Intellectual disabilityGene: HERC2 Amber List (moderate evidence)
Comment on list classification: There is enough evidence for this gene to be rated GREEN at the next major review - more than 3 distinct variants in unrelated cases presenting the relevant phenotype.
Created: 30 Jul 2020, 9:59 a.m. | Last Modified: 30 Jul 2020, 9:59 a.m.
Panel Version: 3.209
Green List (high evidence)
Please consider upgrading this gene to green in the current panel based on the following updated review (13-07-2020):
Biallelic pathogenic HERC2 variants cause Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 38 (MIM 615516).
The current review is based mostly on the information provided by Elpidorou et al (2020 - PMID: 32571899) summarizing the findings in several affected individuals as published in the literature. ID was a universal feature among them (27/27) and seizures were reported in some (9/27):
- 22 subjects from Amish/Mennonite families were homozygous for p.Pro594Leu [NM_004667.5(HERC2):c.1781C>T] (Puffenberger et al 2012 - PMID: 23065719, Harlalka et al 2013 - PMID: 23243086, Abraham et al - PMID: 30902390)
- 2 additional patients were homozygous for another missense SNV [NM_004667.5(HERC2):c.4625G>A - p.Arg1542His] (Abraham et al 2019 - PMID: 30902390)
- 3 sibs born to consanguineous parents, homozygous for NM_004667.5:c.13767_13770delTGAA - p.(Asn4589LysTer4598)] as described by Elpidorou et al.
- 1 male homozygous 286 kb deletion spanning several 5' exons of HERC2 as well as the first exons of OCA2 was described by Morice-Picard et al (2016 - PMID: 27759030). Despite a neurological presentation (axial hypotonia, peripheral hypertonia, extrapyramidal symptoms and uncoordinated movements) further information was not available.
Apart from the cases summarized by Elpidorou et al, there have been few additional ones e.g. :
- Trujillano et al (2017 - PMID: 27848944) reported briefly on a patient, homozygous for NM_004667.5:c.4676-1G>A displaying seizures, hypotonia, global DD, "Encephalopathy" and abnormality of the liver.
- Yavarna et al (2015 - PMID: 26077850) provided few details with on an individual with primarily 'neurocognitive' phenotype but rather atypical presentation (MRI abnormalities, TGA, VSD, renal anomaly, growth retardation, hearing loss) due to p.Q3164X variant (recessive inheritance was specified).
Several lines of evidence support an important role for the protein encoded (an E3 ubiquitin protein ligase, interacting also with UBE3A, involved in several cellular processes incl. cell cycle regulation, spindle formation during mitosis, mitochondrial functions, DNA damage responses by targeting proteins such as XPA) as well as the effect of the reported variants (mRNA studies, Western blot, detection of a fusion transcript in the case of the deletion, etc).
Individuals from the Amish families displayed Angelman-like features (in line with HERC2-UBE3A interaction) with - among others - gait instability. Mouse models recapitulate some of these features (e.g. the movement disorder) as extensively discussed by Abraham et al.
Overall this gene can be included in the ID and epilepsy panels with green rating.
Created: 13 Jul 2020, 6:13 p.m. | Last Modified: 13 Jul 2020, 6:13 p.m.
Panel Version: 3.170
PMID 23065719 describes 7 affected individuals from 3 sibships (from the Amish or Mennonite populations) homozygous for a missense variant (c.1781C>T/p.Pro594Leu). All individuals presented with DD/ID, autistic behavior and gait instability. Functional studies demonstrated decreased HERC2 abundance.
In PMID 23243086, 15 subjects from 2 large Amish families are reported, with similar phenotype including hypotonia, DD/ID, unstable gait with broad base and arms held upward and seizures in a few individuals. All the patients were homozygous for the same missense variant reported in 23065719. Levels of HERC2 were shown to be diminished in fibroblasts from affected individuals.
Given some phenotypic similarities with AS, both studies excluded methylation abnormalities at the SNRPN locus (as well as UBE3A pathogenic variants in 23065719).
Created: 12 Aug 2018, 8:51 p.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 38, 615516
I don't know
Three sibships with bi-allelic variants reported in this gene; however likely founder effect. Suggest inclusion as Amber or Red.
Created: 22 Jun 2018, 11:19 a.m.
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 38
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Publications for gene: HERC2 were set to 23065719
Phenotypes for gene: HERC2 were changed from Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 38 to Mental retardation, autosomal recessive 38, OMIM:615516
Tag for-review tag was added to gene: HERC2.
Gene: herc2 has been classified as Amber List (Moderate Evidence).
Source Victorian Clinical Genetics Services was added to HERC2.
HERC2 was added to Intellectual disability panel. Sources: Literature
HERC2 was created by Zornitza Stark
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.