Intellectual disabilityGene: APC2 Green List (high evidence)
Comment on list classification: APC2 is in OMIM with a relevant clinical features but not in Gene2Phenotype. APC2 was identified by Konstantinos Varvagiannis who reviewed all variants. Sufficient number of individuals from unrelated families reported upon in the literature and three different variants identified. Therefore APC2 can be classified as Green
Created: 24 Oct 2019, 1:54 p.m. | Last Modified: 24 Oct 2019, 1:54 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1078
Green List (high evidence)
Probably 14 individuals from 9 families (8 consanguineous) with biallelic APC2 LoF variants have been reported.
ID and brain abnormalities were features in all, although the presentation was quite different between sibs in the first report (PMID: 25753423 - mild/mod ID, ventriculomegaly and CC anomalies, macrocephaly with variable height, Sotos-like facial features) and 12 subsequently described patients (PMID: 31585108 - severe ID, P>A lissencephaly/CC anomalies/ventriculomegaly/paucity of white matter in (almost) all, gT-C/myoclonic seizures in 8/12 with onset 3m-6y, OFC in the low percentiles).
In all cases relevant alternative diagnoses (eg. macrocephaly/overgrowth syndromes - 1st report, mutations in other lissencephaly genes, metabolic disorders - 2nd) were ruled out.
APC2 encodes Adenomatous polyposis coli protein 2, expressed in the CNS.
All variants reported to date were LoF (stopgain/frameshift/splicing) and were supported by parental-only studies. Mutations in the 1st report as well as 4/8 variants from the 2nd report localized within the last exon (NM_005883.2 / longest of >=3 isoforms), although the 2nd report did not observe obvious genotype-phenotype correlations.
Despite a pLI of 1 in gnomAD, Lee et al. comment that heterozygous carriers did not have any noticeable phenotype. They further note that carriers were not examined by brain MRI, though. 27 heterozygous high-confidence variants appear in individuals in gnomAD. Finally as commented on, APC2 is not mutated in colon cancer.
Animal models: Apc -/- mice displayed disrupted neuronal migration, with defects of lamination of cerebral cortex and cerebellum supporting the observed brain abnormalities. In addition Apc2-deficient mice also presented impaired learning and memory abilities. Extensive additional studies have shown Apc2 co-localization with microtubules affecting their stabilization, distribution along actin fibers (all supporting a role in cytoskeletal organization) and regulation of Rac1 (a Rho GTPase). Generation of Neuro2a cells demonstrated abnormal localization mainly in cell bodies of mutant hAPC2 proteins (due to frameshift in the last exon / deletion of the C-terminal part) - different from wt (neurites, growth cones, cell bodies). The first patient report also provided evidence for Apc2 being a downstream effector of Nsd1, with Nsd1 knockdown brains displaying impaired migration / laminar positioning of cortical neurons (similar to Apc2-/- model) and rescued by forced expression of Apc2.
PMIDs: 19759310 and 22573669 (Shintani et al. 2009 & 2012) [mouse model]
PMID: 25753423 (Almuriekhi et al. 2015) [2 individuals + mouse model]
PMID: 31585108 (Lee et al. 2019) [12 individuals from 8 families]
In OMIM, the APC2-related phenotype is ?Sotos syndrome 3 (MIM 617169 - AR). G2P does not have any associated phenotype for this gene. In SysID, APC2 belongs to the Current primary ID genes.
APC2 is included in gene panels for ID offered by some diagnostic laboratories (eg. Radboudumc, GeneDx).
Overall, this gene could be considered for inclusion in the ID panel probably as green (>3 individuals/families/variants, highly specific pattern of lissencephaly in 12/14, mouse model supporting migration defects and impaired learning/memory) rather than amber (differences between the 1st and the other families reported as for the OFC and presence of lissencephaly).
Created: 6 Oct 2019, 6:53 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Morphological abnormality of the central nervous system
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Phenotypes for gene: APC2 were changed from Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Morphological abnormality of the central nervous system to Cortical dysplasia, complex, with other brain malformations 10 OMIM:618677
Gene: apc2 has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
Gene: apc2 has been removed from the panel.
gene: APC2 was added gene: APC2 was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature Mode of inheritance for gene: APC2 was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Publications for gene: APC2 were set to 31585108; 25753423; 19759310; 22573669 Phenotypes for gene: APC2 were set to Global developmental delay; Intellectual disability; Seizures; Morphological abnormality of the central nervous system Penetrance for gene: APC2 were set to Complete Review for gene: APC2 was set to GREEN gene: APC2 was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.