Intellectual disabilityGene: MED13 Amber List (moderate evidence)
Comment on list classification: Updated rating from Grey to Amber. Gene was added to panel and rated Amber by Konstantinos Varvagiannis. Not yet associated with a disorder in OMIM. Probable rating in Gene2Phenotype for 'Neurodevelopment disorder' based on PMID:29740699 (Snijders Blok et al., 2018) who report on 13 patients. 11 variants were de novo and 1 (patient B) was inherited from an affected mother (patient C). All patients had developmental delay to some extent (speech delay in most cases, with motor development delayed in 7/13). ID is mild/borderline in at least 9 cases. There is not a clear genotype-phenotype correlation between variants, and it's unclear how some variants are deleterious, and therefore Amber rating is appropriate until further studies are published.
Created: 21 Sep 2019, 8:46 a.m. | Last Modified: 21 Sep 2019, 8:46 a.m.
Panel Version: 2.1043
I don't know
Snijders Blok et al. (2018 - PMID: 29740699) report on 13 individuals with MED13 mutations.
Features included DD with speech difficulties (both universal) and motor delay in some. ID was observed in at least 9/13 and in most cases was in the borderline/mild range (moderate ID reported for 1 individual). Other features were ASD (5/13), ADHD, eye/vision abnormalities and in few individuals obstipation or congenital heart anomalies. Some possibly overlapping facial characteristics were also noted.
MED13 and MED13L are mutually exclusive components of the CDK8 kinase module that regulates the activity of the Mediator complex. The Mediator transmits signals from various transcription factors to RNA polymerase II (Pol II). Reversible binding of the CDK8 kinase controls Mediator - Pol II interaction (prevents Pol II recruitment) and thus acts as a molecular switch in Pol II - mediated transcription. DD and ID are features of the MED13L- and CDK8- related disorders.
3 stopgain, 2 frameshift, 6 missense variants and 1 in-frame deletion were reported. In 11 cases, the variants had occurred as de novo events, while 1 individual had inherited a nonsense variant from a similarly affected mother (unknown inheritance in her case).
Effect of a stopgain variant was studied with similar (total) transcript levels between the affected patient and his parents/controls upon qPCR. Sanger sequencing of cDNA amplicons was suggestive of the presence of an aberrant transcript at ~70% levels relative to the normal transcript. Truncated protein was undetectable by Western Blot in mononuclear blood cells from affected subjects. Total MED13 protein levels were not clearly different when comparing an affected individual with his unaffected parent (?).
Missense variants and the inframe deletion clustered either in the N- or the C-terminal domain, with the N-terminal ones all (T326I, T326del, P327S, P327Q / NM_005121.2 - NP_005112.2) affecting positions of a known phosphodegron sequence, important for the protein's ubiquitination and degradation. Another previously studied variant (T326A) had been shown to prevent degradation. As a result, the variants affecting aa 326-327 might lead to altered (increased) levels of MED13.
The remaining missense variants affected the C-terminal portion (Q2060L, A2064V).
As a result the impact of the different subcategories of variants remains unclear/inconclusive.
MED13 is not associated with any phenotype in OMIM. This gene is part of the DD panel of G2P, associated with "MED13 - Neurodevelopment disorder" (dis. confidence : probable / mutation consequence : LoF / GDD, speech/language delay, ID, autistic behavior among the assigned phenotypes).
MED13 is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (incl. Radboudumc).
ID is part of the phenotype of MED13-related disorder. However as the severity in most individuals - when present - was in the borderline/mild range (not relevant for the present panel) and/or the underlying effect of mutations remains unclear, amber rating seems more appropriate.
Sources: Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Literature
Created: 31 Aug 2019, 10:36 a.m. | Last Modified: 31 Aug 2019, 10:37 a.m.
Panel Version: 2.1021
Mode of inheritance
MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown
Delayed speech and language development; Motor delay; Intellectual disability; Autistic behavior; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Abnormality of the eye; Constipation
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Gene: med13 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Gene: med13 has been removed from the panel.
gene: MED13 was added gene: MED13 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen,Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: MED13 was set to MONOALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal, imprinted status unknown Publications for gene: MED13 were set to 29740699 Phenotypes for gene: MED13 were set to Delayed speech and language development; Motor delay; Intellectual disability; Autistic behavior; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Abnormality of the eye; Constipation Penetrance for gene: MED13 were set to unknown Review for gene: MED13 was set to AMBER gene: MED13 was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.