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Intellectual disability

Gene: APC2

Green List (high evidence)

APC2 (APC2, WNT signaling pathway regulator)
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh38): ENSG00000115266
EnsemblGeneIds (GRCh37): ENSG00000115266
OMIM: 612034, Gene2Phenotype
APC2 is in 4 panels

2 reviews

Catherine Snow (Genomics England)

Comment on list classification: APC2 is in OMIM with a relevant clinical features but not in Gene2Phenotype. APC2 was identified by Konstantinos Varvagiannis who reviewed all variants. Sufficient number of individuals from unrelated families reported upon in the literature and three different variants identified. Therefore APC2 can be classified as Green
Created: 24 Oct 2019, 1:54 p.m. | Last Modified: 24 Oct 2019, 1:54 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1078

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

Green List (high evidence)

Probably 14 individuals from 9 families (8 consanguineous) with biallelic APC2 LoF variants have been reported.

ID and brain abnormalities were features in all, although the presentation was quite different between sibs in the first report (PMID: 25753423 - mild/mod ID, ventriculomegaly and CC anomalies, macrocephaly with variable height, Sotos-like facial features) and 12 subsequently described patients (PMID: 31585108 - severe ID, P>A lissencephaly/CC anomalies/ventriculomegaly/paucity of white matter in (almost) all, gT-C/myoclonic seizures in 8/12 with onset 3m-6y, OFC in the low percentiles).

In all cases relevant alternative diagnoses (eg. macrocephaly/overgrowth syndromes - 1st report, mutations in other lissencephaly genes, metabolic disorders - 2nd) were ruled out.

APC2 encodes Adenomatous polyposis coli protein 2, expressed in the CNS.

All variants reported to date were LoF (stopgain/frameshift/splicing) and were supported by parental-only studies. Mutations in the 1st report as well as 4/8 variants from the 2nd report localized within the last exon (NM_005883.2 / longest of >=3 isoforms), although the 2nd report did not observe obvious genotype-phenotype correlations.

Despite a pLI of 1 in gnomAD, Lee et al. comment that heterozygous carriers did not have any noticeable phenotype. They further note that carriers were not examined by brain MRI, though. 27 heterozygous high-confidence variants appear in individuals in gnomAD. Finally as commented on, APC2 is not mutated in colon cancer.

Animal models: Apc -/- mice displayed disrupted neuronal migration, with defects of lamination of cerebral cortex and cerebellum supporting the observed brain abnormalities. In addition Apc2-deficient mice also presented impaired learning and memory abilities. Extensive additional studies have shown Apc2 co-localization with microtubules affecting their stabilization, distribution along actin fibers (all supporting a role in cytoskeletal organization) and regulation of Rac1 (a Rho GTPase). Generation of Neuro2a cells demonstrated abnormal localization mainly in cell bodies of mutant hAPC2 proteins (due to frameshift in the last exon / deletion of the C-terminal part) - different from wt (neurites, growth cones, cell bodies). The first patient report also provided evidence for Apc2 being a downstream effector of Nsd1, with Nsd1 knockdown brains displaying impaired migration / laminar positioning of cortical neurons (similar to Apc2-/- model) and rescued by forced expression of Apc2.

Relevant articles:
PMIDs: 19759310 and 22573669 (Shintani et al. 2009 & 2012) [mouse model]
PMID: 25753423 (Almuriekhi et al. 2015) [2 individuals + mouse model]
PMID: 31585108 (Lee et al. 2019) [12 individuals from 8 families]
In OMIM, the APC2-related phenotype is ?Sotos syndrome 3 (MIM 617169 - AR). G2P does not have any associated phenotype for this gene. In SysID, APC2 belongs to the Current primary ID genes.
APC2 is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. Radboudumc, GeneDx).
Overall, this gene could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as green (>3 individuals/families/variants, highly specific pattern of lissencephaly in 12/14, mouse model supporting migration defects and impaired learning/memory) rather than amber (differences between the 1st and the other families reported as for the OFC and presence of lissencephaly).
Sources: Literature
Created: 6 Oct 2019, 6:53 p.m.

Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal

Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Morphological abnormality of the central nervous system


Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice


Mode of Inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
  • Expert Review Green
  • Global developmental delay
  • Intellectual disability
  • Seizures
  • Morphological abnormality of the central nervous system
Clinvar variants
Variants in APC2
Panels with this gene

History Filter Activity

24 Oct 2019, Gel status: 3

Entity classified by Genomics England curator

Catherine Snow (Genomics England)

Gene: apc2 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).

24 Oct 2019, Gel status: 0

Entity classified by Genomics England curator

Catherine Snow (Genomics England)

Gene: apc2 has been removed from the panel.

6 Oct 2019, Gel status: 0

Created, Added New Source, Set mode of inheritance, Set publications, Set Phenotypes, Set penetrance

Konstantinos Varvagiannis (Other)

gene: APC2 was added gene: APC2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: APC2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: APC2 were set to 31585108; 25753423; 19759310; 22573669 Phenotypes for gene: APC2 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Morphological abnormality of the central nervous system Penetrance for gene: APC2 were set to Complete Review for gene: APC2 was set to GREEN gene: APC2 was marked as current diagnostic