Intellectual disabilityGene: PMPCB Green List (high evidence)
Green List (high evidence)
PMPCB identified by Konstantinos Varvagiannis following publication by Vögtle et al. (2018 - PMID: 29576218) who identified 5 individuals from 4 unrelated families (in one case consanguineous) who have biallelic pathogenic PMPCB variants.
PMPCB is in OMIM and Gene2Phenotype with relevant phenotype. Individuals reported have stagnation in their development before onset of symptoms including, delayed psychomotor development and ID. PMPCB is Green on relevant Mitochondrial disorders panel (Version 2.1). As phenotype of DD is relevant to ID panel PMPCB is classified as Green.
Created: 24 Oct 2019, 3:36 p.m. | Last Modified: 24 Oct 2019, 3:39 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1083
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Green List (high evidence)
Biallelic pathogenic PMPCB variants cause, Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 6 (MIM 617954).
5 relevant individuals from 4 unrelated families (in one case consanguineous) have been reported by Vögtle et al. (2018 - PMID: 29576218).
Onset of symptoms (eg. hypotonia) often preceded a period of developmental regression/stagnation which was common in all individuals and occurred within the first 2 years of life, usually following febrile illness. In all cases neurological features were severe (lack of ambulation/speech). Seizures were observed in 4 individuals from 3 families, with onset at the age of 11-24m. MRI images demonstrated T2 signal hyperintensities of the basal ganglia with cerebellar and cerebral atrophy in some. Deterioration with early death was reported on three occasions, though some years after symptom onset.
Following exclusion of other diagnoses in some cases (eg. aCGH, epilepsy panel), WES identified biallelic PMPCB missense variants, supported by Sanger confirmation and segregation studies. The following variants were reported (NM_004279.2):
- c.523C>T (p.Arg175Cys) in trans with c.601G>C (p.Ala201Pro) [Fam A and B]
- c.524G>A (p.Arg175His) in trans with c.530T>G (p.Val177Gly) [Fam C]
- c.1265T>C (p.Ile422Thr) in homozygous state [Fam D with 2 affected sibs]
The gene encodes the catalytic (beta) subunit of the mitochondrial processing protease (MPP) which is responsible for the cleavage/maturation of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial precursor proteins after their import in mitochondria. The alpha subunit is encoded by PMPCA (green rating proposed for this panel).
Extensive studies demonstrated (perhaps a better summary provided by OMIM):
- Reduced PMPCB protein levels in mitochondria isolated from patient fibroblasts or patient-derived pluripotent stem cells.
- Frataxin maturation was impaired with accumulation of the intermediate form and lower amounts of mature FXN, indicating decrease in MPP activity.
- Analysis of the homologous Mas1 S. cerevisiae mutants was carried out, with the exception of Ile422Thr (corresponding to Mas1 - Ile398Thr), the introduction of which did not yield viable yeast strains. Homologous mutations led to a temperature-sensitive phenotype with accumulation of immature/unprocessed precursor proteins and decrease of mature/processed forms both in vivo or in organello (following isolation of mitochondria). Under conditions of heat stress, Mas1 mutations decreased biogenesis of Fe-S clusters.
- Respiratory chain complexes I-III contain Fe-S clusters. In muscle biopsy from an affected individual, complex II activity was significantly reduced (although this was not the case in fibroblasts or liver biopsy). Dysfunction of mitochondrial and cytosolic Fe-S cluster-dependent enzymes (eg. aconitase) was also shown in muscle tissue.
Regression/stagnation with seizures/non-achievement of milestones may justify testing for an ID / epilepsy gene panel. In addition, metabolic studies or mitochondrial respiratory chain complex studies were sometimes non-informative (lactate elevated in 3/5 subjects) or not carried out at all / in relevant tissues (muscle biopsy in 2 individuals, fibroblasts/liver biopsy did not demonstrate reduced complex activity when tested).
PMPCB is included in the ID gene panel of Radboudumc, as well as the SysID database. The gene is included in the DD panel of G2P associated with "Neurodegeneration in Early Childhood" (disease confidence : probable).
As a result, PMPCB can be considered for inclusion in both epilepsy and ID panels as green (or amber).
Sources: Literature, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen
Created: 26 Sep 2019, 12:18 a.m. | Last Modified: 26 Sep 2019, 5:41 p.m.
Panel Version: 2.1046
Mode of inheritance
BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal
Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 6, 617954
Variants in this GENE are reported as part of current diagnostic practice
Publications for gene: PMPCB were set to
Gene: pmpcb has been classified as Green List (High Evidence).
gene: PMPCB was added gene: PMPCB was added to Intellectual disability. Sources: Literature,Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen Mode of inheritance for gene: PMPCB was set to BIALLELIC, autosomal or pseudoautosomal Phenotypes for gene: PMPCB were set to Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 6, 617954 Penetrance for gene: PMPCB were set to Complete Review for gene: PMPCB was set to GREEN gene: PMPCB was marked as current diagnostic
If promoting or demoting a gene, please provide comments to justify a decision to move it.
Genes included in a Genomics England gene panel for a rare disease category (green list) should fit the criteria A-E outlined below.
These guidelines were developed as a combination of the ClinGen DEFINITIVE evidence for a causal role of the gene in the disease(a), and the Developmental Disorder Genotype-Phenotype (DDG2P) CONFIRMED DD Gene evidence level(b) (please see the original references provided below for full details). These help provide a guideline for expert reviewers when assessing whether a gene should be on the green or the red list of a panel.
A. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing an interpretable functional region(ii) of this gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
B. There are plausible disease-causing mutations(i) within, affecting or encompassing cis-regulatory elements convincingly affecting the expression of a single gene identified in multiple (>3) unrelated cases/families with the phenotype(iii).
C. As definitions A or B but in 2 or 3 unrelated cases/families with the phenotype, with the addition of convincing bioinformatic or functional evidence of causation e.g. known inborn error of metabolism with mutation in orthologous gene which is known to have the relevant deficient enzymatic activity in other species; existence of an animal model which recapitulates the human phenotype.
D. Evidence indicates that disease-causing mutations follow a Mendelian pattern of causation appropriate for reporting in a diagnostic setting(iv).
E. No convincing evidence exists or has emerged that contradicts the role of the gene in the specified phenotype.
(i)Plausible disease-causing mutations: Recurrent de novo mutations convincingly affecting gene function. Rare, fully-penetrant mutations - relevant genotype never, or very rarely, seen in controls. (ii) Interpretable functional region: ORF in protein coding genes miRNA stem or loop. (iii) Phenotype: the rare disease category, as described in the eligibility statement. (iv) Intermediate penetrance genes should not be included.
It’s assumed that loss-of-function variants in this gene can cause the disease/phenotype unless an exception to this rule is known. We would like to collect information regarding exceptions. An example exception is the PCSK9 gene, where loss-of-function variants are not relevant for a hypercholesterolemia phenotype as they are associated with increased LDL-cholesterol uptake via LDLR (PMID: 25911073).
If a curated set of known-pathogenic variants is available for this gene-phenotype, please contact us at [email protected]
We classify loss-of-function variants as those with the following Sequence Ontology (SO) terms:
Term descriptions can be found on the PanelApp homepage and Ensembl.
If you are submitting this evaluation on behalf of a clinical laboratory please indicate whether you report variants in this gene as part of your current diagnostic practice by checking the box
Standardised terms were used to represent the gene-disease mode of inheritance, and were mapped to commonly used terms from the different sources. Below each of the terms is described, along with the equivalent commonly-used terms.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, and imprinting has not been implicated.
A variant on the paternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on the maternally-inherited allele of this gene can cause the disease, if the alternate allele is imprinted (function muted).
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease. This is the default used for autosomal dominant mode of inheritance where no knowledge of the imprinting status of the gene required to cause the disease is known. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal dominant, dominant, AD, DOMINANT.
A variant on both alleles of this gene is required to cause the disease. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive, recessive, AR, RECESSIVE.
The disease can be caused by a variant on one or both alleles of this gene. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant, recessive or dominant, AR/AD, AD/AR, DOMINANT/RECESSIVE, RECESSIVE/DOMINANT.
A variant on one allele of this gene can cause the disease, however a variant on both alleles of this gene can result in a more severe form of the disease/phenotype.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele, whereas a variant on both X-chromosome alleles is required to cause the disease in females. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: X-linked recessive.
A variant in this gene can cause the disease in males as they have one X-chromosome allele. A variant on one allele of this gene may also cause the disease in females, though the disease/phenotype may be less severe and may have a later-onset than is seen in males. X-linked inactivation and mosaicism in different tissues complicate whether a female presents with the disease, and can change over their lifetime. This term is the default setting used for X-linked genes, where it is not known definitately whether females require a variant on each allele of this gene in order to be affected. Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: X-linked dominant, x-linked, X-LINKED, X-linked.
The gene is in the mitochondrial genome and variants within this can cause this disease, maternally inherited. Mapped to the following commonly used term from different sources: Mitochondrial.
Mapped to the following commonly used terms from different sources: Unknown, NA, information not provided.
For example, if the mode of inheritance is digenic, please indicate this in the comments and which other gene is involved.