variant and its de novo occurrence.
 PMID: 28135719 (DDD study, 2017) - An individual with developmental disorder and a de novo (validated) frameshift variant was identified [DDD4K.00807 - NM_014515.5:c.1158del / p.(L387Sfs*3)]. Phenotype in Decipher incl. abnormality of head/neck, nervous, skeletal system and growth. [https://decipher.sanger.ac.uk/ddd/research-variant/16b4f7866652f08e25a194f65535b4c5#overview].
Individuals with disruption of additional proximal genes due to CNVs:
 PMID: 28159701 (Alesi et al. 2017) - The authors report on a 29 y.o. individual with history of DD, learning difficulties, ID (WAIS-R IQ of 48 at the age of 17 y), some dysmorphic facial features. Additional features incl. recurrent infections, nasal voice as well as skeletal anomalies. CMA revealed a 742 kb microdeletion spanning CNOT2, KCNMB4 and PTPRB. Real-time PCR confirmed deletion and it's de novo occurrence in the proband.
 PMID: 30768759 (Uehara et al. 2019) - A female investigated among others for global DD (walking/1st words at 24m), mild ID, submucosal cleft palate with some distinctive facial features (upslanted p-f, micrognathia, etc) was found to harbor a 1.32-Mb deletion of 12q15 encompassing CNOT2 and 14 other genes. Given the phenotypic resemblance to patients with 12q15 deletions, the previously defined smallest region of overlap (ref 4,6), the LoF SNV in Decipher the authors suggested that CNOT2 is the critical gene for the phenotype of 12q15 deletion syndrome.
Larger deletions defining the smallest region of overlap
 PMID: 21505450 (Vergult et al. 2011) - 3 patients with de novo microdeletions of ~ 2.5 Mb in size with a 1.34 MB common region of overlap are reported. Learning diability, DD, nasal speech and hypothyroidism were among the common features.
 PMID: 18076123 (Schluth et al. 2008) - A girl with large (~10 Mb) de novo deletion of 12q15 - q21.2 identified by BAC array was described. The phenotype consisted of hypotonia, DD, moderate ID, growth delay and facial dysmorphic features.
 PMID: 22247066 (Lopez et al. 2012) - A patient with ID and features of Floating-Harbor syndrome was found to harbor a 4.7 Mb de novo 12q15-q21.1 deletion spanning CNOT2 and 18 additional genes.
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Created: 11 Nov 2019, 8:46 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Intellectual developmental disorder with nasal speech, dysmorphic facies, and variable skeletal anomalies, MIM 618608
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Gene: cnot2 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Phenotypes for gene: CNOT2 were changed from Intellectual developmental disorder with nasal speech, dysmorphic facies, and variable skeletal anomalies, MIM 618608 to Intellectual developmental disorder with nasal speech, dysmorphic facies, and variable skeletal anomalies, 618608
gene: CNOT2 was added gene: CNOT2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen Mode of inheritance for gene: CNOT2 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: CNOT2 were set to 31512373; 31145527; 28135719; 28159701; 30768759; 21505450; 18076123; 22247066 Phenotypes for gene: CNOT2 were set to Intellectual developmental disorder with nasal speech, dysmorphic facies, and variable skeletal anomalies, MIM 618608 Penetrance for gene: CNOT2 were set to unknown Review for gene: CNOT2 was set to GREEN gene: CNOT2 was marked as current diagnostic